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HA 


ANNUAL  REPORTS 


\<U<]ffr 


OP  THE 


¥AE   DEPAKTMENT 


FOR  THE 


FISCAL  YEAR  ENDED  JUNE  30,  1902. 


VOLUME    I. 

REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR 

AND 

REPORTS  OF  BUREAU  CHIEFS. 


"WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT    PRINTING   OFFICE. 

1903. 


ARRANGEMENT  OF  THE  ANNUAL '  REPORTS  OF  THE  WAR  DEPARTMENT 

FOR  THE  YEAR  ENDED  JUNE  30,  1902. 


Volume  I. — Report  of  the  Secretary  of  War  and  Reports  of  Bureau  Chiefs, 

as  follows: 

Adjutant-General. 

Inspector-General. 

Judge- Advocate-General. 

Quartermaster-General. 

Commissary-General. 

Surgeon-General. 

Paymaster-General. 

Chief  Signal  Officer. 

Chief  of  Record  and  Pension  Office. 

Chief  of  Bureau  of  Insular  Affairs. 

Volumes  II- VI. — Report  of  CJiief  of  Engineers. 

Volume  VH. — Reports  of  the  Chief  of  Ordnance  and  Board  of  Ordnance  and 

Fortification. 

Volume  VIII. — Miscellaneous  Reports,  as  follows: 

Commissioners  of  National  Military  Parks: 

Chickamauga  and  Chattanooga. 

Gettysburg. 

Shiloh. 

Vicksburg. 
United  States  Military  Academy,  West  Point,  N.  Y.: 

Board  of  Visitors. 

Superintendent. 
Soldiers'  Home,  District  of  Columbia: 

Board  of  Commissioners. 

Inspection  of. 
Inspection  of  National  Home  for  Disabled  Volunteer  Soldiers. 

in 


IV  ARRANGEMENT    OF   REPORTS    OF    WAR   DEPARTMENT. 

Volume  IX. — Reports  of  the  Lieutenant-General  Commanding  the  Army 

and  Department  Commanders,  as  follows: 
Chief  of  Artillery. 
Department  of  California. 
Department  of  the  Colorado. 
Department  of  the  Columbia. 
Department  of  Dakota. 
Department  of  the  East. 
Department  of  the  Lakes. 
Department  of  the  Missouri. 
Department  of  Texas. 
Department  of  Cuba. 
General  Service  and  Staff  College. 
Cavalry  and  Field  Artillery  School. 
Artillery  School. 
School  of  Submarine  Defense. 
Division  of  the  Philippines: 

Department  of  North  Philippines. 

Department  of  South  Philippines. 

Department  of  the  Visayas. 

Volume  X,  Parts  1  and  2. — Report  of  the  Philippine  Commission. 
Volume  XI. — Acts  of  the  Philippine  Commission. 


CONTENTS. 


Report  oi 
Report  oi 
Report  oi 
Report  oi 
Report  oi 
Report  oi 
Report  oi 
Report  oi 
Report  oi 
Report  oi 
Report  oi 


Page. 

the  Secretary  of  War 1-281 

theAdjutant-General 283-  366 

thtflnspector-General 367-492 

the  Judge- Advocate-General 493-500 

the  Quartermaster-General 501-526 

the  Commissary-General 527-557 

the  Surgeon-General 559-641 

the  Paymaster-General 643-659 

the  Chief  Signal  Officer 661-728 

the  Chief  of  the  Record  and  Pension  Office 729-738 

the  Chief  of  the  Bureau  of  Insular  Affairs 739-762 

v 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 


REPORT 

OF 

THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 


War  Department, 
Washington,  D.  C,  December  i,  1902. 
To  the  President: 

I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  following  report  of  operations  of 
this  Department  for  the  past  year: 

On  November  27,  1901,  the  date  of  the  last  annual  report  of  the 
Secretary  of  War,  the  Army  of  the  United  States,  according  to  the 
latest  reports  which  had  been  received  from  the  field,  consisted  of 
3,253  officers  and  76,084  enlisted  men.  In  addition  there  were  4,336 
men  in  the  hospital  corps;  172  volunteer  surgeons  appointed  for  duty 
in  the  Philippines  under  the  provisions  of  section  18  of  the  act  of 
February  2,  1901;  4,973  native  scouts  under  the  command  of  98 
officers  in  the  Philippines,  and  25  officers  and  815  men  of  the  Porto 
Rico  Provisional  Regiment  of  Infantry. 

REDUCTION   OF   THE   ENLISTED   STRENGTH    OF   THE   ARM?. 

The  continued  improvement  of  conditions  in  the  Philippines  made 
possible  a  further  reduction  in  the  enlisted  strength  of  the  Army, 
which,  by  order  dated  Ma}'  31,  1902,  was  fixed  as  follows: 

Caval  ry 1 4, 040 

Artillery: 

Coast 13, 734 

Field 3,680 

Noncommissioned  staff  and  bands 328 

17, 742 

Infantry 29,880 

Engineer  battalions  and  band 1, 282 

Additional  strength  for  troops  stationed  at  the  General  Service  and  Staff  Col- 
lege, School  of  Application,  and  Legation  Guard,  Pekin,  China 770 

Enlisted  men,  staff  departments,  etc 2, 783 

Total  Army 66,497 

WAR  1902— VOL  1 1  1 


REPORT   OF   THE   8ECRETARY    OF    WAR. 


To  meet  the  requirements  of  the  act  of  June  28,  1902,  for  the  sup- 
port of  the  Military  Academy,  and  of  the  act  of  June  30,  1902, 
making  appropriations  for  the  support  of  the  Army,  slight  modifica- 
tions of  the  enlisted  strength  were  made  under  date  of  July  1,  1902, 
making  the  total  enlisted  strength  of  the  Army  66,711. 

On  October  15,  1902,  the  regular  establishment  consisted,  according 
to  the  latest  reports  which  had  been  received,  of  3,586  officers  and 
66,003  enlisted  men,  a  total  of  69,589.  In  addition,  there  were  3,598 
men  of  the  Hospital  Corps,  but  under  the  provisions  of  the  act  of 
March  1, 1887,  not  included  as  part  of  the  enlisted  force  of  the  Army. 
There  were  also  in  the  service  182  volunteer  medical  officers,  appointed 
under  section  18  of  the  act  of  February  2,  1901,  all  of  whom  are  under 
orders  for  honorable  discharge  on  account  of  their  services  being  no 
longer  required;  4,978  Philippine  scouts,  enlisted  from  the  natives, 
under  command  of  100  officers,  and  29  officers  and  840  enlisted  men 
of  the  Porto  Rico  Provisional  Regiment. 

The  distribution  of  the  Army  October  15,  1902,  was  as  follows: 


Country. 


United  States 

Philippine  Islands 

Cuba 

Porto  Rico 

Hawaiian  Islands . 

China 

Alaska 


Total 


Officers. 

Enlisted 
men. 

Hospital 
Corps. 

Total. 

2,476 

44,163 

1,868 

48,507 

1,039 

19,800 

1,594 

22,433 

26 

819 

39 

884 

11 

228 

37 

276 

9 

198 

15 

222 

2 

131 

5 

188 

23 

664 

40 

727 

3,586 

66,003 

3,598 

78,187 

(In  addition  there  were  the  officers  and  men  of  the  Porto  Rico  Provisional  Regiment  and  of  the 
Philippine  Scouts  and  the  volunteer  surgeons  under  orders  for  discharge,  as  above  stated.) 

Since  the  ending  of  the  insurrection  and  the  complete  establishment 
of  civil  government  in  the  Philippines,  it  has  been  possible  to  make  a 
still  further  reduction  of  the  Army,  and  on  October  24, 1902,  an  order 
was  made  reducing  the  enlisted  strength  to  59,866,  the  minimum 
provided  by  the  act  of  February  2,  1901  (excepting  as  to  the 
organizations  stationed  at  Fort  Leavenworth,  Fort  Riley,  and  Pekin), 
as  follows: 

Cavalry 12,240 

Artillery: 

Coast 13,734 

Field 3,680 

Noncommissioned  staff  and  bands 328 

17, 742 


BEPOBT    OF   THE    8ECRETARY    OF    WAR.  3 

Infantrv 24,480 

Engineer  battalions  and  band 1, 282 

Additional  strength  for  troops  stationed  at  the  General  Service  and  Staff 

College,  School  of  Application,  and  Legation  Guard,  Pekin,  China 1, 245 

Enlisted  men,  staff  departments,  etc 2, 877 

Total 59,866 

The  necessary  instructions  have  been  given  prescribing  the  method 
of  effecting  the  reduction  required  by  the  order  of  October  24,  1902, 
so  that  it  will  have  been  completely  accomplished  in  the  most  econom- 
ical way  before  the  end  of  the  current  fiscal  year,  and  in  the  main 
accomplished  during  the  next  thirty  days. 

The  effect  of  carrying  out  this  order  will  be  to  bring  the  American 
troops  stationed  in  the  Philippines  down  to  an  enlisted  strength 
of  13,480. 

The  distribution  will  be  as  follows: 

In  Philippines 13,480 

Coast  Artillery  in  United  States,  Cuba,  and  Hawaii 13, 298 

Field  Artillery  in  United  States 3,320 

Nine  bands  and  sergeante-major 300 

Cavalry  in  United  States  (including  bands,  regimental  and  squadron  non- 
commissioned staff) 8, 540 

Infantry  in  United  States  (including  bands,  regimental  and  battalion  non- 
commissioned staff) 16, 645 

Infantry  in  Pekin 150 

Infantry  in  Alaska  (excluding  234,  who  will  have  to  be  left  there  until  after 

navigation  opens  next  summer) 390 

Engineers  in  United  States  (including  band) 866 

Staff  departments 2,877 

Total 59,866 

The  exception  of  the  organizations  stationed  at  Fort  Leavenworth 
and  Fort  Riley  from  the  reduction  to  the  minimum  strength  is  made 
for  purposes  of  instruction,  so  that  at  the  general  service  and  staff  col- 
lege  and  the  school  of  application  for  cavalry  and  light  artillery,  stu- 
dent officers  may  become  familiar  with  the  handling  of  troops  at  full 
war  strength. 

With  the  execution  of  this  order  the  Regular  Army  will  have  been 
reduced  to  the  minimum  of  enlisted  strength  which,  in  the  judgment 
of  Congress,  a  wise  policy  requires  us  to  maintain  as  insurance  against 
future  attack. 

The  estimates  prepared  for  submission  to  Congress  at  the  present 
session  call  for  appropriations  on  that  basis. 


4  BEPOBT    OF   THE    SECRETARY    OF   WAB. 

The  only  armed  forces  which  will  then  remain  to  be  maintained  on 
account  of  the  islands  ceded  by  Spain  under  the  Treaty  of  Paris  will 
be  the  Porto  Rico  Provisional  Regiment  and  the  Philippine  Scouts. 

PORTO  RICO  REGIMENT. 

The  act  of  February  2, 1901,  provides  that  the  Porto  Rico  Regiment 
shall  be  continued  in  service  until  further  directed  by  Congress.  I 
recommend  that  the  discontinuance  of  that  regiment  be  now  directed, 
and  that  at  the  same  time  the  right  of  enlistment  in  the  Regular  Army 
be  extended  to  citizens  of  Porto  Rico.  There  is  no  longer  occasion 
for  maintaining  a  special  and  peculiar  force  in  the  island,  at  the  expense 
of  the  United  States,  outside  of  the  coast-defense  fortifications.  Under 
the  prosperous  conditions  which  have  followed  the  very  liberal  treat- 
ment of  the  island  by  the  United  States,  the  insular  government  is  well 
able  to  support  a  police  force  adequate  to  preserve  internal  peace  and 
order,  and  there  is  no  more  reason  for  maintaining  a  special  United 
States  force  in  addition  to  the  Regular  Army  to  protect  Porto  Rico 
against  external  attack  than  there  is  to  maintain  such  a  force  to  pro- 
tect any  part  of  our  territory  on  the  Atlantic  coast.  The  people  of 
Porto  Rico  should,  however,  have  an  opportunity  to  share  in  the  gen- 
eral defense  of  the  Government  to  which  they  owe  allegiance  and  of 
the  institutions  which  they  enjoy. 

PHILIPPINE   SCOUTS. 

The  Philippine  Scouts  should  be  continued.  They  enable  us  to 
reduce  the  force  of  American  troops  in  the  Philippines  more  rapidly 
than  we  could  without  them,  and  their  knowledge  of  the  country, 
language  and  the  ways  of  the  people,  make  them  especially  valuable 
in  hunting  down  ladrones,  which  for  a  good  while  to  come  will  be  an 
urgent  business.  The  relations  between  this  body  of  scouts,  main- 
tained at  the  expense  of  the  United  States,  and  the  insular  constab- 
ulary, maintained  at  the  expense  of  the  Philippine  government,  will 
have  to  be  worked  out  hereafter  when  we  have  had  longer  experience 
of  the  working  of  the  two  forces  under  peaceful  conditions,  and  know 
better  what  revenues  can  be  relied  upon  by  the  insular  government 
under  like  conditions.  Both  forces  are  now  useful  agents  in  maintain- 
ing order.  Whether  that  shall  be  ultimately  accomplished  through  one 
force  or  the  other,  or  both,  can  hardly  as  yet  be  profitably  discussed. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  5 

VOLUNTEER  SURGEONS. 

The  reduction  of  the  Army  has  been  accompanied  by  an  order  for 
the  discharge  of  all  the  volunteer  surgeons  authorized  by  the  act  of 
February  2,  1901,  and  a  large  reduction  of  the  Hospital  Corps.  The 
prevalence  of  cholera  in  the  Philippines,  however,  has  made  it  neces- 
sary to  retain  a  number  of  contract  surgeons  and  Hospital  Corps 
men,  with  whose  services  we  can  dispense  ultimately. 

ENLISTMENTS. 

During  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1902,  there  were  124,542 
applications  for  enlistment  in  the  Army,  not  including  the  Hospital 
Corps  and  Philippine  Scouts.  Of  these,  37,461,  or  about  30  per  cent, 
were  accepted  and  87,081,  or  about  70  per  cent,  were  rejected.  Of 
the  number  accepted,  32,249  were  natives  of  the  United  States,  4,726 
were  of  foreign  birth,  and  486  were  born  in  Porto  Rico;  34,677  were 
white,  2,284  colored,  14  Indians,  and  486  Porto  Ricans  (color  not 
specified).  The  reenlistments  numbered  11,435  and  the  new  enlist- 
ments 26,026.  Excluding  reenlistments,  the  percentage  of  native  born 
among  the  newly  enlisted  men  was  89.5.  Of  the  applicants  rejected, 
1,622  were  rejected  as  aliens  and  3,828  as  illiterates. 

MORTALITY   AND   HEALTH. 

The  health  of  the  Army  has  shown  a  continued  improvement.  The 
deaths  from  all  causes  during  the  calendar  year  1901  amounted  to 
13.94  per  thousand  of  mean  strength  as  against  22.74  per  thousand  of 
mean  strength  during  the  calendar  year  1900.  This  large  reduction  of 
death  rate  was  in  a  great  measure  due  to  improved  conditions  in  the 
Philippines,  where  the  rate  was  reduced  to  17.96  per  thousand  in  the 
year  1901  as  against  29.42  per  thousand  in  the  year  1900.  The  death 
rate  from  all  causes  during  the  year  1901  in  the  United  States  was  6.90 
per  thousand;  in  Porto  Rico,  7.81;  in  Cuba,  5.29,  and  in  the  Pacific 
islands  and  China,  17.96.  The  rates  of  admission  to  sick  report  for 
disease  and  injury  and  the  rate  of  discharge  for  disability  during  the 
calendar  year  1901  agree  with  the  reduced  mortality  rate  in  being 
considerably  less  than  the  corresponding  rates  for  the  year  1900. 

A  further  improvement  of  health  in  the  Philippines  may  be 
anticipated  from  the  cessation  of  guerrilla  warfare  with  the  exposure 
incident  to  it,  and  from  the  concentration  of  the  troops  remaining 


6  REPORT    OF   THE    SECRETARY    OF   WAR. 

in  the  islands  in  a  smaller  number  of  posts  selected  and  constructed 
with  special  reference  to  sanitary  conditions.  This  work  of  con- 
struction is  being  pressed  forward  as  rapidly  as  possible  with  the 
appropriations  made  by  Congress  at  the  last  session. 

Full  returns  have  not  been  received  covering  the  period  of  epi- 
demic cholera  in  the  Philippines,  but  telegraphic  reports  indicate 
that  the  Army  has  suffered  but  little. 

MILITARY  OPERATIONS. 

The  principal  military  events  of  the  past  year  have  been  the  end  of 
the  military  occupation  of  Cuba  and  the  end  of  the  insurrection  in  the 
Philippines. 

CUBA. 

In  conformity  to  the  Cuban  constitution  and  electoral  law,  transla- 
tions of  which  were  annexed  to  my  report  of  last  year,  elections  were 
held  by  the  Cuban  people  on  the  31st  of  December,  1901,  and  by  the 
electoral  college  on  the  24th  of  February,  1902,  when  a  president, 
vice-president,  senate  and  house  of  representatives  were  chosen. 
On  the  24th  of  March,  1902,  the  following  instructions  were  given  to 
the  military  governor: 

Brigadier-General  Leonard  Wood, 

Military  Governor  of  Cuba,  Havana,  Cuba, 

Sir:  You  are  authorized  to  provide  for  the  inauguration,  on  the  20th  of  May  next, 
of  the  government  elected  by  the  people  of  Cuba;  and  upon  the  establishment  of  said 
government  to  leave  the  government  and  control  of  the  island  of  Cuba  to  ite  people, 
pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  Congress  entitled  "An  act  making  appropria- 
tion for  the  Army  for  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1902,"  approved  March  2, 1901. 

Upon  the  transfer  of  government  and  control  to  the  President  and  Congress  so 
elected,  you  will  advise  them  that  such  transfer  is  upon  the  express  understanding 
and  condition  that  the  new  government  does  thereupon,  and  by  the  acceptance 
thereof,  pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  the  appendix  to  the  constitution  of  Cuba 
adopted  by  the  constitutional  convention  on  the  12th  of  June,  1901,  assume  and 
undertake  all  and  several  the  obligations  assumed  by  the  United  States  with  respect 
to  Cuba  by  the  treaty  between  the  United  States  of  America  and  Her  Majesty  the 
Queen  Regent  of  Spain,  signed  at  Paris  on  the  10th  day  of  December,  1898.  It  is  the 
purpose  of  the  United  States  Government,  forthwith  upon  the  inauguration  of  the 
new  government  of  Cuba,  to  terminate  the  occupancy  of  the  island  by  the  United 
States  and  to  withdraw  from  that  island  the  military  forces  now  in  occupancy 
thereof;  but  for  the  preservation  and  care  of  the  coast  defenses  of  the  island,  and  to 
avoid  leaving  the  island  entirely  defenseless  against  external  attack,  you  may  leave 
in  the  coast  fortifications  such  small  number  of  artillerymen  as  may  be  necessary, 
for  such  reasonable  time,  as  may  be  required  to  enable  the  new  government  to 
organize  and  substitute  therefor  an  adequate  military  force  of  its  own;  by  which 
time  it  is  anticipated  that  the  naval  stations  referred  to  in  the  statute  and  in  the 


REPORT   OP  THE   SECRETARY    OF   WAR.  7 

appendix  to  the  constitution  above  cited,  will  have  been  agreed  upon,  and  the  said 
artillerymen  may  be  transferred  thereto. 

You  will  convene  the  Congress  elected  by  the  people  of  Cuba  in  joint  session 
at  such  reasonable  time  before  the  20th  of  May  as  shall  be  necessary  therefor,  for 
the  purpose  of  performing  the  duties  of  counting  and  rectifying  the  electoral  vote 
for  President  and  Vice-President  under  the  fifty-eighth  article  of  the  Cuban  consti- 
tution. At  the  same  time  you  will  publish  and  certify  to  the  people  of  Cuba  the 
instrument  adopted  as  the  constitution  of  Cuba  by  the  constitutional  convention  on 
the  21st  day  of  February,  1901,  together  with  the  appendix  added  thereto  and 
forming  a  part  thereof,  adopted  by  the  said  convention  on  the  12th  day  of  June, 
1901.  It  is  the  understanding  of  the  Government  of  the  United  States  that  the 
government  of  the  island  will  pass  to  the  new  President  and  Congress  of  Cuba  as  a 
going  concern,  all  the  laws  promulgated  by  the  government  of  occupation  contin- 
uing in  force  and  effect,  and  all  the  judicial  and  subordinate  executive  and  admin- 
istrative officers  continuing  in  the  lawful  discharge  of  their  present  functions  until 
changed  by  the  constitutional  officers  of  the  new  government.  At  the  same  moment 
the  responsibility  of  the  United  States  for  the  collection  and  expenditure  of  reve- 
nues, and  for  the  proper  performance  of  duty  by  the  officers  and  employees  of  the 
insular  government  will  end,  and,  the  responsibility  of  the  new  government  of 
Cuba  therefor  will  commence. 

In  order  to  avoid  any  embarrassment  to  the  new  president  which  might  arise 
from  his  assuming  executive  responsibility  with  subordinates  whom  he  does  not 
know,  or  in  whom  he  has  not  confidence,  and  to  avoid  any  occasion  for  sweeping 
changes  in  the  civil-service  personnel  immediately  after  the  inauguration  of  the  new 
government,  approval  is  given  to  the  course  which  you  have  already  proposed  of 
consulting  the  president-elect,  and  substituting  before  the  20th  of  May,  wherever  he 
shall  so  desire,  for  the  persons  now  holding  official  positions,  such  persons  as  he 
may  designate.  This  method  will  make  it  necessary  that  the  new  president  and 
yourself  should  appoint  representatives  to  count  and  certify  the  cash  and  cash  bal- 
ances, and  the  securities  for  deposits,  transferred  to  the  new  government.  The  con- 
sent of  the  owner  of  the  securities  for  deposits  to  the  transfer  thereof  you  will  of 
course  obtain. 

The  vouchers  and  accounts  in  the  office  of  the  Auditor  and  elsewhere  relating 
to  the  receipt  and  disbursement  of  moneys  during  the  government  of  occupation 
must  necessarily  remain  within  the  control  and  available  for  the  use  of  this 
Department  Access  to  these  papers  will,  however,  undoubtedly  be  important 
to  the  officers  of  the  new  Government  in  the  conduct  of  their  business  subsequent 
to  the  20th  of  May.  You  will  accordingly  appoint  an  agent  to  take  possession  of 
these  papers,  and  retain  them  at  such  place  in  the  island  of  Cuba  as  may  be  agreed 
upon  with  the  new  Government  until  they  can  be  removed  to  the  United  States 
without  detriment  to  tfce  current  business  of  the  new  Government 

I  desire  that  you  communicate  the  contents  of  this  letter  to  Mr.  Palma,  the 
President-elect,  and  ascertain  whether  the  course  above  described  accords  with 
his  views  and  wishes. 

Very  respectfully,  Elihu  Root, 

kSecreumj  of  Wat. 


10  BEPOBT  OF  THE  8ECBETABY  OF  WAR. 

administration;  and  to  the  department  commanders,  Gen.  James  H. 
Wilson  and  Gen.  Fitzhugh  Lee;  to  the  lamented  Gen.  William  Ludlow, 
whose  arduous  labors  in  the  government  and  sanitation  of  Havana 
made  his  untimely  death  not  the  least  of  his  country's  sacrifices  for 
Cuba;  to  Brig.  Gen.  Joseph  P.  Sanger,  commander  at  Matanzas  and 
later  director  of  the  census;  and  to  Maj.  Gen.  (then  Col.)  Adna  R. 
Chaffee,  chief  of  staff,  and  Col.  W.  V.  Richards  and  Col.  H.  L.  Scott, 
adjutants-general  of  the  department. 

Especial  credit  is  due  also  to  the  Medical  Department  of  the  Army, 
and  particularly  to  Maj.  Walter  Reed  and  Maj.  William  C.  Gorgas 
for  their  extraordinary  service  in  ridding  the  island  of  yellow  fever, 
described  in  my  last  report;  and  to  Dr.  Jefferson  R.  Kean  and  Dr. 
James  Carroll  for  their  share  in  that  work. 

The  brilliant  character  of  this  scientific  achievement,  its  inestimable 
value  to  mankind,  the  saving  of  thousands  of  lives,  and  the  deliverance 
of  the  Atlantic  seacoast  from  constant  apprehension,  demand  special 
recognition  from  the  Government  of  the  United  States. 

Dr.  Reed  is  the  ranking  major  in  the  Medical  Department,  and 
within  a  few  months  will,  by  operation  of  law,  become  lieutenant- 
colonel.  I  ask  that  the  President  be  authorized  to  appoint  him  assist- 
ant surgeon-general  with  the  rank  of  colonel,  and  to  appoint  Major 
Gorgas  deputy  surgeon-general  with  the  rank  of  lieutenant-colonel, 
and  that  the  respective  numbers  in  those  grades  in  the  Medical  Depart- 
ment be  increased  accordingly  during  the  period  for  which  they  hold 
those  offices. 

The  name  of  Dr.  Jesse  W.  Lazear,  contract  surgeon,  who  volun- 
tarily permitted  himself  to  be  inoculated  with  the  yellow  fever  germ, 
in  order  to  furnish  a  necessary  experimental  test  in  the  course.of  the 
investigation,  and  who  died  of  the  disease,  should  be  written  in  the 
list  of  the  martyrs  who  have  died  in  the  cause  of  humanity.  As  a 
slight  memorial  of  his  heroism  a  battery  in  the  coast  defense  fortifi- 
cation at  Fort  Howard,  Baltimore,  Md.,  has  been  named  ''Battery 
Lazear." 

Under  the  clause  of  the  foregoing  instructions  relating  to  the  care 
of  the  coast  defenses  in  Cuba,  four  companies  of  Coast  Artillery  have 
been  left  in  the  fortifications  of  Habana,  two  companies  at  Cienfuegos, 
and  two  companies  at  Santiago,  pending  the  location  of  naval  stations, 
to  which  they  may  be  transferred,  and  the  instruction  of  Cuban  artil- 


BEPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  11 

lerists  to  take  their  place.     The  Cuban  artillery  force  has  been  organ- 
ized and  is  receiving  regular  instruction  from  our  artillery  officers. 

1  append  hereto,  marked  "Appendix  B,"  a  statement  showing  the 
amount  and  sources  of  all  revenue  collected  in  Cuba  between  the  sur- 
render of  Santiago  on  July  14,  1898,  and  the  end  of  the  military 
government  on  the  20th  of  May,  1902,  and  showing  the  disposition 
of  the  funds  so  collected.  A  complete  and  detailed  statement  of  the 
audited  accounts  by  items  covering  the  entire  sum  has  been  prepared 
and  will  be  transmitted  to  Congress  at  the  opening  of  the  session. 

THE  PHILIPPINES. 

At  the  time  of  my  last  report  Malvar,  in  the  provinces  of  Batangas 
and  Tayabas,  in  the  island  of  Luzon,  and  Lukban,  in  the  island  of 
Samar,  were  the  only  insurgent  leaders  of  importance  who  still  main- 
tained guerrilla  warfare.  We  hoped  that  these  leaders  with  their 
followers  would  yield  to  the  example  and  advice  of  the  great  body 
of  the  Philippine  people  who  had  become  friendly  to  the  United 
States,  and  would  voluntarily  lay  down  their  arms.  It  soon  became 
evident,  however,  that  this  would  not  be  the  case.  Malvar  grew 
stronger,  rather  than  weaker,  under  the  effect  of  a  conciliatory  and 
peaceful  policy,  and  the  fierce  natives  of  Samar  were  excited  to 
greater  hostile  activity  by  a  successful  surprise  at  Balangiga  in  Sep- 
tember, by  which  the  people  of  the  town,  who  had  given  every 
appearance  of  friendliness  and  were  treated  as  friends,  set  upon  a 
company  of  the  Ninth  Infantry  while  at  breakfast  and  murdered 
most  of  them. 

Active  campaigns  were  accordingly  inaugurated  in  both  regions; 
and  these  resulted  in  the  surrender  of  Malvar  on  the  16th  of  April, 
and  in  the  capture  of  Lukban  and  the  surrender  of  Guevara,  his  suc- 
cessor, on  the  27th  of  April.  Gen.  Frederick  D.  Grant  reports  that 
the  surrenders  in  Samar  included  every  gun  known  to  exist  in  the 
island,  except  two;  and  Gen.  J.  F.  Bell,  who  conducted  operations 
against  Malvar,  in  Batangas,  reports  that  during  the  campaign  we 
secured  3,561  guns,  625  revolvers,  with  many  thousand  bolos,  rounds 
of  ammunition,  etc.,  and  detected,  captured,  or  forced  to  surrender 
some  eight  or  ten  thousand  persons  actively  engaged  in  one  capacity 
or  another  in  the  insurrection.  These  surrenders  put  an  end  to  the 
guerrilla  warfare  in  the  Philippines,  which  had  been  waged  with  great 


6  REPORT    OF   THE   SECRETARY    OF   WAR. 

in  the  islands  in  a  smaller  number  of  posts  selected  and  constructed 
with  special  reference  to  sanitary  conditions.  This  work  of  con- 
struction is  being  pressed  forward  as  rapidly  as  possible  with  the 
appropriations  made  by  Congress  at  the  last  session. 

Full  returns  have  not  been  received  covering  the  period  of  epi- 
demic cholera  in  the  Philippines,  but  telegraphic  reports  indicate 
that  the  Army  has  suffered  but  little. 

MILITARY   OPERATIONS. 

The  principal  military  events  of  the  past  year  have  been  the  end  of 
the  military  occupation  of  Cuba  and  the  end  of  the  insurrection  in  the 
Philippines. 

CUBA. 

In  conformity  to  the  Cuban  constitution  and  electoral  law,  transla- 
tions of  which  were  annexed  to  my  report  of  last  year,  elections  were 
held  by  the  Cuban  people  on  the  31st  of  December,  1901,  and  by  the 
electoral  college  on  the  24th  of  February,  1902,  when  a  president, 
vice-president,  senate  and  house  of  representatives  were  chosen. 
On  the  24th  of  March,  1902,  the  following  instructions  were  given  to 
the  military  governor: 

Brigadier-General  Leonard  Wood, 

Military  Governor  of  Cuba,  Havana,  Cuba. 

Sir:  You  are  authorized  to  provide  for  the  inauguration,  on  the  20th  of  May  next, 
of  the  government  elected  by  the  people  of  Cuba;  and  upon  the  establishment  of  said 
government  to  leave  the  government  and  control  of  the  island  of  Cuba  to  its  people, 
pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  Congress  entitled  "An  act  making  appropria- 
tion for  the  Army  for  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1902,"  approved  March  2, 1901. 

Upon  the  transfer  of  government  and  control  to  the  President  and  Congress  so 
elected,  you  will  advise  them  that  such  transfer  is  upon  the  express  understanding 
and  condition  that  the  new  government  does  thereupon,  and  by  the  acceptance 
thereof,  pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  the  appendix  to  the  constitution  of  Cuba 
adopted  by  the  constitutional  convention  on  the  12th  of  June,  1901,  assume  and 
undertake  ail  and  several  the  obligations  assumed  by  the  United  States  with  respect 
to  Cuba  by  the  treaty  between  the  United  States  of  America  and  Her  Majesty  the 
Queen  Regent  of  Spain,  signed  at  Paris  on  the  10th  day  of  December,  1898.  It  is  the 
purpose  of  the  United  States  Government,  forthwith  upon  the  inauguration  of  the 
new  government  of  Cuba,  to  terminate  the  occupancy  of  the  island  by  the  United 
States  and  to  withdraw  from  that  island  the  military  forces  now  in  occupancy 
thereof;  but  for  the  preservation  and  care  of  the  coast  defenses  of  the  island,  and  to 
avoid  leaving  the  island  entirely  defenseless  against  external  attack,  you  may  leave 
in  the  coast  fortifications  such  small  number  of  artillerymen  as  may  be  necessary, 
for  such  reasonable  time,  as  may  be  required  to  enable  the  new  government  to 
organize  and  substitute  therefor  an  adequate  military  force  of  its  own;  by  which 
time  it  is  anticipated  that  the  naval  stations  referred  to  in  the  statute  and  in  the 


BEPORT   OP   THE   SECRETARY    OF   WAR.  7 

appendix  to  the  constitution  above  cited,  will  have  been  agreed  upon,  and  the  said 
artillerymen  may  be  transferred  thereto. 

You  will  convene  the  Congress  elected  by  the  people  of  Cuba  in  joint  session 
at  such  reasonable  time  before  the  20th  of  May  as  shall  be  necessary  therefor,  for 
the  purpose  of  performing  the  duties  of  counting  and  rectifying  the  electoral  vote 
for  President  and  Vice-President  under  the  fifty-eighth  article  of  the  Cuban  consti- 
tution. At  the  same  time  you  will  publish  and  certify  to  the  people  of  Cuba  the 
instrument  adopted  as  the  constitution  of  Cuba  by  the  constitutional  convention  on 
the  21st  day  of  February,  1901,  together  with  the  appendix  added  thereto  and 
forming  a  part  thereof,  adopted  by  the  said  convention  on  the  12th  day  of  June, 
1901.  It  is  the  understanding  of  the  Government  of  the  United  States  that  the 
government  of  the  island  will  pass  to  the  new  President  and  Congress  of  Cuba  as  a 
going  concern,  all  the  laws  promulgated  by  the  government  of  occupation  contin- 
uing in  force  and  effect,  and  all  the  judicial  and  subordinate  executive  and  admin- 
istrative officers  continuing  in  the  lawful  discharge  of  their  present  functions  until 
changed  by  the  constitutional  officers  of  the  new  government.  At  the  same  moment 
the  responsibility  of  the  United  States  for  the  collection  and  expenditure  of  reve- 
nues, and  for  the  proper  performance  of  duty  by  the  officers  and  employees  of  the 
insular  government  will  end,  and,  the  responsibility  of  the  new  government  of 
Cuba  therefor  will  commence. 

In  order  to  avoid  any  embarrassment  to  the  new  president  which  might  arise 
from  his  assuming  executive  responsibility  with  subordinates  whom  he  does  not 
know,  or  in  whom  he  has  not  confidence,  and  to  avoid  any  occasion  for  sweeping 
changes  in  the  civil-service  personnel  immediately  after  the  inauguration  of  the  new 
government,  approval  is  given  to  the  course  which  you  have  already  proposed  of 
consulting  the  president-elect,  and  substituting  before  the  20th  of  May,  wherever  he 
shall  so  desire,  for  the  persons  now  holding  official  positions,  such  persons  as  he 
may  designate.  This  method  will  make  it  necessary  that  the  new  president  and 
yourself  should  appoint  representatives  to  count  and  certify  the  cash  and  cash  bal- 
ances, and  the  securities  for  deposits,  transferred  to  the  new  government.  The  con- 
sent of  the  owner  of  the  securities  for  deposits  to  the  transfer  thereof  you  will  of 
course  obtain. 

The  vouchers  and  accounts  in  the  office  of  the  Auditor  and  elsewhere  relating 
to  the  receipt  and  disbursement  of  moneys  during  the  government  of  occupation 
must  necessarily  remain  within  the  control  and  available  for  the  use  of  this 
Department.  Access  to  these  papers  will,  however,  undoubtedly  be  important 
to  the  officers  of  the  new  Government  in  the  conduct  of  their  business  subsequent 
to  the  20th  of  May.  You  will  accordingly  appoint  an  agent  to  take  possession  of 
these  papers,  and  retain  them  at  such  place  in  the  island  of  Cuba  as  may  be  agreed 
upon  with  the  new  Government  until  they  can  be  removed  to  the  United  States 
without  detriment  to  tfce  current  business  of  the  new  Government. 

I  desire  that  you  communicate  the  contents  of  this  letter  to  Mr.  Palma,  the 
President-elect,  and  ascertain  whether  the  course  above  described  accords  with 
his  views  and  wishes. 

Very  respectfully,  Elihu  Root, 

Secretary  of  War. 


8  BEPOBT   OF   THE    SECRETARY    OP   WAR. 

These  instructions,  being  communicated  to  the  President-elect,  Mr. 
Palma,  received  his  approval,  and  they  were  completely  executed  on 
the  20th  of  May,  1902.  The  specific  instructions  which  followed 
and  the  various  public  acts,  which,  taken  together,  accomplished  the 
termination  of  military  government  and  the  inauguration  of  the 
new  Republic,  are  shown  in  the  series  of  papers  annexed  hereto  as 
"Appendix  A." 

The  whole  governmental  situation  in  Cuba  was  quite  unprece- 
dented, with  its  curious  device  of  a  suspended  sovereignty  given  up 
by  Spain,  but  not  in  terms  vested  in  anybody  else,  and  if  vested 
remaining  dormant,  while  a  practical  working  government  of  mili- 
tary occupation  in  time  of  peace,  deriving  its  authority  from  the 
sovereignty  of  another  country,  claimed  temporary  allegiance,  made 
and  enforced  laws,  and  developed  a  political  organization  of  the 
Cuban  people  to  take  and  exercise  the  suspended  or  dormant  sover- 
eignty. It  was  important  that  in  inaugurating  the  new  government 
there  should  be  no  break  in  the  continuity  of  legal  obligation,  of 
rights  of  property  and  contract,  of  jurisdiction,  or  of  administrative 
action.  It  would  not  do  to  wait  for  the  new  government  to  pass 
laws  or  to  create  offices  and  appoint  administrative  officers  and  vest 
them  with  powers,  for  the  instant  that  the  new  government  was 
created  the  intervening  government  ceased,  and  the  period  of  waiting 
would  be  a  period  of  anarchy. 

It  was  necessary,  therefore,  to  take  such  steps  that  the  new  gov- 
ernment should  be  created  as  a  going  concern,  every  officer  of  which 
should  be  able  to  go  on  with  his  part  of  the  business  of  governing 
under  the  new  sovereignty  without  waiting  for  any  new  authority. 
That  everything  necessary  to  this  end  should  be  done,  and  that  it 
should  be  done  according  to  a  consistent  and  maintainable  legal 
theory,  caused  the  Department  a  good  deal  of  solicitude.  It  is  grat- 
ifying to  report  that  it  was  done,  and  that  the  government  which, 
until  noon  of  May  20th,  was  proceeding  under  the  authority  of  the 
President  of  the  United  States,  went  on  in  the  afternoon  of  that  day 
and  has  ever  since  continued  under  the  sovereignty  which  had  been 
abandoned  by  Spain  in  April,  1899,  without  any  more  break  or 
confusion  than  accompanies  the  inauguration  of  a  new  President  in 
the  United  States.  This  could  not  have  been  done  without  the  most 
perfect  good    understanding,    mutual    confidence,   and    sympathetic 


BEPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY    OF   WAR.  9 

cooperation  on  the  part  of  our  officers,  who  were  about  to  retire,  and 
the  newly-elected  officers  of  Cuba,  who  were  about  to  take  the  reins 
of  government.  Our  troops  withdrew  from  Cuba  in  the  afternoon  of 
the  20th  of  May,  amid  universal  expressions  of  gratitude,  esteem,  and 
affection.     The  public  feeling  was  well  illustrated  by  the  following 

telegram  from  President  Palma: 

Havana,  May  £i,  1902, 
Elihu  Root, 

Secretary  of  War,  Washington: 

I  am  deeply  moved  by  your  heartfelt  message  of  congratulation  on  the  inaugura- 
tion of  the  Republic  of  Cuba,  to  the  birth  of  which  the  people  and  the  Government 
of  the  United  States  have  contributed  with  their  blood  and  treasure.  Rest  assured 
that  the  Cuban  people  can  never  forget  the  debt  of  gratitude  they  owe  to  the  great 
Republic,  with  which  we  will  always  cultivate  the  closest  relations  of  friendship  and 
for  the  prosperity  of  which  we  pray  to  the  Almighty. 

T.  Estrada  Palma. 

I  venture  to  express  the  hope  that  this  strong  and  well-deserved 
friendship  of  Cuba  may  be  permanent  and  may  never  be  alienated  by 
our  treatment  of  the  smaller  and  weaker  power,  and  that  the  people 
of  the  United  States  may  never  lose  their  deep  interest  in  the  welfare 
of  the  new  Republic  which  they  have  called  into  being  with  so  much 
labor  and  sacrifice.  I  know  of  no  chapter  in  American  history  more 
satisfactory  than  that  which  will  record  the  conduct  of  the  military 
government  of  Cuba.  The  credit  for  it  is  due,  first  of  all,  to  Brig. 
Gen.  Leonard  Wood,  the  commander  of  the  department  of  Santiago 
until  December,  1899,  and  thenceforth  military  governor  of  the 
island.  Credit  is  due  also  to  Brig.  Gen.  Tasker  H.  Bliss,  who  had 
charge  of  the  collection  of  customs  revenues;  Maj.  E.  St.  John  Greble 
and  Maj.  and  Surg.  Jefferson  R.  Kean,  successively  heads  of  the 
department  of  charities;  Lieut.  Matthew  E.  Hanna,  superintendent 
of  public  schools;  Lieut.  E.  C.  Brooks  and  Mr.  J.  D.  Terrill, 
successively  auditors  of  Cuba;  and  to  the  Cuban  gentlemen  who,  as 
heads  of  the  various  state  departments,  constituted  the  cabinet  of  the 
military  governor:  Messrs.  Diego  Tamayo,  secretary  of  state  and 
government;  Leopoldo  Cancio,  secretary  of  finance;  Jose  Varela, 
secretary  of  justice;  Jose  R.  Villalon,  secretary  of  public  works; 
Enrique  Jose  Varona,  secretary  of  public  instruction;  and  Perfecto 
Lacoste,  secretary  of  agriculture.  Credit  is  also  due  to  Maj.  Gen. 
John  R.  Brooke,  the  first  military  governor,  and  the  member«  of  his 


10  BEPOBT  OF  THE  8ECBETABY  OF  WAR. 

administration;  and  to  the  department  commanders,  Gen.  James  H. 
Wilson  and  Gen.  Fitzhugh  Lee;  to  the  lamented  Gen.  William  Ludlow, 
whose  arduous  labors  in  the  government  and  sanitation  of  Havana 
made  his  untimely  death  not  the  least  of  his  country's  sacrifices  for 
Cuba;  to  Brig.  Gen.  Joseph  P.  Sanger,  commander  at  Matanzas  and 
later  director  of  the  census;  and  to  Maj.  Gen.  (then  Col.)  Adna  R. 
Chaffee,  chief  of  staff,  and  Col.  W.  V.  Richards  and  Col.  H.  L.  Scott, 
adjutants-general  of  the  department. 

Especial  credit  is  due  also  to  the  Medical  Department  of  the  Army, 
and  particularly  to  Maj.  Walter  Reed  and  Maj.  William  C.  Gorgas 
for  their  extraordinary  service  in  ridding  the  island  of  yellow  fever, 
described  in  my  last  report;  and  to  Dr.  Jefferson  R.  Kean  and  Dr. 
James  Carroll  for  their  share  in  that  work. 

The  brilliant  character  of  this  scientific  achievement,  its  inestimable 
value  to  mankind,  the  saving  of  thousands  of  lives,  and  the  deliverance 
of  the  Atlantic  seacoast  from  constant  apprehension,  demand  special 
recognition  from  the  Government  of  the  United  States. 

Dr.  Reed  is  the  ranking  major  in  the  Medical  Department,  and 
within  a  few  months  will,  by  operation  of  law,  become  lieutenant- 
colonel.  I  ask  that  the  President  be  authorized  to  appoint  him  assist- 
ant surgeon-general  with  the  rank  of  colonel,  and  to  appoint  Major 
Gorgas  deputy  surgeon-general  with  the  rank  of  lieutenant-colonel, 
and  that  the  respective  numbers  in  those  grades  in  the  Medical  Depart- 
ment be  increased  accordingly  during  the  period  for  which  they  hold 
those  offices. 

The  name  of  Dr.  Jesse  W.  Lazear,  contract  surgeon,  who  volun- 
tarily permitted  himself  to  be  inoculated  with  the  yellow  fever  germ, 
in  order  to  furnish  a  necessary  experimental  test  in  the  course  .of  the 
investigation,  and  who  died  of  the  disease,  should  be  written  in  the 
list  of  the  martyrs  who  have  died  in  the  cause  of  humanity.  As  a 
slight  memorial  of  his  heroism  a  battery  in  the  coast  defense  fortifi- 
cation at  Fort  Howard,  Baltimore,  Md.,  has  been  named  ''Battery 
Lazear." 

Under  the  clause  of  the  foregoing  instructions  relating  to  the  care 
of  the  coast  defenses  in  Cuba,  four  companies  of  Coast  Artillery  have 
been  left  in  the  fortifications  of  Habana,  two  companies  at  Cienf uegos, 
and  two  companies  at  Santiago,  pending  the  location  of  naval  stations, 
to  which  they  may  be  transferred,  and  the  instruction  of  Cuban  artil- 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  11 

lerists  to  take  their  place.     The  Cuban  artillery  force  has  been  organ- 
ized and  is  receiving  regular  instruction  from  our  artillery  officers. 

1  append  hereto,  marked  "Appendix  B,"  a  statement  showing  the 
amount  and  sources  of  all  revenue  collected  in  Cuba  between  the  sur- 
render of  Santiago  on  July  14,  1898,  and  the  end  of  the  military 
government  on  the  20th  of  May,  1902,  and  showing  the  disposition 
of  the  funds  so  collected.  A  complete  and  detailed  statement  of  the 
audited  accounts  by  items  covering  the  entire  sura  has  been  prepared 
and  will  be  transmitted  to  Congress  at  the  opening  of  the  session. 

THE  PHILIPPINES. 

At  the  time  of  my  last  report  Malvar,  in  the  provinces  of  Batangas 
and  Tayabas,  in  the  island  of  Luzon,  and  Lukban,  in  the  island  of 
Samar,  were  the  only  insurgent  leaders  of  importance  who  still  main- 
tained guerrilla  warfare.  We  hoped  that  these  leaders  with  their 
followers  would  yield  to  the  example  and  advice  of  the  great  body 
of  the  Philippine  people  who  had  become  friendly  to  the  United 
States,  and  would  voluntarily  lay  down  their  arms.  It  soon  became 
evident,  however,  that  this  would  not  be  the  case.  Malvar  grew 
stronger,  rather  than  weaker,  under  the  effect  of  a  conciliatory  and 
peaceful  policy,  and  the  fierce  natives  of  Samar  were  excited  to 
greater  hostile  activity  by  a  successful  surprise  at  Balangiga  in  Sep- 
tember, by  which  the  people  of  the  town,  who  had  given  every 
appearance  of  friendliness  and  were  treated  as  friends,  set  upon  a 
company  of  the  Ninth  Infantry  while  at  breakfast  and  murdered 
most  of  them. 

Active  campaigns  were  accordingly  inaugurated  in  both  regions; 
and  these  resulted  in  the  surrender  of  Malvar  on  the  16th  of  April, 
and  in  the  capture  of  Lukban  and  the  surrender  of  Guevara,  his  suc- 
cessor, on  the  27th  of  April.  Gen.  Frederick  D.  Grant  reports  that 
the  surrenders  in  Samar  included  every  gun  known  to  exist  in  the 
island,  except  two;  and  Gen.  J.  F.  Bell,  who  conducted  operations 
against  Malvar,  in  Batangas,  reports  that  during  the  campaign  we 
secured  3,561  guns,  625  revolvers,  with  many  thousand  bolos,  rounds 
of  ammunition,  etc.,  and  detected,  captured,  or  forced  to  surrender 
some  eight  or  ten  thousand  persons  actively  engaged  in  one  capacity 
or  another  in  the  insurrection.  These  surrenders  put  an  end  to  the 
guerrilla  warfare  in  the  Philippines,  which  had  been  waged  with  great 


12  BEPOBT  OF  THE  8E0RETARY  OF  WAR. 

ferocity  ever  since  the  destruction  of  Aguinaldo's  government  in  the 
latter  part  of  1899,  and  had  been  accompanied  by  constant  treachery, 
assassination,  cruelty,  and  disregard  of  the  laws  of  war. 

The  way  was  now  clear  to  complete  the  establishment  of  civil  govern- 
ment, and  by  energetic  action  and  hearty  cooperation  on  the  part  of 
both  the  civil  and  military  authorities  in  the  Philippines  this  was 
accomplished  coincidently  with  the  enactment  by  Congress  of  the 
Philippine  government  bill  of  July  1,  1902. 

On  the  4th  of  July,  1902,  the  remainder  of  the  military  government 
was  ended  by  the  following  order: 

War  Department,  Washington,  July  4,  1909, 

The  insurrection  against  the  sovereign  authority  of  the  United  States  in  the  Philip- 
pine Archipelago  having  ended,  and  provincial  civil  governmente  having  been  estab- 
lished throughout  the  entire  territory  of  the  archipelago  not  inhabited  by  Moro 
tribes,  under  the  instructions  of  the  President  to  the  Philippine  Commission,  dated 
April  7,  1900,  now  ratified  and  confirmed  by  the  act  of  Congress  approved  July  1, 
1902,  entitled  "An  act  temporarily  to  provide  for  the  administration  of  affairs  of  civil 
government  in  the  Philippine  Islands,  and  for  other  purposes,"  the  general  com- 
manding the  Division  of  the  Philippines  is  hereby  relieved  from  the  further  perform- 
ance of  the  duties  of  military  governor,  and  the  office  of  military  governor  in  said 
archipelago  is  terminated.  The  general  commanding  the  Division  of  the  Philippines, 
and  all  military  officers  in  authority  therein,  will  continue  to  observe  the  direction 
contained  in  the  aforesaid  instructions  of  the  President,  that  the  military  forces  in 
the  Division  of  the  Philippines  shall  be  at  all  times  subject,  under  the  orders  of  the 
military  commander,  to  the  call  of  the  civil  authorities  for  the  maintenance  of  law 
and  order  and  the  enforcement  of  their  authority. 

By  the  President: 

Klihu  Root,  Secretary  of  War.. 

On  the  same  day  the  President  issued  a  proclamation  of  peace  and 
amnesty,  a  copy  of  which  is  annexed  as  "Appendix  C." 

The  dual  process  by  which  the  military  power  had  steadily  acquired 
control  over  the  various  provinces  of  the  archipelago,  and  at  the  same 
time  had  been  superseded  progressively  by  civil  administration,  was 
then  finished,  and  a  complete  system  of  civil  government,  built  up 
under  the  authority  of  the  President,  was  in  operation,  ready  to  go 
on  under  the  authority  of  Congress. 

I  described  in  my  last  report  the  important  bearing  which  the  con- 
tinuous offer  and  bestowal  of  civil  rights  and  local  self-government  as 
the  result  of  pacification  had  upon  the  attitude  of  the  people  toward 
the  insurrection.     It  is  evident  that  the  insurrection  has  been  brought 


REPORT  OF  THE  8ECRETARY  OF  WAR.  13 

to  an  end  both  by  making  a  war  distressing  and  hopeless  on  the  one 
hand,  and  by  making  peace  attractive,  through  immediate  and  present 
demonstration  of  the  sincerity  of  our  purpose  to  give  to  the  people 
just  and  free  government,  on  the  other.  This  result  could  not  have 
been  accomplished  except  by  genuine  and  hearty  cooperation  of  both 
the  military  and  civil  authorities  acting  together  under  the  general 
direction  of  the  War  Department.  The  good  temper  and  mutual  con- 
sideration and  helpfulness,  and  subordination  of  personal  to  public 
interests,  displayed  by  General  MacArthur  and  General  Chaffee  on 
the  one  hand,  and  by  Governor  Taft,  Vice-Governor  Wright,  and  the 
Civil  Commission  on  the  other,  frequently  under  circumstances  of 
great  delicacy  and  difficulty,  are  worthy  of  high  praise.  Some  of 
their  subordinates,  through  incomplete  knowledge  and  from  widely 
differing  points  of  view,  have  sometimes  expressed  discordant  opin- 
ions, but  both  soldiers  and  civilians,  with  very  few  exceptions,  have 
rendered  loyal  and  devoted  support  to  the  prescribed  policy. 

There  was  at  one  time  in  the  public  press  and  on  the  floor  of 
Congress  much  criticism  of  the  conduct  of  the  Array  in  the 
Philippines,  as  being  cruel  and  inhuman.  All  wars  are  cruel.  This 
conflict  consisted  chiefly  of  guerrilla  warfare.  It  lasted  for  some  three 
years  and  a  half,  and  extended  over  thousands  of  miles  of  territory. 
Over  120,000  men  were  engaged  upon  our  side,  and  much  greater 
numbers  upon  the  other,  and  we  were  fighting  against  enemies  who 
totally  disregarded  the  laws  of  civilized  warfare,  and  who  were  guilty 
of  the  most  atrocious  treachery  and  inhuman  cruelty.  It  was 
impossible  that  some  individuals  should  not  be  found  upon  our  side 
who  were  unnecessarily  and  unjustifiably  cruel.  Such  instances, 
however,  after  five  months  of  searching  investigation  by  a  committee 
of  the  Senate,  who  took  some  three  thousand  printed  pages  of 
testimony,  appear  to  have  been  comparatively  few,  and  they  were  in 
violation  of  strict  orders  obedience  to  which  characterized  the  conduct 
of  the  Army  as  a  whole. 

The  two  observers  who,  as  the  heads  of  the  civil  government  in  the 
Philippines,  had  the  best  opportunities  for  information,  and  at  the 
same  time  were  naturally  free  from  any  military  bias,  have  given 
what  1  believe  to  be  a  true  statement  of  the  character  of  our  military 
operations. 


14  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

Vice-Governor  Luke  E.  Wright  says,  in  a  letter  written  on  the  20th 
of  July  last: 

General  Chaffee,  as  a  matter  of  course,  had  no  patience  with  any  acts  of  oppression 
or  cruelty,  and  whenever  his  attention  has  been  called  to  them  has  at  once  taken 
proper  steps.  The  howl  against  the  Army  has  been  made  mainly  for  political  pur- 
poses, and  the  cruelties  practiced  have  been  largely  exaggerated.  Of  course,  numer- 
ous instances  of  this  character  have  occurred.  There  never  was  and  never  will  be 
a  war  of  which  the  same  may  not  be  said,  but  taken  as  a  whole,  and  when  the  char- 
acter of  the  warfare  here  is  considered,  I  think  the  officers  and  men  of  the  Amer- 
ican Army  have  been  forbearing  and  humane  in  their  dealings  with  the  natives,  and 
the  attempt  to  create  a  contrary  impression  is  not  only  unjust  to  them,  but  it  seems 
to  me  unpatriotic  as  well. 

Governor  Taft,  in  his  testimony  under  oath  before  the  Philippine 
Committee  of  the  Senate  on  the  4th  of  February  last,  said: 

After  a  good  deal  of  study  about  the  matter,  and,  although  I  have  never  been 
prejudiced  in  favor  of  the  military  branch,  for  when  the  civil  and  military  branches 
are  exercising  concurrent  jurisdiction  there  is  some  inevitable  friction,  I  desire  to 
say  that  it  is  my  deliberate  judgment  that  there  never  was  a  war  conducted, 
whether  against  inferior  races  or  not,  in  which  there  was  more  compassion  and 
more  restraint  and  more  generosity,  assuming  that  there  was  war  at  all,  than  there 
have  been  in  the  Philippine  Islands. 

SUMMARY  OF  SERVICE   IN   CUBA   AND  THE    PHILIPPINES. 

The  conduct  and  service  of  the  Army,  both  in  Cuba  and  in  the 
Philippines,  were  summed  up  in  the  following  order: 

War  Department,  Washington,  July  4,  1902. 
To  the  Army  of  the  United  States: 

The  President  upon  this  anniversary  of  national  independence  wishes  to  express 
to  the  officers  and  enlisted  men  of  the  United  States  Army  his  deep  appreciation  of 
the  service  they  have  rendered  to  the  country  in  the  great  and  difficult  undertak- 
ings which  they  have  brought  to  a  successful  conclusion  during  the  past  year. 

He  thanks  the  officers  and  the  enlisted  men  who  have  been  maintaining  order  and 
carrying  on  the  military  government  in  Cuba,  because  they  have  faithfully  given 
effect  to  the  humane  purposes  of  the  American  people.  They  have  with  sincere 
kindness  helped  the  Cuban  people  to  take  all  the  successive  steps  necessary  to  the 
establishment  of  their  own  constitutional  government.  During  the  time  required 
for  that  process  they  have  governed  Cuba  wisely,  regarding  justice  and  respecting 
individual  liberty;  have  honestly  collected  and  expended  for  the  best  interests  of  the 
Cuban  people  the  revenues,  amounting  to  over  $60,000,000;  have  carried  out  practical 
and  thorough  sanitary  measures,  greatly  improving  the  health  and  lowering  the 
death  rate  of  the  island.  By  patient,  scientific  research  they  have  ascertained 
the  causes  of  yellow  fever,  and  by  good  administration  have  put  an  end  to  that 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAB.  15 

most  dreadful  disease,  which  has  long  destroyed  the  lives  and  hindered  the 
commercial  prosperity  of  the  Cubans.  They  have  expedited  justice  and  secured 
protection  for  the  rights  of  the  innocent,  while  they  have  cleansed  the  prisons 
and  established  sound  discipline  and  healthful  conditions  for  the  punishment  of 
the  guilty.  They  have  reestablished  and  renovated  and  put  upon  a  substantial 
basis  adequate  hospitals  and  asylums  for  the  care  of  the  unfortunate.  They  have 
established  a  general  system  of  free  common  schools  throughout  the  island,  in  which 
over  200,000  children  are  in  actual  attendance.  They  have  constructed  great  and 
necessary  public  works.  They  have  gradually  trained  the  Cubans  themselves  in  all 
branches  of  administration,  so  that  the  new  government  upon  assuming  power  has 
begun  its  work  with  an  experienced  force  of  Cuban  civil  service  employees  competent 
to  execute  its  orders.  They  have  borne  themselves  with  dignity  and  self-control, 
so  that  nearly  four  years  of  military  occupation  have  passed  unmarred  by  injury  or 
insult  to  man  or  woman.  They  have  transferred  the  government  of  Cuba  to  the 
Cuban  people  amid  universal  expressions  of  friendship  and  good  will,  and  have  left 
a  record  of  ordered  justice  and  liberty,  of  rapid  improvement  in  material  and  moral 
conditions,  and  progress  in  the  art  of  government  which  reflects  great  credit  upon 
the  people  of  the  United  States. 

The  President  thanks  the  officers  and  enlisted  men  of  the  army  in  the  Philippines 
both  regulars  and  volunteers,  for  the  courage  and  fortitude,  the 'indomitable  spirit 
and  loyal  devotion  with  which  they  have  put  down  and  ended  the  great  insurrection 
which  has  raged  throughout  the  archipelago  against  the  lawful  sovereignty  and  just 
authority  of  the  United  States.  The  task  was  peculiarly  difficult  and  trying.  They 
were  required  at  first  to  overcome  organized  resistance  of  superior  numbers,  well 
equipped  with  modern  arms  of  precision,  intrenched  in  an  unknown  country  of 
mountain  defiles,  jungles,  and  swamps,  apparently  capable  of  interminable  defense. 
When  this  resistance  had  been  overcome  they  were  required  to  crush  out  a  general 
system  of  guerrilla  warfare  conducted  among  a  people  speaking  unknown  tongues, 
from  whom  it  was  almost  impossible  to  obtain  the  information  necessary  for  success- 
ful pursuit  or  to  guard  against  surprise  and  ambush. 

The  enemies  by  whom  they  were  surrounded  were  regardless  of  all  obligations  of 
good  faith  and  of  all  the  limitations  which  humanity  has  imposed  upon  civilized 
warfare.  Bound  themselves  by  the  laws  of  war,  our  soldiers  were  called  upon  to 
meet  every  device  of  unscrupulous  treachery  and  to  contemplate  without  reprisal  the 
infliction  of  barbarous  cruelties  upon  their  comrades  and  friendly  natives.  They 
were  instructed,  while  punishing  armed  resistance,  to  conciliate  the  friendship  of  the 
peaceful,  yet  had  to  do  with  a  population  among  whom  it  was  impossible  to  dis- 
tinguish friend  from  foe,  and  who  in  countless  instances  used  a  false  appearance  of 
friendship  for  ambush  and  assassination.  They  were  obliged  to  deal  with  problems 
of  communication  and  transportation  in  a  country  without  roads  and  frequently 
made  impassable  by  torrential  rains.  They  were  weakened  by  tropical  heat  and 
tropical  disease.  Widely  scattered  over  a  great  archipelago,  extending  a  thousand 
miles  from  north  to  south,  the  gravest  responsibilities,  involving  the  life  or  death  of 
their  commands,  frequently  devolved  upon  young  and  inexperienced  officers  beyond 
the  reach  of  specific  orders  or  advice. 


16  REPORT  OF  THE  8ECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

Under  all  these  adverse  circumstances  the  Army  of  the  Philippines  has  accom- 
plished its  task  rapidly  and  completely.  In  more  than  two  thousand  combats,  great 
and  small,  within  three  years,  it  has  exhibited  unvarying  courage  and  resolution. 
Utilizing  the  lessons  of  the  Indian  wars,  it  has  relentlessly  followed  the  guerrilla 
bands  to  their  fastnesses  in  mountain  and  jungle  and  crushed  them.  It  has  put  an 
end  to  the  vast  system  of  intimidation  and  secret  assassination  by  which  the  peace- 
ful natives  were  prevented  from  taking  a  genuine  part  in  government  under  Ameri- 
can authority.  It  has  captured  or  forced  to  surrender  substantially  all  the  leaders 
of  the  insurrection.  It  has  submitted  to  no  discouragement  and  halted  at  no  obsta- 
cle. Its  officers  have  shown  high  qualities  of  command,  and  its  men  have  shown 
devotion  and  discipline.  Its  splendid  virile  energy  has  been  accompanied  by  self- 
control,  patience,  and  magnanimity.  With  surprisingly  few  individual  exceptions, 
its  course  has  been  characterized  by  humanity  and  kindness  to  the  prisoner  and  the 
noncombatant.  With  admirable  good  temper,  sympathy,  and  loyalty  to  American 
ideals  its  commanding  generals  have  joined  with  the  civilian  agents  of  the  Govern- 
ment in  healing  the  wounds  of  war  and  assuring  to  the  people  of  the  Philippines  the 
blessings  of  peace  and  prosperity.  Individual  liberty,  protection  of  personal  rights, 
civil  order,  public  instruction,  and  religious  freedom  have  followed  its  footsteps.  It 
has  added  honor  to  the  flag  which  it  defended,  and  has  justified  increased  confidence 
in  the  future  of  the  American  people,  whose  soldiers  do  not  shrink  from  labor  or 
death,  yet  love  liberty  and  peace. 

The  President  feels  that  he  expresses  the  sentiments  of  all  the  loyal  people  of  the 
United  States  in  doing  honor  to  the  whole  Army  which  has  joined  in  the  perform- 
ance and  shares  in  the  credit  of  these  honorable  services. 

This  General  Order  will  be  read  aloud  at  parade  in  every  military  post  on  the  4th 
day  of  July,  1902,  or  on  the  first  day  after  it  shall  have  been  received. 

Elihu  Root, 

Secretary  of  War. 
THE   CONTROL   OF   THE   MOR08. 

The  establishment  of  civil  government  in  the  Philippines  still  left  a 
function  for  the  Army  to  perform  in  the  control  of  the  Moros  in  the 
Sulu  Archipelago,  Southern  Mindanao,  and  the  southern  part  of  Pala- 
wan very  similar  to  that  which  it  has  long  performed  in  relation  to 
the  Indian  tribes  in  the  Western  part  of  the  United  States.  It  was 
only  through  an  extended  series  of  decisions  by  the  Supreme  Court  of 
the  United  States,  dealing  with  specific  questions  as  they  arose  in  the 
early  years  of  the  last  centui^,  that  the  precise  legal  relations  between 
the  Federal  Government,  the  State  and  Territorial  governments,  and 
the  Indian  tribes  of  North  America  were  determined. 

The  court  said  in  the  case  of  The  Cherokee  Nation  v.  The  State  of 
Georgia  (5  Peters,  1): 

The  Indians  are  acknowledged  to  have  an  unquestionable  and  heretofore  an 
unquestioned  right  to  the  lands  they  occupy  until  that  right  shall  be  extinguished 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  3F  WAR.  17 

by  a  voluntary  cession  to  the  Government.  It  may  well  be  doubted  whether  those 
tribes  which  reside  within  the  acknowledged  boundaries  of  the  United  States  can 
with  strict  accuracy  be  denominated  foreign  nations.  They  may  more  correctly, 
perhaps,  be  denominated  domestic  dependent  nations.  They  occupy  territory  to 
which  we  assert  a  title,  independent  of  their  will,  which  must  take  effect  in  point  of 
„  possession  when  their  right  of  possession  ceases;  meanwhile  they  are  in  a  state  of 
pupilage.  Their  relations  to  the  United  States  resemble  that  of  a  ward  to  his  guard- 
ian. They  look  to  our  Government  for  protection;  rely  upon  its  kindness  and  its 
power;  appeal  to  it  for  relief  to  their  wants,  and  address  the  President  as  their 
great  father.  # 

A  similar  process  of  judicial  decision  will  probably  be  called  for  by 
the  numerous  questions  certain  to  arise  from  our  relations  to  the  Moro 
tribes;  but  in  the  meantime  the  close  general  analogy  to  the  relations 
of  the  North  American  Indians  indicates  a  duty,  for  the  present  at 
least,  of  limited  supervision  and  control  operating  upon  the  tribal 
governments  of  the  Moros,  rather  than  an  attempt  to  substitute  an 
American  or  Philippine  government  acting  directly  upon  the  individ- 
ual Moros.  In  the  performance  of  this  duty  we  find  ourselves  exer- 
cising powers  and  following  methods  plainly  contemplated  by  the 
Constitution,  and  sanctioned  by  the  judicial  decisions  and  established 
usage  of  the  entire  existence  of  the  Government  of  the  United  States. 

The  instructions  of  the  President  to  the  Philippine  Commission  of 
April  7,  1900,  contained  the  following  direction  based  upon  the  fore- 
going view: 

In  dealing  with  the  uncivilized  tribes  of  the  islands  the  Commission  should  adopt 
the  same  course  followed  by  Congress  in  permitting  the  tribes  of  our  North  American 
Indians  to  maintain  their  tribal  organization  and  government,  and  under  which 
many  of  those  tribes  are  now  living  in  peace  and  contentment,  surrounded  by  a  civil- 
ization to  which  they  are  unable  or  unwilling  to  conform.  Such  tribal  governments 
should,  however,  be  subjected  to  wise  and  firm  regulation,  and  without  undue  or 
petty  interference  constant  and  active  effort  should  be  exercised  to  prevent  barbarous 
practices  and  introduce  civilized  customs. 

The  same  instructions  provide  that  the  military  forces  in  the  Phil- 
ippines shall  be  at  all  times  subject,  under  the  orders  of  the  military 
commander,  to  the  call  of  the  civil  authorities  for  the  maintenance  of 
law  and  order  and  the  enforcement  of  their  authority. 

These  instructions  were  approved  and  adopted  by  Congress  in  the 
Philippine  government  act  of  July  1,  1902,  and  they  will  continue  to 
guide  the  civil  and  military  authorities  in  the  Philippines  in  their 
dealings  with  the  Moros.  The  questions  to  be  worked  out  in  that 
process  are  altogether  apart  from  the  general  questions  of  government 
war  1902— vol  1 2 


18  REPORT  OF  THE  8E0RETARY  OF  WAR. 

in  the  Philippines,  and  such  measures  of  force  as  are  necessary  to  con- 
trol the  various  Moro  tribes  have  no  more  relation  to  the  recent 
Philippine  insurrection  than  our  troubles  with  the  Sioux  or  the 
Apaches  had  to  do  with  the  suppression  of  the  Southern  rebellion. 

The  Moros  of  the  Sulu  Archipelago  and  Palawan,  and  those  living 
upon,  or  in  immediate  communication  with,  the  seacoast  in  Mindanao, 
have  been  as  a  rule  friendly  and  well  behaved.  Some  of  the  MaJanao 
Moros  who  inhabit  the  borders  of  Lake  Lanao,  in  the  interior  of  Min- 
danao, resented  attempts  made  by  Americans  to  examine  the  interior 
of  the  country,  and  in  the  spring  of  this  year  entered  upon  a  regular 
system  of  attacking  our  men  when  found  alone  or  in  small  parties,  and 
stealing  our  horses  and  mules.  Several  of  our  men  were  murdered, 
and  in  April  a  demand  was  made  for  the  return  of  the  property  and 
the  surrender  of  the  murderers.  This  demand  was  met  by  defiance, 
and  after  long  continued  and  repeated  efforts  to  secure  redress  and  a 
discontinuance  of  the  practice  by  peaceable  means,  an  expedition  was 
organized  under  Col.  (now  Brig.  Gen.)  Frank  D.  Baldwin,  which  on 
the  2d  and  3d  of  May  attacked  and  captured  the  strongholds  of  the 
Sultan  of  Bayang  and  the  dato  of  Binadayan  on  Lake  Lanao,  with  a 
loss  of  7  killed  and  44  wounded.  A  part  of  the  Twenty-seventh 
Infantry  and  the  Twenty-fifth  Mountain  Battery  were  engaged.  It 
was  a  brilliant  affair,  and  the  conduct  of  officers  and  men  merited  the 
high  praise  conveyed  in  the  following  dispatch  from  the  President: 

Washington,  D.  C,  May  5,  190$. 
Chaffee,  Manila: 

Accept  for  the  army  under  your  command,  and  express  to  General  Davis  and 
Colonel  Baldwin  especially,  my  congratulations  and  thanks  for  the  splendid  courage 
and  fidelity  which  have  again  carried  our  flag  to  victory.  Your  fellow-countrymen 
at  home  will  ever  reverence  the  memory  of  the  fallen,  and  be  faithful  to  the  sur- 
vivors who  have  themselves  been  faithful  unto  death  for  their  country's  sake. 

Theodore  Roosevelt. 

After  this  lesson  many  of  the  lake  dattos  came  in  and  established 
friendly  relations.  Some  of  them,  however,  remained  recalcitrant, 
and  continued  the  practice  of  annoyance  and  attack.  General  Chaffee 
reported  on  the  6th  of  September  that  since  the  2d  of  May  our  troops 
had  been  attacked  twelve  times,  with  a  loss  of  4  killed  and  12  wounded. 
On  the  28th  of  September  another  well-conducted  expedition  under 
Qapt.  John  J,  Pershing,  of  the  Fifteenth  Cuv&lry,  composed  of  a  bat- 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  19 

talion  of  the  Seventh  Infantry,  a  troop  of  the  Fifteenth  Cavalry,  and 
two  platoons  of  the  Twenty-fifth  Field  Artillery,  inflicted  severe  pun- 
ishment upon  the  Maciu  Moros,  capturing  many  of  their  fortified 
places,  killing  1  of  their  sultans  and  40  or  50  of  their  fighting  men, 
with  a  loss  of  2  Americans  wounded. 

Some  further  punishment  may  yet  be  necessary,  but  the  present 
indications  since  this  last  experience  seem  to  be  peaceful. 

The  numbers  of  the  Lake  Lanao  Moros  are  estimated  variously  from 
100,000  to  400,000.  The  smaller  number  is  probably  nearer  the  fact. 
No  attempts  appear  to  have  been  made  by  Spain  to  exercise  any  con- 
trol over  them  between  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century  and  the 
year  1890.  Some  unsuccessful  efforts  were  made  by  small  forces  in 
the  years  1890  and  1891;  and  in  1898,  before  the  war  between  Spain 
and  the  United  States,  extensive  preparations  had  been  made  by  the 
Spanish  forces  in  the  Philippines  for  the  subjugation  of  the  lake  tribes. 

Farther  in  the  interior  of  Midanao  are  numerous  heathen  tribes  still 
more  savage  and  lower  in  the  scale  of  civilization  than  the  Moros.  In 
1897  the  Spanish  governor  of  Mindanao  estimated  the  numbers  of  six- 
teen of  these  tribes  at  an  aggregate  of  262,000.  From  time  immemo- 
rial the  Moros  have  been  in  the  habit  of  raiding  their  villages  and 
carrying  away  captives  into  slavery,  and  a  considerable  slave  trade 
appears  to  have  been  carried  on  between  the  southwest  coast  of  Min- 
danao and  ports  in  the  Sulu  Archipelago.  It  is  only  by  asserting  and 
establishing  our  right  of  control  over  the  Moro  tribes  that  we  can  put 
a  stop  to  this  nefarious  business;  and  if  there  were  no  other  reason, 
that  alone  would  make  it  impossible  for  us  to  follow  the  example  of 
Spain  and  leave  the  Moros  of  the  interior  to  themselves. 

Now  that  the  insurrection  has  been  disposed  of  we  shall  be  able  to  turn 
our  attention,  not  merely  to  the  slave  trade,  but  to  the  already  existing 
slavery  among  the  Moros.  We  can  not  immediately  free  the  slaves  by 
a  single  act,  first,  because  it  would  require  a  war  of  extermination  in 
which  a  large  part  of  the  slaves  would  probably  be  found  fighting 
against  us;  and,  second,  because  a  large  part  of  them  would  have 
nowhere  to  go  and  no  way  to  live  if  deprived  of  the  protection  and  sup- 
port of  their  present  masters.  I  believe,  however,  that  we  can  main- 
tain a  process  of  gradual  and  steady  reduction,  resulting  ultimately  in 
the  extinction  of  the  practice  of  slavery.  Some  of  the  results  of  our 
efforts  i|i  th&t  direction  are  stated  in  my  last  report.     The  process  will 


20  BEPOBT  OF  THE  8ECRETABY  OF  WAB. 

be  slow,  and  will  require  patience  and  good  judgment,  but  1  believe 
the  result  will  be  worth  the  trouble.  The  task  of  improving  the  Moros 
is  by  no  means  hopeless.  Gen.  George  W*  Davis,  who  commanded  in 
Mindanao,  and  now  commands  the  Division  of  the  Philippines,  says 
of  them: 

Whatever  may  be  the  number  of  Moros,  whether  a  few,  or  many  hundred  thousands, 
all,  and  many  times  more  than  all,  of  these  people  will  be  needed  as  agricultural  and 
mechanical  laborers  and  helpers  in  the  cultivation  of  the  soil  and  the  utilization  of 
its  productions  for  the  benefit  of  themselves  and  mankind.  They  are  able  to  produce 
rice,  sugar  cane,  coffee,  corn,  cattle,  beautiful  woven  fabrics,  and  thrusting  and  cutting 
weapons;  they  manufacture  bronze  cannon  and  gunpowder,  and  give  surprising 
proofs  of  their  ingenuity  and  industry.  Their  Moro  boats  are  fashioned  and  rigged 
and  sailed  with  the  utmost  skill,  and  are  admired  by  all  strangers.  A  race  of  men 
who  are  capable  of  doing  all  this  and  who  possess  many  manly  qualities,  should  be 
kept  alive  and  not  shot  down  in  war.  They  should  be  aided  and  encouraged  and 
taught  how  to  improve  their  own  natural  and  social  condition,  and  benefit  us  at  the 
same  time.  Mohammedans  in  Turkey  and  India  and  Java  have  proved  to  be  indus- 
trious and  useful  members  of  the  communities.  Mohammedan  Malays  in  Sarawak, 
a  British  Protectorate  in  Borneo,  perform  all  the  skilled  and  unskilled  labor  of  that 
prosperous  colony,  and  are  as  plainly  showing  their  adaptability  for  the  higher  dutii^ 
and  occupations  as  did  the  Japanese.  The  Moros  have  certainly  equal  or  greater 
capacity  for  usefulness. 

The  report  from  which  this  quotation  is  taken  is  among  those  trans- 
mitted herewith,  and  I  commend  it  to  special  attention.  It  exhibits 
the  breadth  of  view  and  sound  judgment  which  uniformly  characterise 
that  officer's  work. 


THE    DISPOSITION   TO   BE   MADE   OF   THE   ARMY   IN   PEACE. 

The  restoration  of  the  normal  conditions  of  peace,  and  the  return 
of  the  greater  part  of  the  Army  to  the  United  States,  have  made  it 
possible  to  resume  with  increased  activity  the  work  of  preparing  for 
future  wars. 

The  increase  of  the  Array  from  25,000  to  a  minimum  of  60,000  has, 
of  course,  made  necessary  a  great  increase  in  barracks,  quarters,  hos- 
pitals, and  all  the  constructions  which  go  to  make  up  an  Army  post. 
The  accommodations  which  had  been  provided  before  the  war  with 
Spain  are  now  quite  inadequate,  and  require  to  be  more  than  doubled. 
The  work  of  construction  has  been  pressed  vigorously  by  the  Quarter. 


REPORT   OF   THE   SECRETARY   OF   WAR.  21 

master's  Department  to  the  extent  allowed  by  the  appropriations  made 
by  Congress  for  this  purpose. 

The  policy  followed  has  been  rather  to  increase  the  size  of  the  posts 
in  which  the  Army  is  to  be  quartered  than  to  increase  the  number. 
Two  considerations  have  determined  that  policy:  First,  economy  of 
administration,  and  second,  and  most  important,  efficiency  of  officers 
and  men.  The  tendency  of  life  in  small  one  or  two  company  posts  is 
narrowing  and  dwarfing,  and  such  posts  can  be  justified  only  by 
necessity.  On  the  other  hand,  the  comparison  and  emulation 
between  officers  and  organizations  grouped  in  a  large  post,  the 
advantages  of  systematic  study  and  practice  in  the  schools  which  can 
be  maintained  at  such  posts,  the  advantage  of  being  under  the  imme- 
diate direction  and  influence  of  officers  of  high  rank  who  can  not  be 
scattered  among  the  small  posts,  but  can  be  collected  in  the  large  ones; 
the  practical  benefit  derived  from  handling  considerable  bodies  of 
troops  so  that  company  officers  may  be  learning  to  handle  regiments, 
and  regimental  officers  to  handle  brigades,  and  so  on — all  these  con- 
siderations, point  to  the  large  post  as  furnishing  the  conditions  of 
increasing  efficiency  on  the  part  of  both  officers  and  men. 

The  only  argument  which  has  been  made  against  this  view  is  that 
the  scattering  of  the  Army  in  a  great  number  of  small  posts  would 
popularize  it,  and  that  there  ought  to  be  an  equitable  distribution  of 
the  troops  among  all  the  different  States.  I  think  these  propositions 
may  be  dismissed  with  the  confident  assertion  that  the  Army  will  be 
popular  and  satisfactory  to  all  the  States  in  proportion  as  it  is  effi- 
cient and  economical. 

Another  line  of  policy  followed  by  the  Department  is,  so  far  as 
practicable,  to  get  the  Army  posts  out  of  the  cities  and  large  towns, 
and  establish  them  upon  larger  tracts  of  cheaper  land  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  the  same  cities  and  towns,  so  that  the  men  inav  have  the  bene- 
fit  of  country  air  instead  of  city  air.  and  more  room  for  training  and 
exercise;  the  neighborhood  of  the  barracks  may  be  under  military 
control;  the  rum  shops  and  brothels  may  be  pushed  farther  away  from 
the  men;  and  at  the  same  time  the  advantages  of  convenient  inspection, 
transportation  and  supply,  and  a  reasonable  degree  of  educational  and 
and  social  privileges,  may  be  retained. 

In  order  to  secure  a  definite  plan  for  the  distribution  of  troops  and 
the  construction  work  necessary  to  provide  for  their  maintenance,  a 


22  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

board  was  convened  in  Washington  in  November  last,  composed  of  all 
the  general  officers  of  the  Army  in  the  United  States,  under  the  fol- 
lowing directions: 

By  direction  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  a  board  of  officers  is  hereby  appointed  to 
meet  in  Washington,  D.  C,  on  the  25th  day  of  November,  1901,  to  consider  and 
report  upon  the  location  and  distribution  of  the  military  posts  required  for  the 
proper  accommodation,  instruction,  and  training  of  the  Army  as  organized  under 
the  act  of  February  2,  1901,  not  including  coast  fortifications.  The  board  will  make 
recommendations  in  detail  as  to  which  of  the  existing  posts  should  be  retained  or 
abandoned,  and  of  those  retained  which,  if  any,  should  be  enlarged  and  to  what 
extent,  and  the  location,  size,  and  character  of  such  new  posts  as  may  be  necessary, 
having  due  regard  in  all  its  recommendations  to  the  proper  distribution  of  the  dif- 
ferent arms  of  the  service  based  upon  strategic,  sanitary,  and  economical  considera- 
tions. 

The  board  will  also  formulate  and  submit  a  project  for  the  location,  examinations 
and  surveys  to  be  made  for  the  permanent  camp  grounds  provided  for  by  section  35 
of  the  act  of  February  2,  1901. 

This  board  performed  its  duties  during  the  months  of  November, 
December,  January,  and  February,  and  its  report  and  recommenda- 
tions were  transmitted  to  Congress  on  the  19th  of  May,  and  are  printed 
as  House  Doc.  No.  618,  Fifty -seventh  Congress,  first  session. 

Much  delay  and  difficulty  in  providing  barracks  and  quarters  for 
the  coast-defense  artillery  has  arisen  from  the  policy  followed  in 
making  appropriations  during  the  earlier  years  of  work  upon  our 
coast  defenses.  With  what  we  can  now  see  to  have  been  unwise 
economy,  the  appropriations  were  in  a  great  number  of  cases  so 
limited  as  to  permit  the  purchase  of  only  enough  land  for  the  fortifi- 
cations themselves,  leaving  the  land  necessaiy  for  barracks,  quarters, 
hospitals,  storehouses,  and  administrative  purposes  to  be  acquired  in 
the  future.  As  a  natural  result,  as  soon  as  the  Government  was  com- 
mitted to  an  extensive  fortification  the  prices  of  all  the  additional  land 
which  it  needed  in  the  neighborhood  were  put  up  immensely,  and  in 
order  to  provide  for  troops  to  man  the  fortifications,  the  Government 
has  been  obliged,  after  long  negotiations,  to  pay  many  times  as  much 
as  the  land  could  have  been  bought  for  originally,  or  to  take  condem- 
nation proceedings  with  usually  the  same  result. 

To  prevent  a  continuance  of  this  practice  an  order  was  made  on 
April  9,  1901,  requiring  all  papers  presented  to  the  Secretary  of  War 
for  approval  of  the  purchase  of  land  connected  with  the  seacoast  for- 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  8E0RETARY  OF  WAR. 


23 


tifications,  to  be  accompanied  by  a  certificate  of  the  Chief  of  Artillery, 
that  the  proposal  presented  included  all  the  land  which  would  be 
required  for  all  purposes  of  the  defense  at  that  point.  It  is  to  be 
hoped  that  future  appropriations  for  such  purposes  will  be  so 
arranged  as  to  permit  a  continuance  of  this  policy. 


SEAGOAST  DEFENSES. 

Additional  guns  have  been  mounted  in  the  coast-defense  fortifica- 
tions during  the  year  as  follows:  Eight  12-inch,  three  8-inch,  twenty 
rapid-fire,  thirty-four  12-inch  mortars,  making  a  total  now  mounted 
of  eighty  12-inch,  one  hundred  and  twelve  10-inch,  eighty-nine  8-inch, 
one  hundred  and  eight  rapid-fire  guns,  and  two  hundred  and  ninety- 
seven  mortars. 

There  have  also  been  completed  and  issued,  ready  to  mount,  addi- 
tional guns,  as  follows:  Two  12-inch,  three  10-inch,  seventy-four 
rapid-fire,  and  fifteen  mortars,  making  a  total  now  mounted  or  ready 
to  mount  of  eighty-two  12-inch,  one  hundred  and  fifteen  10-inch, 
eighty-nine  8-inch,  one  hundred  and  eighty-two  rapid-fire,  and  three 
hundred  and  twelve  mortars. 

The  status  of  emplacements  for  which  funds  have  been  provided  by 
Congress  was  as  follows  at  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year  1902: 


12-inch. 

10-inch. 

8-inch. 

Rapid- 
fire. 

12-inch 
mortars. 

Guns  mounted 

80 

16 

9 

112 

3 

15 

a  89 
5 
2 

&108 

0  229 

146 

297 

Ready  for  armament 

55 

Under  construction 

24 

Total 

105 

130 

96 

483 

376 

a  Nineteen  of  these,  which  had  been  mounted  temporarily,  have  since  been  dismounted. 

ft  One  temporarily. 

« Including  seventy  6-pounders  not  requiring  permanent  emplacements. 

In  compliance  with  the  direction  of  the  fortifications  act  of  June  6, 
1902,  a  board  was  constituted  in  July  last,  composed  of  one  engineer 
officer,  one  ordnance  officer,  three  artillery  officers,  one  naval  officer, 
and  one  civilian  mechanical  engineer  of  high  standing,  to  make  a 
thorough  test  of  disappearing  gun  carriages.  Such  tests  were  made 
by  the  board  in  accordance  with  the  statute.  The  report  of  the 
board  was  unanimous  in  favor  of  the  disappearing  carriage,  and  the 
Board  of  Ordnance  and  Fortification  has  concurred  in  that  approval. 


24  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

This  is  the  third  competent  board  which  has  tested  and  approved  the 
disappearing  carriage,  and  the  third  time  that  the  Board  of  Ordnance 
and  Fortification,  with  widely  differing  membership  on  each  occasion, 
has  approved  it  as  a  type. 

When  the  general  plan  of  coast-defense  fortification  was  adopted  by 
the  Endicott  board  in  1886,  the  only  means  then  invented  for  pro- 
tecting the  high-power  coast-defense  gun  and  its  crew  was  the  steel 
or  chilled  cast-iron  turret,  which  would  have  cost  between  $1,000,000 
and  $1,100,000  for  each  pair  of  12-inch  guns  mounted.  The  first 
attempt  to  escape  from  this  enormous  expense  by  a  mechanical  device 
which  would  protect  the  gun  and  gunners  during  the  period  of  load- 
ing and  expose  the  gun  only  at  the  time  of  firing  was  the  gun  lift, 
upon  which  we  now  have  two  12-inch  guns  mounted  at  Sandy  Hook. 
It  cost  about  $525,000,  exclusive  of  the  guns,  and  each  of  the  guns 
mounted  upon  it  can  be  fired  once  in  eight  minutes  and  a  half. 
Within  a  few  rods  of  this  gun  lift  at  Sandy  Hook  we  have  two  12-inch 
guns  mounted  on  modern  disappearing  carriages,  at  a  cost  of 
$150,000  for  the  carriages,  emplacements  and  protection  of  both  guns, 
and  each  of  these  guns  can  be  fired  ten  times  in  eight  minutes  and  a 
half. 

Satisfactory  progress  has  been  made  in  the  installation  of  search- 
lights, in  developing  systems  of  fire  control  and  direction,  and  in  the 
application  of  electricity  to  the  handling  of  heavy  guns  and  projectiles 
and  ammunition. 

The  nitrocellulose  smokeless  powder  developed  by  the  Ordnance 
Department  continues  to  prove  satisfactory.  Four  private  firms  are 
engaged  in  its  manufacture,  and  a  considerable  reserve  has  been 
accumulated. 

The  test  of  the  Gathmann  torpedo  gun  under  the  requirement  of 
the  fortifications  act  of  March  1,  1901,  resulted  in  an  unfavorable 
report,  in  which  the  Board  of  Ordnance  and  Fortification  has  con- 
curred. The  statute  required  the  Gathmann  gun  to  be  fired  in  com- 
petition with  an  army  12-inch  service  rifle,  and  the  firing  of  the  latter 
weapon  exhibited  extraordinary  progress  made  by  the  Ordnance 
Department  toward  the  perfection  of  high  explosives  for  the  bursting 
charge  of  armor-piercing  shells,  and  in  the  development  of  fuses 
for  such  shells.  The  ordnance  shells  from  the  12-inch  service  rifle 
passed  entirely  through  a  12-inch  harveyized  steel  plate  and  exploded 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  25 

on  the  farther  side  of  the  plate.  The  ability  thus  demonstrated  to 
send  a  shell  through  a  ship's  armor  12  inches  in  thickness  and 
detonate  the  shell  within  the  ship  is  of  course  of  great  defensive 
value. 

It  has  been  the  fashion  of  late  to  decry  mortars  as  weapons  of 
coast  defense,  and  Congress  has  recently  refrained  from  appropri- 
ations for  their  further  construction.  Extensive  and  thorough  tests 
of  mortar  firing  made  last  spring  at  Fort  Preble,  Portland  Harbor, 
have,  however,  demonstrated  the  great  accuracy  of  mortars,  and 
have  also  shown  that  their  accuracy  can  be  relied  upon  through  a 
much  wider  range,  both  far  and  near,  than  was  formerly  supposed. 
1  think  confidence  in  them  should  be  resumed,  and  appropriations 
for  their  construction  and  emplacement  continued  in  accordance  with 
the  original  plan  of  defense. 

Most  valuable  experience  and  suggestion  and  great  practical  benefit 
have  been  received  by  all  branches  of  the  service  concerned  in  coast 
defense,  from  a  series  of  joint  maneuvers  participated  in  by  the  Army 
and  the  Navy  on  the  New  England  coast  during  September.  This 
movement  was  undertaken  on  the  suggestion  of  the  Chief  of  Artillery, 
and  took  the  form  of  simulated  attacks  by  the  Navy  upon  the  defenses 
at  the  eastern  end  of  Long  Island  Sound,  at  New  London,  at  the 
entrance  of  Narragansett  Bay,  and  at  New  Bedford.  They  were  car- 
ried out  with  the  most  admirable  spirit  and  efficiency  by  both  branches 
of  the  service.  The  Army  was  much  gratified  by  the  effective  partic- 
ipation with  them  of  the  First  Massachusetts  Heavy  Artillery  and  two 
companies  of  Connecticut  Heavy  Artillery;  and  with  the  Navy  the 
naval  reserves  of  New  York.  Connecticut,  Rhode  Island,  and  Massa- 
chusetts took  part.  The  Thirteenth  New  York  Heavy  Artillery  was 
most  desirous  to  take  part,  but  was  prevented  by  a  lack  of  State 
appropriations.  An  actual  attempt  to  use  tools  is  the  best  way  to 
learn  whether  they  are  in  good  order  and  are  complete,  and  it  is  also 
the  best  way  to  learn  how  to  use  them.  The  advantage  gained  in  this 
way  by  the  Engineer,  Ordnance,  Signal,  and  Artillery  Corps  of  the 
Army,  and  I  doubt  not  also  by  the  officers  of  the  Navy,  more  than 
justifies  the  undertaking  and  indicates  the  wisdom  of  annual  repetitions 
of  the  exercise  at  different  points  upon  the  coast. 

1  append  hereto  a  memorandum  by  the  Chief  of  Artiller}r,  marked 
"Appendix  D,"  and  a  memorandum  by  General  MacArthur,  marked 


26  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

"Appendix  E,"  especially  devoted  to  the  general  effect  of  the  work 
upon  the  efficiency  of  the  Army. 

Observers  of  our  coast-defense  work  sometimes  speak  of  it  as 
defective  because  it  is  incomplete.  It  is  indeed  incomplete.  It  is 
only  about  half  finished.  It  is  a  work  which  requires  time  and  has 
been  begun  but  recently.  Before  the  war  with  Spain  it  proceeded 
in  a  very  leisurely  way.  Since  the  beginning  of  that  war  it  has  been 
pressed  forward  with  great  activity.  The  work  was  commenced  in 
1888;  but  for  the  eight  years  which  followed  prior  to  1896  the  total 
appropriations  for  the  construction  of  fortifications  amounted  to  but 
$3,521,000,  or  an  average  of  $440,000  a  year,  while  for  the  last  seven 
years,  beginning  with  1896,  the  appropriations  have  amounted  to 
$22,236,000,  or  an  average  of  $3,176,000  a  year,  an  annual  increase 
of  more  than  sevenfold.  The  appropriations  for  the  construction  of 
guns  and  carriages  for  seacoast  defense  for  the  eight  years  prior  to 
1896  were  but  $8,100,000  (not  including  the  unsuccessful  dynamite 
gun),  an  average  annual  rate  of  $1,012,000,  while  the  appropriations 
for  the  same  purposes  for  the  last  seven  years  were  $24,193,000,  or 
an  annual  average  of  $3,456,000,  an  annual  increase  of  more  than 
threefold.  Out  of  the  $58,000,000  expended  for  both  classes  of  work, 
over  $46,000,000  have  been  appropriated  in  the  last  seven  years. 

The  Endicott  board  plan  of  coast  defense  contemplated  the  expendi- 
ture of  over  $100,000,000.  Before  1896  we  were  progressing  at  a 
rate  which  would  have  required  seventy  years  to  complete  the  defenses 
according  to  the  plan.  Since  1896  we  have  been  progressing  at  a  rate 
which  will  finish  the  defeases  according  to  the  plan  in  fifteen  years. 
With  a  half -finished  work  so  recent  and  so  rapidly  pressed  it  follows 
necessarily  that  a  formative  process  is  constantly  going  on,  mistakes 
are  being  made  and  corrected,  new  experiments  are  being  made,  new 
things  are  being  learned,  and  many  difficult  problems  remain  still 
unsolved. 

It  follows  also  that  neither  the  officers  nor  the  men  of  the  artillery 
have  as  yet  had  much  opportunity  to  become  proficient  in  the  use  of 
the  new  weapons,  and  there  is  great  need  for  practical  instruction  and 
training  in  their  use. 

Another  reason  why  there  is  special  urgency  for  the  training  of 
the  artillery  is  the  great  preponderance  of  new  and  inexperienced 
officers  and  men.  Before  the  Spanish -American  war  we  had  but  five 
regiments  of  artillery.     We  now  have  a  corps  which  is  equivalent  to 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  27 

thirteen  regiments,  two  regiments  being  added  in  1899  and  the 
equivalent  of  six  regiments  in  1901.  Of  course  the  majority  of  the 
officers  and  the  great  majority  of  the  men  are  new.  Every  lieutenant 
in  the  Artillery  Corps  has  come  in  since  the  act  of  February  2,  1901. 

The  facts  which  I  have  now  stated  make  the  kind  of  exercise  fur- 
nished by  the  joint  Army  and  Navy  maneuvers  of  last  September  of 
the  utmost  importance.  I  urge  that  appropriations  to  be  made  by 
Congress  shall  be  such  as  to  provide  for  a  continuance  of  the  same 
practice,  and  to  provide  for  the  most  liberal  allowances  of  ammunition 
and  projectiles  for  general  target  practice  with  full  service  charges  in 
which  the  entire  coast  artillery  can  take  part.  It  is  a  gratifying  fact 
that  the  Chief  of  Engineers,  Chief  of  Ordnance,  Chief  Signal  Officer, 
and  Chief  of  Artillery  are  working  together  in  hearty  cooperation 
and  sympathy  to  accomplish  the  desired  results,  and  that  their  corps 
are  generally  working  with  them,  inspired  by  the  same  spirit.  The 
time  of  mutual  fault-finding  appears  haooily  to  have  been  succeeded 
by  a  time  of  mutual  helpfulness. 

The  progress  of  events  and  changes  in  ordnance  and  ship  construc- 
tion, since  the  Endicott  Board  of  1886  determined  upon  the  plan  of 
coast  defense  along  the  lines  of  which  we  are  now  working,  have 
made  it  necessary  to  consider  the  defense  of  many  points  not  consid- 
ered by  that  board.  Porto  Rico,  Culebra,  naval  and  coaling  stations 
in  Cuba,  and  possibly  the  Danish  Islands — all  in  a  region  made 
specially  important  by  the  probable  construction  of  the  Isthmian 
Canal — Hawaii,  Guam,  and  the  Philippines,  and  possibly  the  Lake 
ports  and  the  St.  Lawrence  River,  should  be  considered  with  ref- 
erence to  the  construction  of  defensive  works  in  the  same  way  that 
the  Endicott  Board  considered  our  Atlantic  and  Pacific  coasts.  I 
concur  in  the  recommendation  of  the  Chief  of  Engineers  that  a  similar 
board  should  be  created  for  that  purpose  by  Congress,  constituted, 
like  the  Endicott  Board,  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  the  Chiefs  of 
Engineers,  Ordnance,  and  Artillery,  one  high  ranking  officer  of  each 
of  those  branches  of  the  service,  two  naval  officers  of  high  rank,  and 
two  civilians  expert  in  the  subject  of  our  foreign  commercial  relations. 

FIELD   ARTILLERY. 

The  series  of  tests  and  competitive  trials  which  have  been  con- 
ducted for  two  years  past  under  the  direction  of  the  Board  of 
Ordnance  and  Fortification  for  the  selection  of  new  models  of  field 


28  REPORT   OF   ME   SECRETARY   OF   WAS. 

gun  and  carriage  have  been  concluded,  and  arrangements  have  been 
made  for  the  construction  of  new  guns  and  carriages  to  the  extent 
of  the  appropriations  now  available.  The  new  gun  will  have  a  cali- 
ber of  3  inches,  and  will  fire  a  projectile  weighing  15  pounds,  with 
an  initial  velocity  of  1,700  feet  per  second.  It  will  be  of  the  long 
recoil  type,  and  will  use  fixed  ammunition.  It  is  capable  of  firing 
about  six  times  as  rapidly  as  the  field  guns  which  we  now  use,  so 
that  one  of  the  new  guns  will  be  able  to  throw  as  many  shells  at 
an  enemy  as  a  whole  6-gun  battery  of  the  present  type.  This 
great  increase  in  the  effectiveness  of  field  artillery  is  of  special 
value  to  the  United  States,  because  we  are  always  weak  in  artillery 
in  proportion  to  our  infantry.  A  well -organized  army  calls  for  a 
due  proportion  between  artillery  and  infantry.  When  we  go  to  war 
we  can  raise  a  volunteer  infantry  with  great  rapidity,  but  we  can 
not  increase  our  artillery  proportionately.  An  increase  in  the  rel- 
ative effectiveness  of  field  artillery  tends  to  do  away  with  the  result- 
ing disproportion,  and  makes  it  possible  for  us  to  raise  a  much 
larger  well-balanced  army  than  we  could  otherwise. 

SMALL   ARMS. 

The  Ordnance  Department  has  produced  a  rifle  which  it  considers 
an  improvement  upon  the  present  service,  rifle.  It  is  clearly  superior 
to  the  present  rifle  in  some  respects.  It  is  a  bolt  gun,  caliber  .30, 
having  a  clip  magazine  under  the  chamber  instead  of  at  the  side,  and 
therefore  better  balanced  than  the  present  gun.  It  continues  the 
220-grain  bullet,  but  increases  the  charge  of  powder  from  37.6  grains 
to  43.3  grains.  It  gives  an  initial  velocity  of  2,300  feet  per  second  as 
against  2,000  of  the  present  rifle,  a  striking  energy  at  1,000  yards  of 
447.9  foot-pounds  as  against  396.2  for  the  present  rifle.  It  has  a 
flatter  trajectory  and  weighs  about  a  pound  less.  I  have  authorized 
the  construction  of  5,000  for  issue  and  practical  trial  in  the  service. 

The  enlargement  of  the  capacity  of  the  Springfield  Armory  for  the 
manufacture  of  rifles  and  the  addition  at  the  Rock  Island  Arsenal  of 
a  plant  for  that  purpose  are  approaching  completion.  The  total  pro- 
ducing capacity  of  the  two  establishments  will  then  be  650  arms  per 
day  of  eight  hours,  and  in  an  emergency  they  would  be  capable  of 
producing  1,500  per  day. 


REPORT   OF   THE   8ECRETARY    OF   WAR.  29 

SERVICE   UNIFORMS. 

The  great  range  of  the  modern  rifle,  which  enables  a  soldier  to 
kill  his  adversary  with  great  accuracy  at  a  distance  of  several  miles, 
if  he  can  distinguish  him  from  the  surrounding  landscape,  has  led 
to  a  curious  reversal  of  military  desires  in  the  matter  of  dress. 
Instead  of  devising  things  to  wear  which  will  make  the  soldier  fright- 
ful and  awe-inspiring  to  his  enemy,  the  whole  military  world  is 
looking  for  clothing  which  will  make  its  wearers  as  inconspicuous  as 
possible.  For  several  years  we  have  been  conducting  extensive 
experiments  to  determine  the  visibility  of  different  colors  and 
materials  under  different  circumstances  and  at  different  distances; 
and  in  March  last  a  board  of  officers  was  convened  to  consider  the 
subject  of  uniforms,  and  the  results  of  these  experiments  were 
submitted  to  it.  The  result  is  the  selection,  for  service  uniforms,  of 
an  olive-drab,  which  is  found  to  be,  under  average  conditions,  the  least 
visible  color  at  considerable  distances,  and  which,  after  long- 
continued  trials,  the  Quartermaster's  Department  has  succeeded  in 
making  a  fast  color  for  woolen  material  to  meet  the  requirements  of 
cold  climates,  as  well  as  for  the  cotton  khaki  used  in  the  Tropics. 
This  will  be  worn  in  place  of  the  khaki  of  the  present  color,  and  it 
will  be  available  for  both  hot  and  cold  climates,  the  material  being 
varied  to  suit  the  climate. 

The  traditional  blue  uniform  will  be  retained  as  dress  uniform 
tor  both  officers  and  men. 

The  Board  at  the  same  time  recommended  a  number  of  minor 
changes  in  uniforms,  the  good  sense  of  which  has  long  been  apparent: 
notably,  replacing  the  heavy  and  uncomfortable  helmet  for  foot  and 
mounted  troops  by  suitable  dress  and  service  caps  to  be  worn  except 
where  the  campaign  hat  is  prescribed,  and  the  substitution  of  dull 
bronze  for  bright  buttons  and  other  articles  liable  to  catch  and  reflect 
the  light,  aqd  the  use  of  clouded  scabbards  and  russet  leather  belts. 

The  report  of  the  Board  has  been  approved,  and  the  new  articles  of 
clothing  will  be  introduced  as  rapidly  as  due  economy  in  the  dispo- 
sition of  the  present  stock  on  hand  permits. 

MILITARY   EDUCATION. 

An  examination  of  the  sources  from  which  are  drawn  the  officers  of 
the  Army,  as  now  constituted  under  the  act  of  February  2, 1901,  show$ 


30  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

how  important  it  is  to  go  on  with  the  military  education  of  officers  in 
some  such  general  and  systematic  way  as  was  outlined  in  my  last 
report.  Of  the  2,900  officers  of  the  line  of  the  Army,  1818  have  been 
appointed  since  the  beginning  of  the  war  with  Spain.  Of  these  1818 
but  276  were  supplied  by  the  West  Point  Academy;  the  remaining 
1,542  have  come— 414  from  the  ranks,  512  from  civil  life,  and  616 
from  the  volunteers  of  the  war  with  Spain  and  in  the  Philippines. 

The  volunteers  and  the  enlisted  men  have  of  course  acquired  useful 
experience,  and  they  were  all  selected  on  the  ground  of  their  military 
conduct  and  intelligence.  Yet  it  is  generally  true  of  the  whole  1542, 
constituting  more  than  one-half  of  all  the  officers  of  the  line,  that  they 
have  had  no  systematic  military  education.  They  constitute  nearly 
the  entire  body  of  first  and  second  lieutenants.  After  some  years, 
when  their  seniors  have  passed  off  the  stage,  they  will  have  to  supply 
our  generals  and  colonels  and  chief  staff  officers  charged  with  the 
instruction,  discipline,  and  command  of  our  forces.  Unless  the  theory 
of  military  education  under  which  we  have  maintained  the  Academy 
at  West  Point  for  a  century  is  all  a  mistake,  it  is  very  important  to 
give  to  this  class  of  young  officers,  now  that  they  are  in  the  Army, 
some  degree  of  the  educational  advantages  which  the  West  Point  men 
get  before  they  are  commissioned.  The  same  will  be  true  of  future 
accessions  to  the  force  of  officers,  for  the  West  Point  Academy,  even 
with  the  recent  enlargements,  can  not  be  expected  to  fill  more  than 
about  two-thirds  of  the  annual  vacancies  which  will  occur  in  the  ordi- 
nary course  of  life. 

The  development  of  the  general  scheme  of  systematic  instruction, 
provided  for  by  the  order  of  November  27,  1901,  annexed  to  my  last 
report,  has  made  satisfactory  progress  during  the  year.  As  soon  as 
the  officers  selected  for  the  first  War  College  Board  could  be  with- 
drawn from  the  other  duties  in  which  they  were  engaged,  that  board 
was  constituted  by  the  detail  of  Maj.  Gen.  S.  B.  M.  Young,  Brig.  Gen. 
William  H.  Carter,  Brig.  Gen.  Tasker  H.  Bliss,  Maj:  Henry  A. 
Greene,  and  Maj.  William  D.  Beach.  The  plans  for  the  buildings 
of  the  new  War  College  and  the  new  Engineers'  School,  to  be 
erected  on  the  old  Washington  Barracks  Reservation,  under  author- 
ity of  the  act  of  June  30,  1902,  have  been  prepared  and  approved. 
The  building  of  the  necessary  sea  walls  and  the  filling  in  of  the  low 
ground  forming  part  of  both  sites  were  commenced  by  the  Engineer 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECBETABY  OF  WAB.  31 

Department  immediately  after  the  passage  of  the  act,  and  the  con- 
struction of  the  buildings  will  begin  presently  under  the  direction  of 
the  Corps  of  Engineers. 

In  the  meantime,  the  Engineers'  School  has  occupied  the  old  Wash- 
ington Barracks  buildings,  and  the  War  College  Board  has  secured  a 
house  for  temporary  use  near  the  War  Department.  The  board  has 
addressed  itself  especially  to  reinstating  and  regulating  military 
instruction  in  the  military  schools  and  colleges. of  the  country,  which 
may  serve  as  a  source  for  future  appointments  of  second  lieutenants 
from  civil  life;  to  the  establishment  of  systematic  instruction  of  offi- 
cers in  the  Army  posts,  and  to  organizing  the  General  Service  and  Staff 
College  at  Fort  Leavenworth  on  the  foundation  of  the  Infantry  and 
Cavalry  School  which  existed  there  before  the  war  with  Spain. 
Seventy -seven  officers  have  been  detailed  as  instructors  at  the  mili- 
tary schools  and  colleges.  Ninety -seven  officers  have  been  detailed  as 
students  at  the  General  Service  and  Staff  College,  and  are  now  in  attend- 
ance at  that  institution.  Thirty  officers  are  in  attendance  as  students 
at  the  Artillery  School  at  Fortress  Monroe,  ten  at  the  School  of  Sub- 
marine Defense  at  Fort  Totten,  and  eleven  at  the  Engineers'  School  at 
Washington  Barracks.  The  enlargement  of  accommodations  and  facil- 
ities at  these  institutions,  now  in  various  stages  of  progress,  will 
make  it  possible  to  materially  enlarge  these  numbers. 

Undoubtedly  the  military  schools  and  colleges  to  which  details  of 
officers  as  instructors  are  made  will  be  found  to  differ  widely  in  their 
thoroughness  and  efficiency,  and  the  maintenance  of  thorough  in- 
spection and  supervision  by  the  War  College  Board  will  be  essential. 
It  is  the  purpose  of  the  Department  to  discontinue  details  to  institi- 
tions  which,  upon  such  inspection,  are  found  not  to  come  up  to  the 
requisite  standard,  and  to  give  to  the  graduates  of  the  thorough  and 
efficient  institutions  a  preference  in  recommendations  for  appointment 
as  second  lieutenants  in  the  Regular  Army.  The  same  observation 
will  doubtless  apply  to  the  post  schools,  which  will  vary  according  to 
the  capacity  and  zeal  of  the  commanding  officer.  The  same  sys- 
tematic inspection  by  the  War  College  Board  is  designed  to  hold  com- 
manding officers  to  the  same  degree  of  responsibility  for  an  efficient 
school  as  for  a  well-disciplined  force. 

Annexed  hereto  is  an  order  by  the  Secretary  of  War,  dated  July  22, 
1902,  addressed  to  the  officers  of  the  Army,  relating  to  their  duties  in 
the  matter  of  military  education,  marked  ''Appendix  F;"  and  an  order 


32  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

• 

prepared  by  the  War  College  Board,  dated  August  1,  1902,  prescrib- 
ing regulations  and  the  course  of  instruction  in  the  General  Service 
and  Staff  College,  marked  "Appendix  G;"  and  an  order  prepared  by 
the  War  College  Board,  dated  August  9,  1902,  prescribing  regulations 
for  the  details  to  and  military  instruction  to  be  given  by  military 
schools  and  colleges,  marked  *4 Appendix  H;"  and  an  order  prepared 
by  the  War  College  Board,  dated  September  22,  1902,  prescribing 
regulations  and  the  course  of  instruction  to  be  followed  in  the  post 
schools  of  the  Army,  marked  u Appendix  I."  An  examination  of 
these  prescribed  courses  will  indicate  the  practical  character  of  the 
instruction  required  and  the  wide  range  of  subjects  with  which  a  well- 
equipped  officer  must  become  familiar. 

The  excellent  work  done  by  the  Medical  Department  in  the  Army 
Medical  School  in  this  city  should  not  pass  unnoticed.  The  school 
takes  the  young  surgeon,  who  has  already  graduated  from  some 
regular  medical  college,  and  has  passed  his  examination  and  re- 
ceived a  commission  in  the  Medical  Corps,  and  instructs  him  to  adapt 
his  knowledge  to  the  special  requirements  of  military  service  in 
surgery,  medicine,  and  hygiene.  The  general  hospital  on  the  Wash- 
ington Barracks  reservation  which  this  school  has  been  using  for  pur- 
poses of  special  instruction  will  no  longer  be  available  after  the  con- 
struction of  the  engineers'  school  at  that  place.  It  is  very  desirable 
that  new  and  adequate  accommodations  be  provided  for  the  continu- 
ance of  the  hospital  at  some  other  point  in  or  near  the  city,  and  for 
the  continuance  and  enlargement  of  this  most  important  branch  of 
instruction. 

The  Military  Academy  at  West  Point  on  the  11th  of  June,  1902, 
celebrated  with  appropriate  ceremonies  the  completion  of  a  hundred 
years  of  honorable  and  useful  service.  The  advance  of  the  world  in 
military  science,  the  increasing  complexity  of  the  machinery  and 
material  used  in  warfare,  and  the  difficulty  of  the  problems  involved 
in  transporting,  supplying,  and  handling  the  great  armies  of  modern 
times,  make  such  an  institution  even  more  necessary  to  the  country 
now  than  when  it  was  founded  by  the  fathers  of  the  Republic  a 
hundred  years  ago. 

The  efficiency  of  the  institution  and  the  high  standard  of  honor  and 
devotion  to  duty  which  have  characterized  its  graduates  justify  the 
continuance  of  public  confidence.  The  wise  liberality  of  Congress 
has  enabled  the  institution  to  begin  its  second  century  with  the  well- 
founded  hope  of  larger  and  long-continued  usefulness.    The  present 


BEPOET  OF  THE  8ECRETAEY  OF  WAR.  33 

academic  year  has  opened  with  471  cadets  on  the  rolls  of  the  Academy, 
'  the  largest  number  ever  belonging  to  it  at  one  time.  Under  the  new 
regulations  relating  to  admissions,  examinations  of  candidates  were 
held  on  the  1st  of  May  in  this  year,  at  sixteen  army  posts  throughout 
the  country,  selected  with  a  view  to  reducing  to  a  minimum  the 
expenses  of  candidates  in  attending.  Under  the  authority  of  the  act 
of  March  ^  2,  1901,  the  examinations  were  made  to  conform  to  the 
courses  of  study  ordinarily  covered  in  the  high  schools  and  academies 
of  the  country  by  boys  of  the  average  age  of  appointees  to  the  Acad- 
emy. Sixty-two  cadets  were  admitted  upon  certificates  from  educa- 
tional institutions  in  which  they  had  prepared,  following  the  course 
which  has  been  generally  adopted  by  the  colleges  and  universities  of 
this  country. 

The  curriculum  has  been  modified  somewhat,  reducing  the  time 
expended  in  pure  mathematics  and  increasing  the  attention  to  Spanish, 
English,  and  military  hygiene;  decreasing  the  theoretical  course  in 
philosophy  and  increasing  the  time  given  to  chemistry  and  electricity. 
The  increase  of  practical  instruction  has  been  continued,  and  a  new 
practice,  which  I  hope  will  be  long  continued,  has  been  inaugurated 
by  taking  the  first  class  to  the  battlefield  of  Gettysburg,  where  for 
several  days  in  April  they  studied  the  lessons  of  that  great  conflict 
upon  the  field. 

The  discipline  has  been  good  and  the  practice  of  hazing  appears  to 
have  been  abandoned.  But  one  case  in  which  it  was  attempted,  and 
that  in  a  mild  form,  was  brought  to  the  attention  of  the  authorities  of 
the  Academy  during  the  year.  The  offending  cadet  was  tried  by  court- 
martial,  and  being  found  guilty  was  dismissed,  pursuant  to  law. 

The  provision  of  the  Military  Academy  act  of  June  28,  1902, 
authorizing  the  enlargement  and  improvement  of  the  plant  at  West 
Point  upon  a  plan  involving  a  total  expenditure  of  $5,500,000,  has 
caused  much  solicitude  by  the  Department  and  by  the  officers  of  the 
Academy,  lest  in  rearranging  and  rebuilding  a  result  might  be  reached 
out  of  harmony  with  the  historic  traditions  of  the  institution  and  the 
beauties  of  the  site,  with  its  mountains  and  plain  and  river.  After 
much  consideration  the  following  method  of  working  out  the  plan  has 
been  adopted:  A  board  composed  of  officers  of  the  Academy  was  con- 
vened to  prepare  in  detail  a  statement  of  the  practical  requirements 
of  the  institution  which  were  to  be  met  by  the  enlargement  and 
rearrangement. 

war  1902— vol  1 3 


34  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

Upon  the  coming  in  of  that  report,  ten  of  the  leading  architects 
of  the  country  were  invited  to  submit  in  competitiori  general  pre- 
liminary plans  showing  the  proposed  arrangement  of  buildings  and 
treatment  of  the  ground  to  meet  the  various  requirements  of  the  Acad- 
emy, based  upon  the  data  thus  furnished,  together  with  an  indication 
of  the  architectural  treatment  of  the  separate  buildings.  From  the 
plans  thus  submitted  one  will  be  selected,  and  the  author  of' that  plan 
will  be  expected  to  develop  it  into  the  complete  plan  authorized  by  the 
statute.  Thereafter,  as  the  statute  requires,  the  work  will  proceed 
with  the  assistance  of  a  consulting  architect,  who  will  naturally  be 
either  the  successful  competitor  or  some  one  connected  with  his 
establishment. 

THE   MILITIA   SYSTEM. 

Early  in  the  last  session  a  bill  was  prepared  by  the  War  Depart- 
ment, embodying  the  views  expressed  in  my  last  report,  upon  the 
treatment  of  the  National  Guard  of  the  several  States  by  the  Federal 
Government,  the  relation  of  the  Guard  to  the  militia  and  volunteer 
systems,  and  preparation  in  advance  for  the  organization  of  volunteers 
in  time  of  war.  This  bill  was  submitted  to  the  chairman  of  the  Com- 
mittee on  Military  Affairs  of  the  Senate,  the  chairman  of  the  Com- 
mittee on  Militia  of  the  House,  and  to  a  convention  of  officers  of  the 
national  guard  organizations  which  met  in  Washington  in  January, 
1902.  The  convention  appointed  a  special  committee  to  consider  and 
report  upon  the  proposed  bill,  and  after  some  modifications  it  was 
reported  favorably  to  the  convention,  which  after  thorough  discussion 
adopted  a  resolution  approving  the  measure  and  requesting  its  enact- 
ment by  Congress.  The  bill  thus  approved  was  introduced  in  the 
Senate  by  Mr.  Hawley,  and  in  the  House  by  Mr.  Dick,  who  rendered 
invaluable  service  in  the  framing  and  advocacy  of  the  measure.  The 
House  Committee  on  Militia  considered  it  with  great  care,  and  with 
extensive  and  improving  additions  returned  it  to  the  House  with  a 
unanimous  report  in  its  favor,  and  it  was  passed  by  the  House.  It 
is  now  pending  before  the  Committee  on  Military  Affairs  of  the 
Senate  (H.  R.  15345,  Fifty -seventh  Congress,  first  session). 

I  earnestly  urge  that  this  measure  be  made  a  law.  It  is  really 
absurd  that  a  nation  which  maintains  but  a  small  Regular  Army  and 
depends  upon  unprofessional  citizen  soldiery  for  its  defense  should 
run  along  as  we  have  done  for  one  hundred  and  ten  years  under  a 
militia  law  which  never  worked  satisfactorily  in  the  beginning,  and 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  35 

whicn  was  perfectly  obsolete  before  any  man  now  fit  for  military  duty 
was  born.  *  The  result  is  that  we  have  practically  no  militia  system, 
notwithstanding  the  fact  that  the  Constitution  makes  it  the  duty  of  the 
Federal  Congress  "  to  provide  for  organizing,  arming,  and  disciplining 
the  militia,"  and  "for  calling  forth  the  militia  to  execute  the  laws  of 
the  Union,  suppress  insurrections,  and  repel  invasions."  The  National 
Guard  organizations  of  the  several  States  have  grown  up  in  default  of 
any  national  system  and  to  meet  local  requirements.  Their  relations 
to  the  Federal  Government  have  never  been  defined  or  settled.  The 
confusion,  controversy,  and  bad  feeling  arising  from  this  uncertain 
status  were  painfully  apparent  at  the  beginning  of  the  war  with  Spain; 
and  it  must  always  be  the  same  until  Congress  shall  exercise  its  con- 
stitutional power  over  the  subject.  Repeated  efforts  have  been  made 
U5  accomplish  this  result.  Two  years  after  the  passage  of  the  present 
law  of  1792,  President  Washington  addressed  Congress  on  the  subject 
in  these  words: 

The  devising  and  establishing  ol  a  wen-regulated  militia  would  be  a  genuine  source 
of  legislative  honor  and  a  perfect  title  to  public  gratitude.  I  therefore  entertain  a 
hope  that  the  present  session  will  not  pass  without  carrying  to  its  full  energy  the 
power  of  organizing,  arming,  and  disciplining  the  militia,  and  thus  providing,  in  the 
anguage  of  the  Constitution,  for  calling  them  forth  to  execute  the  laws  of  the  Union, 
suppress  insurrections,  and  repel  invasions. 

President  Jefferson,  eleven  years  later,  in  1805,  said: 

I  can  not,  then,  but  earnestly  recommend  to  your  early  consideration  the  expe- 
diency of  so  modifying  our  militia  system  as,  by  a  separation  of  the  more  active  part 
from  that  which  is  less  so,  we  may  draw  from  it,  when  necessary,  an  efficient  corps 
for  real  and  active  service,  etc. 

And  in  1808  he  said: 

For  a  people  who  are  free,  and  who  mean  to  remain  so,  a  well-organized  and- 
armed  militia  is  their  best  security.  It  is  therefore  incumbent. on  us  at  every 
meeting  to  revise  the  condition  of  the  militia,  and  to  ask  ourselves  if  it  is  prepared  to 
repel  a  powerful  enemy  at  every  point  of  our  territories  exposed  to  invasion.  Some 
of  the  States  have  paid  a  laudable  attention  to  this  subject;  but  every  degree  of  neg- 
lect is  to  be  found  among:  others.  Congress  alone  has  power  to  produce  a  uniform 
state  of  preparation  in  this  great  organ  of  defense.  The  interest  which  they  so  deeply 
feel  in  their  own  and  their  country's  security  will  present  this  as  among  the  most 
important  objects  of  their  deliberation. 

President  Madison  said  in  1816: 

An  efficient  militia  is  authorized  and  contemplated  by  the  Constitution  and  required 
by  the  spirit  and  safety  of  free  government.  The  present  organization  of  our  militia 
is  universally  regarded  as  less  efficient  than  it  ought  to  be  made,  and  no  organization 


38  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

Fifth.  Such  further  volunteers  as  it  may  be  necessary  to  call  forth 
from  the  States,  according"  to  their  respective  quotas,  and  commanded 
by  regimental  officers  appointed  by  the  governors  of  the  States. 

A  conservative  estimate  of  the  number  which  would  be  included  in 
the  first  four  classes  of  troops,  who  have  already  had  military  service 
and  will  be  available  for  immediate  action,  is  from  250,000  to  300,000. 

The  number  of  the  fifth  class — volunteers  who  may  or  may  not 
have  had  previous  service — has  no  limit,  except  the  possibilities  of 
transportation  and  supply. 

The  capacity  of  the  National  Guard  organizations  in  general  to  serve 
effectively  as  organizations,  either  militia  or  volunteer,  in  the  national 
army  in  case  of  war  depends  very  largely  upon  the  aid  which  they 
receive  from  the  National  Government.  The  Guard  is  now  armed 
with  a  variety  of  weapons  of  different  kinds  and  calibers,  including 
two  different  calibers  of  the  obsolete  Springfield  rifle,  the  Lee,  the 
Remington-Lee,  the  Winchester,  and  the  Krag-JOrgensen.  In  several 
instances  different  National  Guard  organizations  of  the  same  State  are 
armed  with  different  weapons  of  different  calibers.  Among  all  the 
115,000  National  Guardsmen  of  the  different  States  and  Territories 
only  about  4,000  have  the  modern  service  rifle  of  the  United  States 
Army.  With  the  exception  of  these  4,000  rifles  the  arms  of  the 
Guard  would  be  practically  worthless  in  time  of  war,  not  merely 
because  they  are  inferior  but  because  the  Guard  would  have  to  look  to 
the  United  States  Government  for  their  ammunition,  and  the  Govern- 
ment will  have  no  ammunition  for  the  kind  of  rifles  they  carry :  they 
would  have  to  look  to  the  Government  to  replace  the  arms  lost  or 
broken  in  service,  and  the  Government  will  be  unable  to  supply  the 
same  kind.  The  militia  and  the  volunteer  National  Guard  organiza- 
tions in  general  would,  therefore,  be  obliged  to  throw  away  their 
present  arms  at  the  beginning  of  a  war  and  get  reequipped  with 
weapons  the  use  of  which  they  had  never  learned. 

THE   MILITIA   AND   COAST   DEFENSE. 

One  of  the  most  valuable  services  which  can  be  rendered  to  the 
country  by  its  militia,  and  the  one  which  can  be  made  the  easiest  and 
most  natural  for  it  to  render,  is  to  supplement  the  regular  force  in 
manning  the  coast  defenses  in  time  of  war.  Our  present  regular 
force  is  none  too  large  to  take  care  of  the  guns  and  the  machinery  of 
the  fortifications  in  time  of  peace.     It  will  be  quite  insufficient  in  war. 


REPORT  OF  THE  8ECRETARY  OF  WAR.  37 

that  the  General  Government  shall  furnish  to  the  Guard  the  same  arms 
which  it  furnishes  to  the  Regular  Army,  and  for  the  voluntary  partici- 
pation by  the  Guard  with  the  Regular  Army  in  maneuvers  and  field 
exercises  for  brief  periods  in  each  year.  The  bill  also  contains  pro- 
visions making  the  National  Guard  organizations  which  choose  volun- 
tarily to  go  beyond  the  limitations  of  militia  service  in  effect  a  First 
Volunteer  Reserve,  and  further  provisions  for  the  enrollment  of  a 
Second  Volunteer  Reserve  not  exceeding  100,000,  to  be  composed  of 
trained  men  who  have  served  in  the  National  Guard  or  in  the  Regular 
Army  or  the  volunteer  armies  of  the  United  States.  These  would 
constitute  the  first  volunteer  regiments  after  the  National  Guard  Vol- 
unteers under  any  call  by  Congress.  It  also  provides  for  ascertaining 
by  practical  tests,  in  advance  of  a  call  for  volunteers,  the  fitness  of 
members  of  the  National  Guard,  graduates  of  the  military  schools  and 
colleges,  and  other  citizens  with  military  training,  to  hold  volunteer 
commissions,  thus  constituting  an  eligible  list  from  which  in  case  of  a 
call  for  volunteers  the  officers  of  the  Second  Reserve  must  be  taken, 
and  the  officers  of  the.  general  body  of  volunteers  may  be  taken. 
With  the  system  provided  for  by  the  bill  carried  into  effect  we  should 
be  able  while  maintaining  a  standing  army  of  but  60,000  men  to  put  a 
force  of  at  least  250,000  well-trained  men  into  the  field  instantly  upon 
a  declaration  of  war,  and  the  cost  would  be  less  than  to  maintain  but 
a  few  additional  regiments  of  regular  troops. 

The  military  force  of  the  United  States  would  then  be  as  follows: 

First.  The  Regular  Army,  capable  of  enlargement  by  the  President, 
when  he  sees  war  coming,  to  100,000. 

Second.  Such  of  the  organized  militia  (already  trained  as  a  national 
guard,  and  just  as  valuable,  when  used  in  the  manner  hereinafter  indi- 
cated, as  any  other  troops)  as  the  President  shall  see  fit  to  call  into 
the  service  of  the  United  States  for  not  exceeding  nine  months,  to 
repel  invasion. 

Third.  A  First  Volunteer  Reserve,  composed  of  such  companies, 
troops,  and  regiments  of  the  organized  militia  already  trained  as  a 
national  guard  as  volunteer  by  organizations  with  all  their  officers 
and  men. 

Fourth.  A  Second  Volunteer  Reserve,  composed  of  men  previously 
enrolled  and  having  previous  military  training  in  the  National  Guard, 
the  Regular  Army  or  the  Volunteer  Army,  and  commanded  by  officers 
whose  fitness  has  been  previously  ascertained  by  practical  tests  under 
the  provisions  of  the  militia  act. 


38  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

Fifth.  Such  further  volunteers  as  it  may  be  necessary  to  call  forth 
from  the  States,  according  to  their  respective  quotas,  and  commanded 
by  regimental  officers  appointed  by  the  governors  of  the  States. 

A  conservative  estimate  of  the  number  which  would  be  included  in 
the  first  four  classes  of  troops,  who  have  already  had  military  service 
and  will  be  available  for  immediate  action,  is  from  250,000  to  300,000. 

The  number  of  the  fifth  class — volunteers  who  may  or  may  not 
have  had  previous  service — has  no  limit,  except  the  possibilities  of 
transportation  and  supply. 

The  capacity  of  the  National  Guard  organizations  in  general  to  serve 
effectively  as  organizations,  either  militia  or  volunteer,  in  the  national 
army  in  case  of  war  depends  very  largely  upon  the  aid  which  they 
receive  from  the  National  Government.  The  Guard  is  now  armed 
with  a  variety  of  weapons  of  different  kinds  and  calibers,  including 
two  different  calibers  of  the  obsolete  Springfield  rifle,  the  Lee,  the 
Remington-Lee,  the  Winchester,  and  the  Krag-Jorgensen.  In  several 
instances  different  National  Guard  organizations  of  the  same  State  are 
armed  with  different  weapons  of  different  calibers.  Among  all  the 
115,000  National  Guardsmen  of  the  different  States  and  Territories 
only  about  4,000  have  the  modern  service  rifle  of  the  United  States 
Army.  With  the  exception  of  these  4,000  rifles  the  arms  of  the 
Guard  would  be  practically  worthless  in  time  of  war,  not  merely 
because  they  are  inferior  but  because  the  Guard  would  have  to  look  to 
the  United  States  Government  for  their  ammunition,  and  the  Govern- 
ment will  have  no  ammunition  for  the  kind  of  rifles  they  carry :  they 
would  have  to  look  to  the  Government  to  replace  the  arms  lost  or 
broken  in  service,  and  the  Government  will  be  unable  to  supply  the 
same  kind.  The  militia  and  the  volunteer  National  Guard  organiza- 
tions in  general  would,  therefore,  be  obliged  to  throw  away  their 
present  arms  at  the  beginning  of  a  war  and  get  reequipped  with 
weapons  the  use  of  which  they  had  never  learned. 

THE   MILITIA   AND   COAST   DEFENSE. 

One  of  the  most  valuable  services  which  can  be  rendered  to  the 
country  by  its  militia,  and  the  one  which  can  be  made  the  easiest  and 
most  natural  for  it  to  render,  is  to  supplement  the  regular  force  in 
manning  the  coast  defenses  in  time  of  war.  Our  present  regular 
force  is  none  too  large  to  take  care  of  the  guns  and  the  machinery  of 
the  fortifications  in  time  of  peace.     It  will  be  quite  insufficient  in  war. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  39 

The  number  of  artillerymen  for  which  Congress  was  asked  to  provide 
in  the  act  of  February  2,  1901,  was  intentionally  made  small  in  view 
of  the  manifest  practicability  of  supplementing  it  by  a  well-trained 
militia  force,  available  in  case  of  threatened  attack.  Manning  the 
coast  fortifications  is  constitutional  militia  work,  for  it  is  always  to 
repel  invasion.  It  can  be  undertaken  by  citizens  living  in  the 
neighborhood  of  the  fortifications  with  less  disturbance  and  sacrifice 
than  any  other  military  duty,  because  it  does  not  take  them  far  away 
from  their  homes  and  their  business. 

The  handling  of  the  modern  high-power  and  rapid-tire  guns  and  the 
complicated  machinery  by  which  they  are  worked  requires,  it  is  true, 
special  training,  but  there  is  no  trouble  in  securing  a  reasonable  degree 
of  that  for  heavy  artillery  mjlitia  organizations.  For  the  past  three 
years  I  have  been  following  closely  the  work  of  the  First  Massachu- 
setts Heavy  Artillery,  which  has  been  admitted  each  year  to  one  or 
another  of  the  defenses  on  that  coast  for  practice.  The  officers  at  all 
the  fortifications  speak  in  high  terms  of  the  intelligence  and  readiness 
with  which  they  have  acquired  facility  in  doing  the  work.  Many  of 
them  are  mechanics  and  take  naturally  to  the  machinery  of  defense. 
On  the  other  hand,  the  members  of  the  regiment  evidently  take  great 
and  sustained  interest  and  satisfaction  in  the  performance  of  their 
duties.  The  same  is  true  of  the  Connecticut  artillery  organization 
which  took  part  in  the  recent  seacoast  maneuvers,  and  of  the  Thirteenth 
New  York  Heavy  Artillery,  and  I  doubt  not  of  other  organizations 
with  which  I  am  less  familiar. 

If  the  militia  bill  above  described  becomes  a  law,  an  effort  should  be 
made  to  procure  the  organization  of  a  National  Guard  force  of  heavy 
artillerymen  in  the  neighborhood  of  each  coast-defense  fortification, 
with  the  understanding  that  whenever  the  President  finds  occasion  to 
call  out  militia  to  repel  invasion  that  organization  will  be  called  into 
that  fortification.  In  the  meantime  an  immediate  and  special  relation 
should  be  established  between  the  militia  organization  and  the  for- 
tification for  the  purpose  of  practice  and  instruction.  They  should 
oe  made  as  familiar  as  possible  with  the  use  of  the  guns  and  methods 
of  defense  at  that  particular  point.  In  many  cases  it  will  be  practi- 
cable to  give  them  facilities  for  meeting  and  keeping  their  equipment 
on  the  military  reservation,  which  would  make  unnecessary  any  out- 
side armory  for  their  use.  Such  an  organization  could  readily  perform 
all  its  duties  to  the  State  serving  as  infantry,  but  it  could  at  the  same 


40  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

time  be  distinctly  known  and  constantly  prepared  for  service  as  the 
militia  reserve  of  the  fortification  with  which  it  sustains  the  relations 
described. 

Another  very  important  function  to  be  performed  by  militia,  and 
having  the  same  characteristic  of  not  requiring  militiamen  to  render 
any  service  except  for  the  defense  of  their  homes,  is  the  service  to  be 
rendered  by  infantry  in  the  defense  of  our  coast  fortifications  against 
attack  in  reverse  by  land.  That  is  a  subject  which  ought  to  receive 
early  and  earnest  attention  on  the  part  of  the  Federal  Government. 
It  is  of  great  importance  that  an  adequate  force  should  be  ready  to 
perform  that  service,  should  be  ready  to  take  their  places  without  con- 
fusion, and  that  there  should  be  a  perfect  understanding  as  to  where 
the  force  is  to  come  from,  where  they  are  to  be  posted,  and  how  they 
are  to  be  supplied  and  maintained. 

The  National  Guard  contains  two  widely  different  elements.  One  is 
composed  of  men  who  wish  to  perform  their  duty  to  the  State  and  as 
members  of  the  militia,  but  do  not  wish,  or  do  not  feel  at  liberty,  to 
leave  their  families  or  their  business  interests  and  become  soldiers  for 
all  purposes,  liable  to  be  sent  away  for  distant  military  operations. 
The  other  element  wish  to  go  wherever  there  is  adventure  and  a  chance 
to  fight.  The  amount  of  strictly  local  military  work  of  the  highest 
importance  to  be  done  in  case  of  war  is  so  great  that  the  whole 
National  Guard  force,  of  the  seacoast  States  at  all  events,  can  be  made 
just  as  useful  as  if  they  all  became  volunteers  for  all  purposes.  In 
order  to  accomplish  this,  however,  there  should  be  a  careful  prear- 
rangement  as  to  the  distribution  of  duties. 

FORT   RILEY   MANEUVERS  AND   CAMP   SITES. 

A  good  example  of  what  can  be  done  in  the  way  of  joint  maneuvers 
and  exercise  by  regulars  and  militia,  to  the  great  advantage  of  both, 
in  preparation  for  general  military  service,  has  been  furnished  by  the 
concentration  and  exercise  of  troops  at  Fort  Riley  in  the  latter  part  of 
September.  Three  regiments  of  regular  infantry,  two  regiments  of 
infantrv  of  the  National  Guard  of  Kansas,  a  battalion  of  Colorado 
infantry,  a  regiment  of  regular  cavalry,  five  batteries  of  regular  field 
artillery,  two  batteries  of  Kansas  field  artillery,  a  battalion  of  regular 
engineers,  and  detachments  of  the  regular  Signal  Corps  and  Hospital 
Corps  were  concentrated  at  that  point  and  engaged  for  from  five  days 
to  two  weeks  in  practicing  field  operations,  involving  work  from  the 


REPORT   OF  THE   SECRETARY   OF   WAR.  41 

simplest  outpost  and  patrol  duties  up  to  and  including  maneuvers  by 
brigade  and  division. 

A  large  number  of  National  Guard  officers,  besides  those  command- 
ing troops  in  the  maneuvers,  and  representing  twenty  different  States 
and  two  Territories,  were  present.  A  large  number  of  National  Guard 
troops  of  other  States  would  have  been  present  had  there  been  any 
appropriations  to  pay  their  expenses.  Both  the  officers  of  the  Guard 
and  of  the  Regular  Army  unite  in  the  opinion  that  both  branches  of 
the  service  received  great  benefit;  and  the  good  understanding  and 
friendly  feeling  established  between  the  two  classes  of  officers  who 
were  present  at  the  maneuvers  are  most  gratifying.  Jealousy,  super- 
ciliousness, or  a  suspicion  of  it,  and  bad  feeling-  between  regular  and 
volunteer  officers  have  been  some  of  the  most  fruitful  causes  of  dissen- 
sion and  hindrance  to  general  military  efficiency  in  this  country.  The 
best  way  to  put  an  end  to  this  is  to  bring  the  officers  together  and 
get  them  to  know  each  other  and  work  with  each  other  with  a  common 
purpose. 

General  Bates,  the  commander  of  the  Department  of  the  Missouri, 

says  in  his  report: 

The  value  of  such  concentrations  and  maneuverings  can  not  be  overestimated, 
either  to  the  regular  forces  or  to  the  National  Guard,  as  it  gives  to  both  an  oppor- 
tunity for  observing  the  appearance  and  formation  of  a  division  under  various 
conditions,  and  affords  to  officers  of  the  several  arms  of  the  service  a  chance  for 
seeing  the  evolutions  and  capabilities  of  the  other  arms,  and  enables  them  to 
enlarge  their  circle  of  military  acquaintanceship,  which  can  rarely  be  done  without 
absorbing  new  ideas  upon  military  subjects.  During  the  exercises  under  discussion 
young  officers  had  constantly  impressed  upon  them  the  value  of  studying  the 
terrain,  with  a  view  to  protecting  their  commands  by  the  accidents  of  the  ground, 
and  of  seizing  advantageous  positions.  The  lessons  learned  in  this  connection  at 
Fort  Riley  may  be  the  means  of  saving  many  lives  in  future  hostilities.  The 
power  of  modern  weapons  was  well  illustrated  and  accentuated  by  each  opponent 
maneuvering  for  position. 

The  report  quoted  from  is  annexed  hereto,  marked  "Appendix  K." 
At  the  end  of  the  encampment  the  officers  representing  Maryland, 
Texas,  Nebraska,  Pennsylvania,  New  Jersey,  North  Dakota,  Michigan, 
Rhode  Island,  Massachusetts,  Ohio,  Indiana,  Georgia,  Illinois,  Cali- 
fornia, Florida,  New  York,  Virginia,  and  Oklahoma  met  and  passed 
resolutions  expressing  their  opinion  as  to  the  benefit  of  what  had  been 
done. 

A  copy  of  the  resolutions,  signed  by  the  respective  officers,  is 
annexed  hereto  marked  "Appendix  L." 


42  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

It  is  to  be  hoped  that  before  another  autumn  the  passage  of  the 
militia  bill  will  enable  the  War  Department  to  facilitate  the  attend- 
ance of  greater  numbers  of  National  Guard  troops  for  a  repetition  of 
these  maneuvers  on  a  larger  scale. 

Section  35  of  the  act  of  February  2,  1901,  directed  the  Secretary  of 
War  to  cause  preliminary  examinations  and  surveys  to  be  made  for 
the  purpose  of  selecting  four  sites  with  a  view  to  the  establishment 
of  permanent  camp  grounds  for  instruction  of  troops  of  the  Regular 
Army  and  National  Guard.  In  compliance  with  this  direction  such  pre- 
liminary examinations  and  surveys  have  been  made  at  places  selected 
by  the  board  of  general  officers  upon  military  posts  and  camp  sites 
already  mentioned  in  this  report;  and  on  the  19th  of  May,  1902,  the 
reports  of  the  examinations  and  surveys  were  transmitted  to  Congress. 
(House  Doc.  No.  618,  Fifty-seventh  Congress,  first  session).  The 
sites  selected  by  the  board  were  at  Fort  Riley,  Kans.,  where  the 
present  reservation  consists  of  about  20,000  acres;  one  in  the  vicinity 
of  Chickamauga  Park,  Ga.,  where  a  not  very  expensive  addition  to  the 
present  park  grounds  now  owned  by  the  Government  would  suffice; 
one  in  the  Conewago  Valley  in  Lebanon,  Dauphin,  and  Lancaster 
counties,  Pa. ;  and  one  on  the  Nacimiento  Ranch,  in  Monterey  and  San 
Luis  Obispo  counties,  Cal. 

Reports  of  examinations  and  estimates  of  the  cost  of  several  other 
sites  in  Indiana,  Kentucky,  New  Mexico,  Texas,  and  Wisconsin  were 
also  transmitted  for  the  consideration  of  Congress.  It  is  to  be  hoped 
that  Congress  will  proceed  to  carry  out  the  design  of  the  act  of  Feb- 
ruary 2,  1901,  by  authorizing  the  purchase  of  a  sufficient  number  of 
sites  in  different  parts  of  the  country  to  make  it  possible  to  give  to 
the  National  Guard  of  all  the  States,  and  to  the  regular  troops  sta- 
tioned in  each  section,  the  benefits  of  annual  maneuvers  similar  to 
those  which  have  been  inaugurated  at  Fort  Riley. 

GENERAL   STAFF. 

The  most  important  thing  to  be  done  now  for  the  Regular  Army  is 
the  creation  of  a  general  staff.  I  beg  to  call  attention  to  the  remarks 
made  upon  this  subject  under  the  head  of  "Improvement  of  Army 
organization"  in  the  report  for  1899  and  under  the  head  of  "General 
staff"  in  the  report  for  1901.  Since  the  report  for  1899  was  made 
many  of  the  important  measures  then  recommended  for  the  greater 
efficiency  of  the  Army  have  been  accomplished  or  are  in  course  of 

lent  under  authority  conferred  by  legislation.     Our  mili- 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  43 

tary  system  is,  however,  still  exceedingly  defective  at  the  top.  We 
have  a  personnel  unsurpassed  anywhere,  and  a  population  ready  to 
respond  to  calls  for  the  increase  of  the  personnel  in  case  of  need,  up 
to  the  full  limit  at  which  it  is  possible  to  transport  and  subsist  an  army. 
We  have  wealth  and  a  present  willingness  to  expend  it  reasonably  for 
the  procurement  of  supplies  and  material  of  war  as  plentiful  and  as 
good  as  can  be  found  in  any  country.  We  have  the  different  branches 
of  the  military  service  well  organized,  each  within  itself,  for  the  per- 
formance of  its  duties.  Our  administrative  staff  and  supply  depart- 
ments, as  a  rule,  have  at  their  heads  good  and  competent  men, 
faithful  to  their  duties,  each  attending  assiduously  to  the  business  of 
his  department. 

But  when  wre  come  to  the  coordination  and  direction  of  all  these 
means  and  agencies  of  warfare,  so  that  all  parts  of  the  machine  shall 
work  true  together,  we  are  weak.  Our  system  makes  no  adequate 
provision  for  the  directing  brain  which  every  army  must  have,  to  work 
successfully.  Common  experience  has  shown  that  this  can  not  be  fur- 
nished by  any  single  man  without  assistants,  and  that  it  requires  a 
body  of  officers  working  together  under  the  direction  of  a  chief  and 
entirely  separate  from  and  independent  of  the  administrative  staff  of  an 
army  (such  as  the  adjutants,  quartermasters,  commissaries,  etc.,  each 
of  whom  is  engrossed  in  the  duties  of  his  own  special  department). 
This  body  of  officers,  in  distinction  from  the  administrative  staff, 
has  come  to  be  called  a  general  staff.  There  has  been  much  misunder- 
standing as  to  the  nature  and  duties  of  a  general  staff.  Brig.  Gen. 
Theodore  Schwan,  in  his  work  on  the  organization  of  the  German 
army,  describes  it  as  follows: 

In  Prussia,  at  least,  the  term  has  been  exclusively  and  distinctively  applied,  since 
about  1789,  to  a  body  of  officers  to  whom,  as  assistants  to  the  commander  in  chief 
and  of  his  subordinate  generals,  is  confided  such  work  as  is  directly  connected  with 
the  designing  and  execution  of  military  operations.  That  in  Germany,  as  elsewhere, 
chiefs  of  special  arms,  heads  of  supply  departments,  judge-advocates,  etc.,  form  an 
important  branch  of  the  higher  commands,  goes  without  saying,  but  they  are  not 
included  in  the  term  "general  staff."  Clause witz's  dictum  that  the  general  staff  is 
intended  to  convert  the  ideas  of  the  commanding  general  into  orders,  not  only  by 
communicating  the  former  to  the  troops,  but  rather  by  working  out  all  matters  of 
detail,  and  thus  relieving  the  general  from  a  vast  amount  of  unnecessary  labor,  is 
not  a  sufficient  definition  of  general  staff  duties,  according  to  Von  Schellendorf 
(upon  this  question  certainly  the  better  authority),  as  it  fails  to  notice  the 
important  obligation  of  the  general  staff  officer  of  constantly  watching  over  the 
effectiveness  of  the  troops,  which  would  be  impaired  by  a  lack  of  attention  to  their 


44  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

material  welfare.  Out  of  this  obligation  grows,  he  says,  the  further  duty  of 
furnishing  to  the  heads  of  the  supply  departments  and  other  officers  attached  to 
headquarters  such  explanations  touching  the  general  military  situation,  or  the  effect 
of  a  sudden  change  therein,  as  will  enable  them  to  carry  out  intelligently  what  is 
expected  of  them.  The  general  staff  thus  becomes  a  directing  and  explaining  body, 
and  its  chief,  therefore,  is  in  some  respects  the  head  of  the  whole  staff.  It  follows 
that  of  the  two  terms,  staff  and  general  staff,  the  Germans  regard  the  former  as  the 
more  comprehensive  one  and  as  embracing  the  latter. 

It  is  conceded  on  all  hands  that  the  almost  phenomenal  success  that  has  attended 
the  German  (Prussian)  arms  during  the  last  thirty  years  is  due  in  a  large  degree  to 
the  corps  of  highly  trained  general  staff  officers  which  the  German  army  possesses. 

Neither  oar  political  nor  our  military  system  makes  it  suitable  that 
we  should  have  a  general  staff  organized  like  the  German  general  staff 
or  like  the  French  general  staff;  but  the  common  experience  of  man- 
kind is  that  the  things  which  those  general  staffs  do,  have  to  be  done 
in  every  well-managed  and  well-directed  army,  and  they  have  to  be 
done  by  a  body  of  men  especially  assigned  to  do  them.  We  should 
have  such  a  body  of  men  selected  and  organized  in  our  own  way 
and  in  accordance  with  our  own  system  to  do  those  essential  things. 
The  most  intelligible  way  to  describe  such  a  body  of  men,  however 
selected  and  organized,  is  by  calling  it  a  general  staff,  because  its 
duties  are  staff  duties  and  are  general  in  their  character. 

The  duties  of  such  a  body  of  officers  can  be  illustrated  by  taking  for 
example  an  invasion  of  Cuba,  such  as  we  were  all  thinking  about  a 
few  years  ago.  It  is  easy  for  a  President,  or  a  general  acting  under 
his  direction,  to  order  that  50,000  or  100,000  men  proceed  to  Cuba 
and  capture  Havana.  To  make  an  order  which  has  any  reasonable 
chance  of  being  executed  he  must  do  a  great  deal  more  than  that.  He 
must  determine  how  many  men  shall  be  sent  and  how  they  shall  be 
divided  among  the  different  arms  of  the  service,  and  how  they  shall 
be  armed,  and  equipped,  and  to  do  that  he  must  get  all  the  informa- 
tion possible  about  the  defenses  of  the  place  to  be  captured  and  the 
strength  and  character  and  armament  of  the  forces  to  be  met.  He 
must  determine  at  what  points  and  by  what  routes  the  place  shall 
be  approached,  and  at  what  points  his  troops  shall  land  in  Cuba;  and 
for  this  purpose  he  must  be  informed  about  the  various  harbors  of 
the  island  and  the  depth  of  their  channels;  what  classes  of  vessels 
can  enter  them;  what  the  facilities  for  landing  are;  how  they  are 
defended;  the  character  of  the  roads  leading  from  them  to  the  place 
to  be  attacked;  the  character  of  the  intervening  country;  how  far  it  is 
healthful  or  unhealthful;  what  the  climate  is  liable  to  be  at  the  season 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  45 

of  the  proposed  movement;  the  temper  and  sympathies  of  the  inhabi- 
tants; the  quantity  and  kind  of  supplies  that  can  be  obtained  from 
the  country;  the  extent  to  which  transportation  can  be  obtained,  and 
a  great  variety  of  other  things  which  will  go  to  determine  whether  it 
is  better  to  make  the  approach  from  one  point  or  from  another,  and 
to  determine  what  it  will  be  necessary  for  the  Army  to  carry  with  it 
in  order  to  succeed  in  moving  and  living  and  fighting. 

All  this  information  it  is  the  business  of  a  general  staff  to  procure 
and  present.  It  is  probable  that  there  would  be  in  such  case  a  number 
of  alternative  plans,  each  having  certain  advantages  and  disadvantages, 
and  these  should  be  worked  out  each  by  itself,  with  the  reasons  for 
and  against  it,  and  presented  to  the  President  or  general  for  his  deter- 
mination. This  the  general  staff  should  do.  This  can  not  be  done  in 
an  hour.  It  requires  that  the  staff  shall  have  been  at  work  for  a  long 
time  collecting  the  information  and  arranging  it  and  getting  it  in  form 
to  present.  Then  at  home,  where  the  preparation  for  the  expedition 
is  to  be  made,  the  order  must  be  based  upon  a  knowledge  of  the  men 
and  material  available  for  its  execution;  how  many  men  there  are  who 
can  be  devoted  to  that  purpose,  from  what  points  they  are  to  be 
drawn,  what  bodies  of  troops  ought  to  be  left  or  sent  elsewhere,  and 
what  bodies  may  be  included  in  the  proposed  expedition;  whether 
there  are  ships  enough  to  transport  them;  where  they  are  to  be 
obtained;  whether  they  are  properly  fitted  up;  what  more  should  be 
done  to  them;  what  are  the  available  stocks  of  clothing,  arms  and 
ammunition,  and  engineers'  material,  and  horses  and  wagons,  and  all 
the  innumerable  supplies  and  munitions  necessary  for  a  large  expedi- 
tion; how  are  the  things  to  be  supplied  which  are  not  ready,  but  which 
are  necessary,  and  how  long  time  will  be  required  to  supply  them. 

All  this  and  much  more  necessary  information  it  is  the  business 
of  a  general  staff  to  supply.  When  that  has  been  done  the  order  is 
made  with  all  available  knowledge  of  all  the  circumstances  upon 
which  the  movement  depends  for  its  success.  It  is  then  the  business 
of  a  general  staff  to  see  that  every  separate  officer  upon  whose  action 
the  success  of  the  movement  depends  understands  his  share  in  it  and 
does  not  lag  behind  in  the  performance  of  that  share;  to  see  that 
troops  and  ships  and  animals  and  supplies  of  arms  and  ammunition 
and  clothing  and  food,  etc.,  from  hundreds  of  sources,  come  together 
at  the  right  times  and  places.  It  is  a  laborious,  complicated,  and 
difficult  work,  which  requires  a  considerable  number  of  men  whose 
special  business  it  is  and  who  are  charged  with  no  other  duties. 


46  REPORT  OF  THE  8ECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

It  was  the  lack  of  such  a  body  of  men  doing  that  kind  of  work 
which  led  to  the  confusion  attending  the  Santiago  expedition  in  the 
summer  of  1898.  The  confusion  at  Tampa  and  elsewhere  was  the  neces 
sary  result  of  having  a  large  number  of  men,  each  of  them  doing  his 
own  special  work  the  best  he  could,  but  without  any  adequate  force  of 
officers  engaged  in  seeing  that  they  pulled  together  according  to 
detailed  plans  made  beforehand.  Such  a  body  of  men  doing  general  stafl 
duty  is  just  as  necessary  to  prepare  an  army  properly  for  war  in  time 
of  peace  as  it  is  in  time  of  war.  It  is  not  an  executive  body;  it  is  not 
an  administrative  body;  it  acts  only  through  the  authority  of  others. 
It  makes  intelligent  command  possible  by  procuring  and  arranging 
information  and  working  out  plans  in  detail,  and  it  makes  intelligent 
and  effective  execution  of  commands  possible  by  keeping  all  the 
separate  agents  advised  of  the  parts  they  are  to  play  in  the  general 
scheme. 

In  creating  a  general  staff  I  think  we  should  change  the  desig- 
nation of  the  officer  whom  we  have  called  the  Commanding  General  of 
the  Army  to  Chief  of  Staff,  and  at  the  same  time  enlarge  his  powers 
by  giving  him  the  immediate  direction  of  the  supply  departments, 
which  are  now  independent  of  the  Commanding  General  of  the  Army 
and  report  directly  to  the  Secretary  of  War.  The  position  of  the 
Commanding  General  of  the  Army  is  not  created  by  statute.  It 
depends  entirely  upon  executive  order,  and  it  could  be  abolished  at 
any  time  by  the  President  and  the  position  of  Chief  of  Staff  could 
be  created  in  its  place.  Legislative  action,  however,  is  desirable  in 
two  directions.  One  is  to  provide  for  the  performance  of  duties  of 
the  president  of  the  Board  of  Ordnance  and  Fortification  and  the 
president  of  the  Board  of  Commissioners  of  the  Soldiers'  Home, 
both  of  which  have  been  attached  by  statute  to  the  position  of  the 
Commanding  General  of  the  Army.  The  other  line  of  legislative 
action  needed  is  to  authorize  the  control  of  the  Secretary  of  War 
over  the  supply  departments  to  be  exercised  through  the  Chief  of 
Staff.     This  probably  could  not  be  done  except  by  Congress. 

The  change  of  title  from  " Commanding  General  of  the  Army"  to 
14 Chief  of  Staff"  would  be  of  little  consequence  were  it  not  that 
the  titles  denote  and  imply  in  the  officers  bearing  them  the  exist- 
ence of  widely  different  kinds  of  authority.  When  an  officer  is 
appointed  to  the  position  of  "Commanding  General  of  the  Army"  he 
naturally  expects  to  command,  himself,  with  a  high  degree  of  inde- 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  47 

pendence,  following  his  own  ideas  rather  than  the  ideas  of  others. 
We  cannot  ordinarily  expect  an  officer  placed  in  such  a  position 
and  thus  endowed  with  what  purports  to  be  the  right  and  title  to 
command,  not  to  stand  up  for  his  right  to  really  command  and  not 
to  regard  any  attempt  to  control  his  action  or  limit  his  power  as 
unjustifiable  interference. 

The  title  of  Chief  of  Staff,  on  the  other  hand,  denotes  a  duty  to  advise, 
inform,  and  assist  a  superior  officer  who  has  command,  and  to  represent 
him,  acting  in  his  name  and  by  his  authority  in  carrying  out  his  poli- 
cies and  securing  the  execution  of  his  commands.  The  officer  who 
accepts  the  position  assumes  the  highest  obligation  to  be  perfectly 
loyaito  his  commander,  to  exclude  all  personal  interest  from  his  advice 
and  representation,  and  to  try,  in  the  most  whole-hearted  way,  to  help 
him  to  right  conclusions,  and  to  successful  execution  of  his  policies 
even  though  his  conclusions  may  not  agree  with  the  advice  given.  For 
the  successful  performance  of  his  duties  the  chief  of  staff  must  have 
the  entire  confidence  of  his  commander.  In  proportion  as  he  merits 
that  confidence,  the  chief  of  staff  gradually  comes  to  find  his  advice 
usually  accepted,  and  to  really  exercise  the  authority  of  his  com- 
mander, subject  only  to  the  most  general  directions,  just  as  Von  Moltke 
exercised  the  authority  of  King  William  of  Prussia  as  his  chief  of 
staff. 

Experience  has  shown  that  it  is  impossible  for  any  officer  to  really 
exercise  in  this  country,  in  time  of  peace,  the  powers  which  appear 
and  are  assumed  to  be  conferred  along  with  the  title  of  "  Command- 
ing General  of  the  Army."  This  follows  from  the  constitution  of  our 
Government.  The  Constitution  requires  the  President  to  be  the  com- 
mander of  the  Army,  and  a  great  variety  of  laws  require  the  Secre- 
tary of  War,  who  directly  represents  the  President,  to  supervise  and 
direct  the  expenditure  of  the  vast  sums  of  money  appropriated  annu- 
ally by  Congress  for  the  support  of  the  Army.  As  every  important 
movement  requires  the  use  of  money,  so  long  as  the  Secretary  of 
War  performs  this  duty  faithfully  he  must  practically  control  the 
operations  of  the  Army  in  time  of  peace,  and  there  can  not  be  any 
independent  command  of  the  Army,  except  that  which  the  President, 
himself  exercises  over  the  Secretary  of  War  and  everybody  else  in 
the  military  establishment.  It  is  because  Congress  has  always  looked 
to  the  civilian  Secretary  at  the  head  of  the  War  Department  to  hold 
the  purse  strings,  that  the  laws  require  all  the  great  departments 


48  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

which  build  the  fortifications  and  furnish  the  arms,  supplies,  and 
munitions  of  war,  and  actually  expend  the  money  for  those  purposes, 
such  as  the  Engineer,  Ordnance,  Quartermaster's,  and  Subsistence 
Departments,  to  act  under  the  direction  of  the  Secretary,  and  withhold 
from  the  officer  who  is  called  "Commanding  General  of  the  Army" 
all  control  over  those  departments. 

This  way  of  treating  the  expenditure  of  money  is  an  expression  of 
the  ingrained  tendency  of  the  American  people  to  insist  upon  civilian 
control  of  the  military  arm.  Our  fathers  inherited  that  from  England 
and  we  have  always  held  to  it.  It  is  not  likely  to  be  changed  in  sub- 
stance.  One  result  of  the  arrangement  is  that  the  officer  who  is  called 
"Commanding  General  of  the  Army"  can  not  in  time  of  peace  really 
exercise  any  substantial  power  at  all  unless  he  acts  in  conformity  to 
the  policy  and  views  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  acting  under  the  direc- 
tion of  the  President;  that  is  to  say,  he  can  not  exercise  any  independ- 
ent command;  and  this  must  always  be  so  as  long  as  the  Secretary  of 
War  performs  the  duties  which  are  imposed  upon  him  by  law  and 
which  are  essential  to  the  maintenance  of  civilian  control  over  the  mil- 
itary establishment.  It  was  the  inability  to  exercise  the  power  which 
the  title  of  "Commanding  General  of  the  Army"  appears  to  carry  with 
it,  but  which  does  not  really  exist,  that  led  General  Scott  to  leave  Wash- 
ington and  establish  his  headquarters  in  New  York  and  General  Sher- 
man to  remove  to  St.  Louis,  both  of  them  abandoning  the  attempt  to 
do  anything  in  connection  with  the  administration  of  the  Army  in 
Washington.  And  this  difficulty  has  been  the  cause  of  almost  constant 
conflict  and  bitter  feeling  in  the  administration  of  the  Army  for  the 
past  fifty  years,  to  the  very  great  injury  of  the  service  and  very  great 
loss  of  efficiency. 

It  does  not  follow,  however,  that  the  principal  and  most  trusted 
general  of  the  army  can  not  exercise  a  great  and  commanding  influ- 
ence in  the  control  of  the  army,  and  practically  manage  it  in  all  mili- 
tary matters.  What  does  follow  is  that  he  can  do  this  only  by  aban- 
doning the  idea  of  independent  command  and  by  assuming  the  position 
and  performing  the  functions  which  I  have  described  as  belonging  to 
a  chief  of  staff.  General  Schofield  did  this  with  entire  success  and 
rendered  great  service  to  the  country  by  doing  so.  I  quote  his  own 
words  in  describing  the  course  he  followed: 

Recent  experience  has  served  to  confirm  all  the  results  of  my  life-long  study  and 
large  experience  that  the  proper  position  for  the  senior  officer  of  the  Army  on  duty 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  49 

at  Washington  is  not  that  of  commanding  general,  a  position  which  is  practically 
impossible,  but  that  of  general  in  chief,  which  means  in  fact  chief  of  staff  to  the 
President.  The  title  of  general  in  chief  was  a  permanent  one  during  the  entire 
history  of  the  country  up  to  the  time  when  General  Grant  became  Lieutenant-General. 
When  I  became  the  commanding  general  I  addressed  to  the  President  a  letter  in 
which  I  pointed  out  to  him  what  had  been  the  result  of  my  study  and  experience, 
and  saying  that  the  only  way  was  to  abandon  entirely,  which  I  did  during  my  seven 
years  of  service,  all  pretense  of  being  the  commanding  general  and  to  content  myself 
with  acting  as  the  chief  of  staff  of  the  Army  under  the  Secretary  of  War  and  the 
President.  The  result  was  that  perfect  harmony  prevailed  during  my  time,  and  I 
did  exercise  a  legitimate  influence  in  command  of  the  Army,  this  because  I  did  not 
claim  to  exercise  anything  which  the  law  did  not  give  me. 

Everybody  is  not  as  self- restrained  and  sensible  as  General  Schofield, 
and  the  best  way  to  secure  from  others  the  same  kind  of  good  service 
that  he  rendered,  is  to  give  the  officer  from  whom  it  is  expected  a 
designation  which  indicates  what  he  is  really  to  do. 

TRANSPORT  SERVICE. 

The  reduction  of  the  force  in  the  Philippines  has  made  possible  a 
large  reduction  of  the  transport  service  on  the  Pacific.  The  regular 
service  between  San  Francisco  and  Manila  has  been  reduced  from 
bimonthly  to  monthly  sailings.  Marked  economies  have  been  effected 
in  the  conduct  of  the  business  in  San  Francisco.  Several  ships  have 
been  sold,  although  after  most  extensive  and  painstaking  advertising 
very  inadequate  prices  have  been  realized.  Three  ships,  the  Hancock, 
Relief,  and  Lawton,  have  been  turned  over  to  the  Navy  Department, 
which  could  make  profitable  use  of  them,  and  one,  the  Grant,  has  been 
turned  over  to  the  Engineer  Corps,  which  can  save  a  hundred  thousand 
and  odd  dollars  more  than  the  ship  could  be  sold  for,  by  using  her  in 
river  and  harbor  work.  I  ask  that  authority  be  given  for  charging 
the  fair  value  of  these  ships  to  the  naval  and  river  and  harbor  appro- 
priations, respectively,  and  crediting  them  to  the  appropriation  for 
transportation  of  the  Army  against  which  they  now  stand  charged. 

In  October  bids  were  invited  from  commercial  lines  for  transporta- 
tion of  passengers  and  freight  for  the  Army  between  San  Francisco, 
Portland,  Seattle,  and  Tacoma  and  Manila,  until  June  30, 1903.  A  num- 
ber of  bids  have  been  received,  but  the  comparative  advantage  of  oper- 
ating under  them  has  not  yet  been  worked  out,  and  no  contract  has  been 
awarded.  As  rapidly  as  it  becomes  apparent  that  the  Government 
business  can  be  done  more  economically  in  any  part,  or  as  a  whole,  by 
this  method,  it  is  the  purpose  of  the  Department  to  follow  the  same 
war  1902— vol  1 4 


50 


REPORT    OF   THE    SECRETARY    OF    WAR. 


course  which  has  been  followed  upon  the  Atlantic  in  discontinuing  the 
use  of  Government  transports,  and  to  put  the  business  in  the  hands  of 
commercial  lines  on  the  basis  of  open  competition. 

I  am  satisfied  that  it  is  practicable  for  private  shippers  to  do  all 
ordinary  business  much  cheaper  than  it  is  possible  for  the  Govern- 
ment to  do  it,  under  the  limitations  which  rest  upon  Government 
action,  and  that  thev  can  afford  to  do  the  business  for  less  than  it  costs 
the  Government  and  still  make  a  profit.  At  the  same  time  by  follow- 
ing this  method  the  Government  will  be  aiding  to  build  up  regular 
commercial  lines  between  the  Pacific  coast  and  Manila,  which  is  much 
to  be  desired. 

PROMOTION   OF  INDIVIDUAL   ECONOMY   IN   THE   ARMY. 

The  act  of  May  15,  1872,  under  which  the  Government  acts  practi- 
cally as  a  savings  bank  for  enlisted  men,  has  been  very  beneficial  in  its 
operation.  Under  that  law  enlisted  men  may  deposit  their  savings, 
in  sums  not  less  than  $5,  with  paymasters,  and  upon  deposits  of  not 
less  than  $50,  remaining  for  a  period  of  six  months  or  longer,  interest 
is  paid  at  the  rate  of  4  per  cent  per  annum.  Without  some  such  pro- 
vision, under  the  ordinary  conditions  of  army  life,  the  soldier  would 
have  no  means  of  investing  or  taking  care  of  any  savings  from  his 
pay,  and  the  tendency  would  be  to  spend  the  pay,  whenever  oppor- 
tunity offered,  up  to  the  full  limit. 

Under  this  law  deposits  of  enlisted  men's  savings  for  the  past  four 
years  and  the  amounts  of  principal  and  interest  paid  to  enlisted  men 
against  deposits  on  their  leaving  the  service  have  been  as  follows: 


Fiscal  year  ending  June  30— 


1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902. 


Total 


Number  of 
separate 
deposits. 


37,842 

91,461 

111,004 

80,883 


Aggregate 
amount  of  de- 
posits. 

Number 
men  paid 

their 
deposits  on 
discharge. 

SI, 496, 762. 31 
3,215,544.66 
3,438,529.11 
2,660,250.66 

28,508 

27,571 

78,948 

104,109 

10,811,086.74 

239,136 

Principal  paid. 


Interest 
paid. 


$61,273.96 
43,234.89 
114,750.37 
3,002,424.24  !  147,441.81 


$988,774.63 
1,028,146.34 
2,955,169.39 


7,974,514.60 


366,701.02 


The  amount  of  savings  reported  yby  the  Paymaster-General  as 
remaining  in  the  Treasury  to  the  credit  of  enlisted  men  on  the  30th  of 
June,  1902,  was  $4,269,244.81.  The  effect  of  this  arrangement  has 
been  to  promote  economy,  discourage  useless  aud  profligate  expendi- 


REPORT  OF  THE  8ECRETARY  OF  WAR.  51 

ture,  and  to  give  the  men  who  leave  the  service  an  accumulation  upon 
which  to  start  in  civil  life. 

I  concur  in  the  recommendation  of  the  Adjutant-General  that  the 
privilege  of  this  statute  should  be  extended  to  officers.  They  are  sub- 
ject to  very  much  the  same  conditions,  preventing  them  from  readily 
caring  for  or  investing  the  small  savings  which  the  practice  of  economy 
may  reserve  from  their  salaries,  and  the  natural  tendency  of  such 
conditions  is  to  prevent  their  economizing.  When  an  officer  has  a 
natural  tendency  to  economy  and  accumulation  he  finds  himself  con- 
fronted by  a  long-established  policy  of  the  Department,  which 
discourages  any  participation  in  business  enterprises  by  the  officers 
of  the  Army,  and  which  seems  to  be  wise.  If  officers  invest  money 
they  naturally  put  it  into  enterprises  in  the  neighborhood  of  their 
stations,  and  they  become  involved  in  business  affairs  which  are  liable 
to  develop  interests  inconsistent  with  their  official  duties. 

The  conditions  of  military  life  are  such  that  officers  of  the  Army 
have  not  the  training  or  the  knowledge  of  business  affairs  to  make 
them,  as  a  rule,  successful  in  their  investments.  Many  most  distress- 
ing cases  of  demoralization  of  officers  of  good  natural  parts,  and  origi- 
nally of  bright  promise,  have  come  from  their  becoming  involved  in 
debt  through  ill-advised  business  investments  which  have  been  unsuc- 
cessful, or  which  have  led  to  extravagance  of  living  by  reason  of  san- 
guine expectations  of  profit  never  realized.  It  is  of  the  highest  impor- 
tance that  the  officers  of  the  Army  should  live  within  their  means,  and 
whatever  measures  encourage  economy  tend  toward  that  end,  and  pro- 
mote good  habits,  attention  to  duty,  efficiency,  and  good  administration 
of  military  affairs. 

The  frequent  changes  which  are  necessary  for  the  officers  of  our 
small  Army  and  the  very  great  distances  which  they  are  obliged  to 
travel,  often  make  an  order  for  a  change  of  station  work  really 
great  hardship  by  requiring  the  officer  to  pay  the  cost  of  transporting 
'  his  furniture  above  the  limit  allowed  by  law  as  a  charge  upon  the 
Treasury.  The  deterioration  of  the  furniture  by  frequent  removals  is 
also  great.  I  think  it  desirable  that  the  same  course  should  be  adopted 
for  officers  of  the  Armv  which  is  followed  by  the  Navv  as  to  its  offi- 
cers  who  occupy  public  quarters  on  shore,  and  that  the  Government 
should  supply  the  heavy  furniture  for  officers'  quarters. 

The  Government,  buying  the  furniture  in  large  quantities,  could 
get  it  at  a  very  much  smaller  first  cost  than  the  officers  can;  the  fur- 


52  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

niture,  remaining  permanently  in  the  same  quarters,  would  depreciate 
much  less  rapidly  than  when  it  is  moved  about  from  post  to  post,  and 
the  cost  of  transportation,  which  is  now  paid  partly  by  the  Govern- 
ment and  partly  by  the  officer,  would  be  altogether  saved.  The  sav- 
ing to  the  officer  would  undoubtedly  make  it  practicable  for  him  to 
pay  a  moderate  rental  to  the  Government  for  the  use  of  the  furniture 
sufficient  to  constitute  a  renewal  fund  and  perhaps  to  reimburse  the 
original  expense.  I  annex  hereto,  marked  "Appendix  M,"  a  memo- 
randum addressed  to  the  Quartermaster-General  on  the  16th  of  Octo- 
ber, 1902,  calling  for  information  on  this  subject,  and  a  memorandum 
by  that  officer  in  reply,  dated  November  5,  1902.  I  hope  that  the 
subject  will  receive  the  favorable  consideration  of  Congress. 

THE   CANTEEN. 

Referring  to  the  operation  of  section  38  of  the  act  of  February  2, 
1901,  which  prohibits  the  sale  of  beer  and  light  wines  in  post 
exchanges,  I  said  in  my  last  report  that  a  great  body  of  reports  had 
been  received  which  indicated  that  the  effect  of  the  law  was  unfortu- 
nate, but  that  I  thought  a  sufficient  time  had  not  elapsed  to  give  the 
law  a  fair  trial,  and  that  the  observation  and  report  of  its  working 
would  be  continued  during  the  ensuing  year. 

A  great  number  of  additional  reports  have  now  been  received,  and 
they  confirm  the  impression  produced  by  the  earlier  reports.  I  am 
convinced  that  the  general  effect  of  prohibiting  the  use  of  beer  and 
light  wines  within  the  limited  area  of  the  army  post  is  to  lead  the 
enlisted  men  to  go  out  of  the  post,  to  frequent  vile  resorts  which  cluster 
in  the  neighborhood,  to  drink  bad  whisky  to  excess,  and  to  associate 
intimately  with  abandoned  men  and  more  abandoned  women;  and  that 
the  operation  of  the  law  is  to  increase  drunkenness,  disease  of  the  most 
loathsome  kind,  insubordination  and  desertion,  and  moral  and  phjrsical 
degeneration. 

These  reports  are  ready  to  be  sent  to  Congress  whenever  that  body 
desires  to  consider  the  subject. 

ALASKAN   TELEGRAPH   SY8TEM. 

The  Signal  Corps  has  exhibited  great  activity,  under  circumstances 
of  great  difficulty,  in  pressing  forward  the  construction  of  the 
system  of  military  telegraph  lines  in  the  Territory  of  Alaska,  under 
the  act  of  May  2tf, 1900.  They  have  built  and  put  in  working  order  in 
Alaska,  within  a  period  of  twenty-four  months,  1,121  miles  of  land 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  53 

lines  and  submarine  cables.  When  the  exceedingly  difficult  physical 
conditions  within  the  Territory  are  considered,  and  the  labor  and 
hardships  which  the  officers  and  men  of  the  corps  encountered,  are 
appreciated,  the  construction  of  this  telegraph  system  must  be  regarded 
as  an  additional  illustration  of  the  tireless  energy  and  indomitable 
spirit  which  characterize  this  branch  of  our  service.  Efforts  were 
made  to  introduce  wireless  telegraphy  in  Alaska,  and  a  contract  was 
made  for  the  establishment  of  communication  according  to  the  Fes- 
senden  system  between  Nome  and  St.  Michael.  The  work  was  to  be 
completed  by  the  1st  of  October,  1902,  but  the  contract  was  not 
performed. 

I  wish  to  call  especial  attention  to  the  importance  of  a  cable  between 
the  northwestern  coast  of  the  State  of  Washington  and  the  southern 
point  of  our  Alaskan  territory,  so  as  to  connect  the  telegraph  system 
of  the  United  States  with  the  telegraph  system  in  Alaska.  The  Gov- 
ernment of  the  United  States  is  maintaining  troops  in  Alaska  at 
various  points.  It  is  responsible  for  the  maintenance  of  order.  Dis- 
turbances are  always  liable  to  occur  in  new  mining  camps,  and  there 
is  always  a  possibility  of  their  occurring  along  a  frontier  line.  Our 
only  present  means  of  communicating  by  telegraph  with  our  officers, 
or  with  anyone  concerned  in  the  government  of  Alaska,  is  over  the 
Canadian  land  lines. 

MILITARY   REPRESENTATIVES  IN   EUROPE. 

In  June  last  the  War  Department  received,  through  the  State 
Department,  from  His  Majesty  the  German  Emperor,  a  courteous 
invitation  for  Maj.  Gen.  Henry  C.  Corbin,  Maj.  Gen.  S.  B.  M.  Young, 
and  Brig.  Gen.  Leonard  Wood  to  attend  the  autumn  maneuvers  of 
the  Prussian  army  as  the  guests  of  the  German  Emperor.  The  invi- 
tation was  accepted,  and  the  officers  named  were  directed  to  attend  the 
maneuvers.  Acknowledgment  is  due  for  the  great  courtesy  which 
was  showu  them  by  the  Emperor,  and  by  all  officers  of  the  German 
army  whom  they  met.  Similar  acknowledgments  are  due  to  the 
Governments  of  France  and  Great  Britain,  and  to  the  officers  of  their 
armies,  for  many  courtesies  shown  to  American  officers  and  many 
facilities  afforded  to  them  for  acquiring  useful  information  upon  mili- 
tary subjects. 


54 


REPORT    OF   THE    SECRETARY    OF    WAR. 


GENERAL   WAR    DEPARTMENT   SERVICE. 

• 

The  year  has  been  characterized  generally  by  faithful  and  painstak- 
ing work  by  the  different  bureaus  of  the  War  Department  and  by  the 
civilian  force  of  the  Department.  The  Quartermaster's,  Subsistence, 
and  Pay  departments  have  dealt  ably  and  successfully  with  the  ditti 
culties  presented  by  rapidly  changing  conditions  and  constant  move 
ment  of  troops.  The  transportation  of  the  Army  has  been  accom- 
plished  with  promptness  and  comfort,  and  the  clothing  and  food 
supplied  have  been  of  the  best  quality. 

I  wish  especially  to  make  acknowledgment  of  the  devoted  and  able 
services  of  the  Assistant  Secretary  of  War,  Col.  William  Cary  Sanger, 
and  of  the  Chief  Clerk  of  the  Department,  Mr.  John  C.  Scofield. 

EXPENDITURES,  APPROPRIATIONS,  AND   ESTIMATES. 

The  expenditures  for  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1902,  the  esti- 
mates of  appropriations  for  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1903,  the 
appropriations  for  the  present  fiscal  year,  and  the  estimates  of  appro- 
priations required  for  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1904,  are  as 
follows: 


General  object. 

Expenditures 

for  the  fiscal 

year  ended 

June  30, 1902. 

Estimates  for 

the  fiscal  year 

ending  June 

30,1903. 

81,638,266.00 

237,307.26 

32,000.00 

57,000.00 

15, 700. 00 

Appropriations 
for  the  fiscal 
year  ending 

June  30,  1903. 

Estimates  for 

the  fiscal 
year  ending 
June  30, 1904. 

CIVIL  ESTABLISHMENT. 

Salaries,  regular  force 

$1,300,949.57 

559,138.08 

24,458.13 

43,304.19 

14, 550. 00 

$1,310,196.00 

596,400.00 

30,000.00 

55,000.00 

15,300.00 

$1,859,126.00 

Salaries,  temporary  force 

Stationery,  War  Department 

25,000.00 

50,000.00 

15,600.00 

500.00 

Contingent  expenses,  War  Department. 
Rent,  War  Department 

Postage,  War  Department 

1,000.00 

Salaries    and    contingent    expenses 
under  Superintendent  Public  Build- 
ings and  Grounds 

66,208.56 

67. 220. 00 

67,320.00 

70,670.00 

■ 

Total  civil  establishment 

2,009,608.53  j      2,047,493.26 

2,074,216.00 

* 

2.020,896.00 

MILITARY  ESTABLISHMENT. 

Pay,  etc.,  of  the  Armv 

26,209.17 

36,137,867.90 

6,421,391.73 

245,379.06 

106,492.80 

92,640.00 

33,725.225.78 

11,934,916.25 

399,200.00 

92,140.00 

32,700,796.41 

11,000,000.00 

399,200.00 

45,500.00 

29,672,364.87 

7, 338, 955.  HO 

549. 000. 00 

Subsistence  of  the  Army 

Signal  service  of  the  Army 

Military  telegraph  and   cable   lines, 

United  States  service  schools 

14, 997. 08 

25,000.00 

25,000.00 
16,500.00 

25.000.00 

School  of   Submarine  Defense,  Fort 
Totten,  N.  Y 

18,000.00 
15,000.00 
25,000.00 

Army  War  College 

Engineer  School,  Washington,  D.  C  . . .  i 

45,000.00 

46,000.00 

REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY   OF   WAR. 


Regular  supplie 


iil'l.ti.-lil.il    rxy.Oli-t"..   iJlluT-lrrljjil-lcl-'.l 

i«TJorti»ent 

Ilarriu'ks  iinil  quarter* 

llnniK'li-        iirii]        i_|  I  III  CIh.S-T-.      I'ljrllpj'ilir 

Islands 

Army  tnwmmMm 

<"'i»vji lr>" -iind  artillery  horses........... 

Clothing,  etc 

Olwtrm'tlOTl  uml  r.-l  .nil" .  -f  iir>.[>illll.... 

Quarters  for  hoeplinl  stewards 

ahi»>litijj  KJifckTJt--'  jlthI  muges 

Military  [»*(■  exchanges 

Arm;  ^-ill-till  !iu-|jllu!a 

Medical  ami  Hospital  tlcpartincnt 

Army  Mi-'linil  M ii-i.-i.mh  anil  Library  .. 

Ensrim-iT  depot 

Engineer  depot,  Wlllets  Point,  N.Y  ... 
Buildings,  EngiTiL'tr  Sell.*.-!.  Wn-hiiii;- 

Kin.'iii.iT  ii|ulpment  of  troops 

Ulvlliini  u-.j.tulit-  [,,  L-ilitilK'i-r  ■itli.'i.-r.  . 

tiriliimiiT.  ordnance  stores  and.  aup- 
P«™ 


Kstimu[e>  fu 
rlldillfc'  Jl'llli 


K,  COO,  000.  00 


iminiprmlHms 


6,000,000.00 
150, 000. 00  ! 
1&,OI».00  i 


Emcrgi-niy  fund.  War  Depart 

Mil!  ttry  Academy 

Total  military  establish 


Oun  and  mortar  battc 

Torpedoes  for  harbor  i 

Sites  lor   fortification 

dafenses 


1    repair,  and   plane 


Sea  walls  and  embankments 

Armament  ol  lortiikntlnns 

Board  of  Ordnance  and  Fortification  . 
Other  fortifications  appropriations  . .. 
KuiHini'-iiri'i  if  r-  -i  mi-  I  -  n.  Washington, 


24,711.7-1 
42,362.20 


to,  500,  a 
2,800,01 


56 


BEPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY    OF   WAR. 


General  object 


public  works— continued. 

River  and  harbor  improvements  under 
the  con tinuing-con tract  system 

River  and  harbor  improvements  under 
the  Mississippi  River  Commission  ... 

Ri  ver  and  harbor  improvements  under 
the  Missouri  River  Commission 


Improving  rivers  and  harbors  under 
the  Chief  of  Engineers 


Total  public  works 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

National  cemeteries,  etc 

8urveys,  maps,  etc 

Artificial  limbs  and  appliances 
California  Debris  Commission . 


Bringing  home  the  remains  of  officers, 
soldiers,  and  civil  employees  who  die 
abroad,  and  soldiers  who  die  on 
transports 


Prevention  of  deposits,  harbor  of  New 
York 


National  Home  for  Disabled  Volun- 
teer Soldiers 

Aid  to  State  and  Territorial  homes 

Miscellaneous  items 


Total  miscellaneous 
Grand  total 


Expenditures 

for  the  fiscal 

year  ended 

June  30,  1902. 


113,802,860. 15 


23,448,288.52 


229,419.08 

110,870.38 

121,225.69 

10,535.89 


109,817.61 

72,782.01 

3,236,434.40 

1,004,724.80 

2,500.00 


Estimates  for  Appropriations  laminate*  for 
the  fiscal  year     for  the  fiscal        the  fiscal 


ending  June 
30,1903. 


/ear  ending   |  year  ending 
une  30, 1903.  :  June  30, 1904. 


I 


$5,489,377.50 

2,695,000.00 

315,200.00 


$12,306,360.00     $16,570,339.33 
2,200,000.00        2,000,006.00 


20,113,100.00       18,058,839.94 


49,914,383.40 


46,682,701.94  j    40,175,613.03 


4,898,309.76 


108,798,433.62 


313,814.05 

205,100.00 

516,000.00 

15,000.00 


90,000.00 

70,260.00 

3,434,294.00 

950,000.00 

4,055.10 


5,598,523.15 


157,409,836.26 


298,814.00 

155,100.00 

516,000.00 

15,000.00 


90,000.00 

70,260.00 

3,894,669.00 

950,000.00 

7,000.00 


5,996,843.00 


146,937,395.77 


265,380.00 

180,100.00 

154,000.00 

15,000.00 


45,000.00 

120,260.00 

4,039,458.00 

950,000.00 

87,218.10 


6,806,411.10 


125,989,435.42 


RECAPITULATION. 


General  object. 


Expenditures 

for  the  fiscal 

year  ended 

June  30, 1902. 


Estimates  for 

the  fiscal  year 

ending  June  30, 

1903. 


Civil  establishment $2, 009, 608. 63 

Military  establishment  (support  of  the 
Army  and  Military  Academy ) 78, 442, 226. 81 

Public  works  (including  fortifications 
and  river  and  harbor  improvements) 

Miscellaneous 


23,448,288.52 
4,898,309.76 


Grand  total I  108,798,433.62 


$2,047,493.26 

99,849,436.45 

49,914,383.40 
5,598,523.15 


157,409,836.26 


Appropriations 
for  the  fiscal 
year  ending 
June  30, 1903. 


$2,074,216.00 

92,283,634.83 

46,582,701.94 
5,996,843.00 


146,937,395.77 


Estimates  for 

the  fiscal  year 

ending  June 

80,1904. 


$2,020,896.00 

77,986,516.29 

40,175,618.03 
5,806,411.10 


126,989,485.42 


General  object. 


Net  increase  of  esti- 
mates for  1904  as 
compared  with  esti- 
mates for  1903. 


Civil  establishment. 


Net  decrease  of  esti- 
mates for  1904  as 
compared  with  esti- 
mates for  1903. 


Military  establishment  (support of 
Army  and  Military  Academy)  . 


the 


Public  works  (including  fortifications 
and  river  and  harbor  improvements) 

Miscellaneous 

Grand  total 

Less  increase 


$207,887.95 


207,887.95 


$26,597.26 

21,862,921.16 

9,738,770.37 


Net  decrease  of 
estimates  for  1904 
as  compared  with 

appropriations 
for  1908. 


$68, 82a  00 

14,297,119.64 

6,407,088.91 
190,481.90 


31,628,288.79 


20,947,960.85 


Net  decrease  of  estimates  for  1904 
as  compared  with  estimates 
for  1903 


207,887.96 


31,420,400.84 


REPORT  OF  THE  8E0RETARY  OF  WAR. 


57 


A  comparative  statement  of  the  last  four  estimates  submitted  to 
Congress  for  the  support  of  the  military  establishment  proper,  and  of 
the  appropriations  and  expenditures  thereon,  is  as  follows: 


Submitted  in  December,  1899,  for  the 

fiscal  year  ending  June  30, 1901 

Submitted  in  December,  1900,  for  the 

fiscal  year  ending  June  30, 1902 

Submitted  in  December,  1901,  for  the 

fiscal  year  ending  June  30, 1903 

Submitted  in  December,  1902,  for  the 

fiscal  year  ending  June  30, 1904 


Estimates. 

$128,170,583.54 

113,568,319.39 

99,849,436.45 

77,986,515.29 


Appr  >priations. 


$114,586,229.22 


116,249,552.78 


92,283,634.83 


Expenditures. 


$105,702,101.02 


78,442,226.81 


It  will  be  observed  that  estimates  have  progressively  decreased. 
The  estimate  for  1901  was,  in  round  numbers,  $128,000,000;  for  1902, 
$113,000,000;  for  1903,  $99,000,000;  for  1904,  $77,000,000.  Upon  the 
estimate  for  $128,000,000  for  1901,  the  appropriations  were  $114,000,000 
and  the  expenditures  $105,000,000;  upon  the  estimate  for  $113,000,000 
for  1902,  the  appropriations  were  $116,000,000  and  the  expenditures 
$78,000,000. 

The  estimates  presented  this  year  for  the  support  of  the  mili- 
tary establishment  proper,  involving  chiefly  things  consumed  during 
the  year,  are  $14,000,000  less  than  last  year's  appropriations  and 
$21,000,000  less  than  last  year's  estimates.  On  the  other  hand,  we 
are  asking  Congress  for  considerable  increases  in  appropriations  for 
investment  in  permanent  plant,  such  as  sites  for  fortifications  and 
seacoast  defenses,  gun  and  mortar  batteries,  armament  of  fortifica- 
tions, arsenals,  and  military  posts. 

Expenditures  from  indefinite  and  permanent  annual  appropriations 
and  appropriations  for  war  claims  and  relief  acts  are  not  included  in 
the  above  statement,  but  are  shown  in  Appendix  N  to  this  report, 
which  is  a  complete  and  detailed  statement  of  all  appropriations  under 
the  direction  of  the  War  Department  for  the  fiscal  year  ended  June 
30,  1902,  showing  the  balances  from  appropriations  of  the  preceding 
fiscal  year,  the  amounts  appropriated  under  each  title  of  appropria- 
tion, the  amounts  drawn  from  the  Treasury  upon  requisition,  and  the 
unexpended  balances  June  30,  1902. 

There  were  no  expenditures  from  the  appropriation  for  national 
defense  (War)  during  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1902,  but  repay- 


58  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

merits  to  this  fund  were  made  from  several  bureaus  by  covering  into 
the  Treasury  the  following  amounts: 

Ordnance  Department 1346,805.61 

Quartermaster's  Department 464.  76 

Paymaster's  Department 473. 01 

Total 347,743.38 

and  the  present  condition  of  this  appropriation  is  shown  in  the  fol- 
lowing tabulated  statement : 

Condition  of  the  special  emergency  appropriation  for  national  defense  {war)  under  the 

War  Department, 


Amounts  allot- 
Allotments.  !    ted  to  June 

30, 1899. 


9225,000.00 
9, 081, 4%.  86 
5,585,000.00 
1,989,230.82 


Office  of  Secretary  of  War 

Ordnance  Department 

Engineer  Department 

Quartermaster's  Department 

Medical  Department I      1,520,000.00 

Pay  Department :.'         255,000.00 

Signal  Service 238, 900. 00 

Light-House  Board 75, 000. 00 


Total 18,969,627.68 


Balances  June 
30,1902. 


1931.08 

1,160.406.36 

12,393.07 

2,029.34 

46,028.31 

2, 399. 26 


1,224,187.37 


As  stated  in  the  last  annual  report,  it  had  been  held  by  the  Comp- 
troller of  the  Treasury  that  the  appropriation  for  national  defense 
lapsed  on  June  30,  1901,  by  reason  of  the  limitation  of  the  acts  of 
March  9,  1898  (30  Stats.,  274),  and  June  5,  1899  (30  Stats.,  781),  and 
that  consequently  the  balances  remaining  to  the  credit  of  the  several 
bureaus  of  the  War  Department  were  no  longer  available  for 
expenditure. 

Subsequent  to  this  decision  of  the  Comptroller,  a  provision  was 
inserted  in  the  urgent  deficiency  act  approved  February  14,  1902, 
with  reference  to  the  naval  establishment,  reappropriating  the  unex- 
pended balance  of  the  national  defense  appropriation,  and  making  it 
"available  for  expenditure  in  fulfillment  of  contracts  heretofore  made 
and  properly  chargeable  to  said  appropriation.''  Under  date  of  April 
25,  1902,  the  Comptroller  decided  that  balances  of  this  appropriation 
remaining  to  the  credit  of  the  several  bureaus  of  the  War  Department 
are  available  for  expenditure  in  fulfillment  of  contracts  made  by 
the  War  Department  before  June  30,  1901,  and  properly  chargeable 
to  said  appropriation. 


BEPORT    OF   THE   SECRETARY    OF    WAR.  59 

CIVIL   GOVERNMENT   IN   THE   PHILIPPINES. 

The  Philippine  government  act  of  July  1, 1902,  adopts  and  continues 
with  enlarged  powers  the  system  of  government  built  up  under  the 
President's  instructions  of  April  7,  1900.  The  growth  and  character 
of  that  government  were  described  in  my  last  annual  report.  1  trans- 
mit herewith  all  the  statutes  passed  by  the  Philippine  Commission 
from  and  including  act  No.  264,  passed  October  14, 1901,  to  and  includ- 
ing act  No.  424,  passed  July  1,  1902.  These,  together  with  the  acts 
previously  transmitted  to  Congress,  constitute  the  entire  bodjr  of  leg- 
islation by  the  Philippine  Commission  prior  to  the  passage  of  the  Phil- 
ippine government  act  by  Congress. 

The  enacting  clause  of  all  these  laws  is  "By  authority  of  the 
President  of  the  United  States,  be  it  enacted  by  the  United  States 
Philippine  Commission"  Their  authority  as  law  rests:  First,  upon 
the  power  vested  in  the  Commission  by  the  President  in  the  exercise 
of  his  war  powers  under  the  Constitution,  in  the  instructions  of  April 
7,  1900.  Second,  upon  the  sanction  given  to  those  instructions  in  that 
part  of  the  act  of  March  2,  1901,  commonly  known  as  the  "Spooner 
amendment,"  which  provided: 

All  military,  civil  and  judicial  powers  necessary  to  govern  the  Philippine  Islands, 
acquired  from  Spain  by  the  treaties  concluded  at  Paris  on  the  tenth  day  of  December, 
1898,  and  at  Washington  on  the  seventh  day  of  November,  1900,  shall,  until  other- 
wise provided  by  Congress,  be  vested  in  such  person  and  persons  and  shall  be  exer- 
cised in  such  manner  as  the  President  of  the  United  States  shall  direct  for  the 
establishment  of  civil  government  and  for  maintaining  and  protecting  the  inhabitants 
of  said  islands  in  the  free  enjoyment  of  their  liberty,  ^property  and  religion. 

And  Third,  upon  the  provision  of  the  Philippine  government  act  of 
July  1,  1902. 

That  the  action  of  the  President  of  the  United  States  in  creating  the  Philippine 
Commission  and  authorizing  said  Commission  to  exercise  the  powers  of  government 
to  the  extent  and  in  the  manner  and  form  and  subject  to  the  regulation  and  control 
set  forth  in  the  instructions  of  the  President  to  the  Philippine  Commission,  dated 
April  7,  1900,     *    *    *    is  hereby  approved,  ratified,  and  confirmed. 

The  statutes  passed  by  the  Philippine  Commission  after  the  1st  of 
July,  1902,  will  rest  upon  the  authority  conferred  beforehand  upon 
the  Commission  by  Congress  in  that  act,  and  the  enacting  clause  will 
be:  "By  authority  of  the  United  States,  be  it  enacted  by  the  Phil- 
ippine Commission." 


60  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

A  report  by  the  Philippine  Commission  has  been  mailed  at  Manila 
and  is  in  transit  to  Washington.  Upon  its  arrival  it  will  be  trans- 
mitted to  Congress  and  with  it  will  be  sent  copies  of  all  acts  passed 
by  the  Commission  since  the  1st  of  July,  1902. 

Sections  63,  64  and  65  of  the  act  of  July  1,  1902,  authorize  the 
Commission  to  acquire  title  to  lands  of  religious  orders  held  in  such 
large  tracts  as  to  injuriously  affect  the  peace  and  welfare  of  the  peo- 
ple of  the  islands,  to  issue  bonds  in  payment  for  such  land,  to  sell  the 
land,  with  a  preference  to  actual  settlers  and  occupants,  and  to  apply 
the  proceeds  to  paying  the  principal  and  interest  of  the  bonds.  After 
the  bill  containing  these  provisions  had  been  reported  favorably  by 
the  committees  of  both  Houses,  but  before  the  passage  of  the  bill, 
Governor  Taft  being  about  to  return  from  Washington  to  his  post  at 
Manila  via  the  Suez  Canal,  was  directed  to  stop  at  Rome  for  the  pur- 
pose stated  in  the  following  extract  from  his  instructions: 

In  view,  therefore,  of  the  critical  situation  of  this  subject  in  the  Philippines,  and 
of  the  apparent  impossibility  of  disposing  of  the  matter  there  by  negotiation  with 
the  friars  themselves,  the  President  does  not  feel  at  liberty  to  lose  the  opportunity 
for  effective  action  afforded  by  your  presence  in  the  West.  He  wishes  you  to  take 
the  subject  up  tentatively  with  the  ecclesiastical  superiors  who  must  ultimately 
determine  the  friars'  course  of  conduct,  and  endeavor  to  reach  at  least  a  basis  of 
negotiation  along  lines  which  will  be  satisfactory  to  them  and  to  the  Philippine 
government,  accompanied  by  a  full  understanding  on  both  sides  of  the  facts  and  of 
the  views  and  purposes  of  the  parties  to  the  negotiation,  so  that  when  Congress 
shall  have  acted  the  business  may  proceed  to  a  conclusion  without  delay. 

These  instructions  were  complied  with  and  resulted  in  a  very  full 
and  satisfactory  understanding  as  to  the  methods  to  be  adopted  for 
disposing  of  the  various  questions  arising  out  of  the  separation  of 
church  and  state  in  the  Philippine  Islands  required  by  the  change  of 
sovereignty.  The  papers  establishing  this  basis  of  an  understanding 
are  annexed  hereto,  marked  "  Appendix  O."  The  negotiations  are 
now  proceeding  at  Manila  between  Governor  Taft  and  Monsignor 
Guidi,  the  Papal  delegate  to  the  Philippines,  in  accordance  with  the 
understanding  reached  at  Rome.  I  have  no  doubt  that,  although 
many  of  the  questions  involved  are  delicate  and  difficult,  just  conclu- 
sions will  be  reached,  satisfactorjr  to  both  sides. 

The  trade  of  the  islands  has  been  greatly  hampered  during  the  past 
year  by  the  ravages  of  rinderpest,  causing  a  mortality  in  some  prov- 
inces of  over  90  per  cent  among  the  carabao,  and  a  consequent  short- 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 


61 


age  of  food  crops.  Business  in  many  sections  has  been  seriously 
interrupted  by  an  epidemic  of  cholera,  yet  the  imports  for  the  fiscal 
year  1902  were  greater  than  in  any  previous  year  in  the  history  of 
the  archipelago,  and  exports  were  exceeded  in  but  two  previous 
years,  1870  and  1889.  The  total  merchandise,  exclusive  of  gold  and 
silver  and  Government  supplies,  imported  during  the  fiscal  year  1902 
was  $32,141,842,  as  against  $30,279,406  for  the  fiscal  year  1901  and 
$20,601,436  for  the  fiscal  year  1900,  and  the  total  value  of  merchan- 
dise exported  during  the  fiscal  year  1902  was  $23,927,679,  as  against 
$23,214,948  for  the  fiscal  year  1901  and  $19,751,068  for  the  fiscal  year 
1900,  an  increase  of  6  per  cent  in  the  value  of  imports  for  the  fiscal 
year  1902  over  the  fiscal  year  1901  and  of  56  per  cent  over  the  fiscal 
year  1900,  and  an  increase  in  the  value  of  exports  for  the  fiscal  year 
1902  over  the  fiscal  year  1901  of  3  per  cent  and  over  the  fiscal  year 
1900  of  21  per  cent. 

The  imports  for  the  fiscal  year  1902  came  from  the  following 
countries: 


United  States $4,035,243 

United  Kingdom 5, 523, 161 

Germany 2,356,548 

France 1,524,523 


China $4,300,959 

Hongkong 1,820,109 

British  East  Indies 2, 995, 192 

French  East  Indies 3,244,329 


Spain 2,388,542     Other  countries 3,953,236 

The  exports  for  the  same  period  went  to  the  following  countries: 


United  States $7,691,743 

United  Kingdom 8,282,979 

Germany 75,626 

France 955,828 

Spain 868,528 

China 462,946 


Hongkong $3,183,482 

Japan 925,767 

British  East  Indies 670, 819 

Australasia 437,840 

Other  countries 372, 121 


The  imports  from  the  United  States  amounted  to  $4,035,243  in  1902 
as  against  $2,855,685  in  1901  and  $1,657,701  in  1900,  or  an  increase 
for  the  past  year  over  1900  of  143  per  cent.  The  value  of  merchan- 
dise exported  to  this  country  in  1902  was  $7,691,743  as  against 
$2,572,021  in  1901  and  $3,522,160  in  1900,  showing  an  increase  in 
favor  of  the  latest  period  over  1900  of  118  per  cent. 

The  United  States  shows  greater  gains  of  imports  for  the  fiscal  year 
1902  than  any  other  country,  except  the  French  East  Indies,  which 
shows  a  great  increase  in  the  quantity  of  rice  exported  to  the  islands 


62  BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

to  make  up  for  deficient  crops.     In  exports  the  United  States  gained 
more  than  any  other  country. 

The  showing  made  by  the  United  States  on  the  basis  of  direct  ship- 
ments to  and  from  the  islands  discloses  a  marked  increase  during  the 
past  few  years;  yet  it  does  not  take  into  account  purchases  made  in 
this  country  entered  at  the  Philippine  customs-houses  free  of  duty 
for  use  of  the  United  States  military  departments  or  the  insular  gov 
ernment  or  its  subordinate  branches.  In  these  figures  also  this  coun- 
try is  deprived  of  the  proper  credit  for  its  imports  into  the  islands 
by  shipments  passing  through  Hongkong  and  eventually  reported  as 
originating  at  that  point.  Although  this  applies  also  to  European 
countries  to  some  extent,  it  has  been  found  that  only  a  small  part  of 
their  export  credits  is  affected,  for  the  reason  that  nearly  all  their 
shipments  come  direct  via  Singapore;  and  the  transshipment  at  that 
port  and  at  Hongkong  and  Saigon  are  rarely  attended  by  the  issue  of 
new  shipping  documents,  under  which  the  port  of  transshipment  can 
be  taken  as  the  port  of  origin. 

As  to  the  Philippine  export  trade  to  the  United  States,  in  which 
this  country  has  trebled  its  figures  during  the  last  two  years,  the 
results  stated  represent  more  nearly  the  proper  credit,  but  there 
are  numerous  instances  of  shipments  of  hemp  in  large  quantities, 
intended  for  the  United  States,  to  Europe  and  Hongkong  under  docu- 
ments in  which  these  countries  are  given  as  the  ports  of  final  destina- 
tion. This  will  appear  from  the  fact  that  approximately  $7,500,000 
worth  of  hemp  was  exported  from  the  Philippines  to  the  United 
Kingdom  during  the  year  1902,  while  during  the  same  period  the 
importations  of  this  fiber  into  the  United  States  from  the  United 
Kingdom  amounted  to  nearly  $4,250,000,  presumably  included  in 
indirect  shipments,  credit  for  which  should  be  given  to  this  country. 
If  credit  is  given  for  these  importations  the  United  States  is  placed 
far  in  advance  as  the  leading  market  for  Philippine  products  at  the 
present  time. 

The  second  section  of  the  act  of  March  8,  1902,  approving  the 
Philippine  tariff  law,  provides  that — 

All  articles,  the  growth  and  product  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  admitted  into  the 
ports  of  the  United  States  free  of  duty  under  the  provisions  of  this  act,  and  coming 
directly  from  said  islands  to  the  United  States  for  use  and  consumption  therein, 
shall  be  hereafter  exempt  from  any  export  duties  imposed  in  the  Philippine 
Islands. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  63 

Under  this  provision  it  has  been  ruled  that,  to  be  entitled  to  the 
benefit  of  this  exemption  from  export  duty  in  the  Philippines,  articles 
must  come  from  the  Philippines  to  the  United  States  in  the  same  bot- 
tom, aind  that  articles  exported  from  Manila  to  Hongkong  or  London 
and  there  reshipped  to  the  United  States,  even  though  under  a  through 
bill  of  lading,  are  not  entitled  to  the  statutory  benefit  of  exemption 
from  export  tax.  Under  this  provision  it  is  probable  that  the  next 
hemp  crop,  so  far  as  it  is  required  for  consumption  in  the  United 
States,  will  come  direct  to  our  ports  instead  of  going  by  Hongkong  or 
London.  In  that  case  the  business  will  be  open  for  American  com- 
mercial lines,  if  they  see  fit  to  engage  in  it. 

The  total  importations  received  from  date  of  American  occupation 
to  and  including  June  30, 1902,  amounted  to  $96,135,694,  or,  reckoning 
complete  yearly  periods  covered  by  the  last  three  fiscal  years,  an  aver- 
age annual  import  trade  of  more  than  twenty-seven  and  a  half  million 
is  shown  to  have  been  maintained;  and  the  total  duty  collected  during 
these  years  approximated  twenty-two  and  a  half  millions. 

The  value  of  merchandise  exported  during  the  same  period  was 
$79,260,607,  the  duty  collected  amounting  to  nearly  $3,000,000. 

Annexed  hereto  will  be  found  a  tabulated  statement  in  comparative 
form,  showing  the  Philippine  commerce  with  the  United  States  and 
leading  countries  during  three  calendar  years  of  American  occupation 
ended  December  31,  1901,  marked  "Appendix  P." 

Immigrants  to  the  number  of  30,094  arrived  in  the  Philippine 
Islands  during  the  fiscal  year  1902  as  against  17,108  in  the  fiscal  year 
1901.  Of  this  number  12,751  (including  10,101  Chinese)  had  been  in 
the  islands  before.  Among  the  17,343  who  came  for  the  first  time 
there  were  15,312,  or  88  per  cent,  Americans,  368  Chinese,  451  Japa- 
nese, 222  English,  358  Spaniards,  129  East  Indians,  and  503  of  other 
nationalities.  There  were  2,497  females  and  928  children  under  14 
years  of  age.  With  the  exception  of  8,349  Chinese  but  3  per 
cent  of  the  immigrants  were  illiterates.  Among  the  Americans  there 
were  176  merchant  dealers  and  grocers,  790  teachers,  122  clerks  and 
accountants.  The  greater  number  of  Americans  are,  however,  not 
described  by  occupation.  More  than  three-fourths  of  the  Chinese 
were  laborers,  and  more  than  half  the  remainder  merchants. 

Annexed  hereto,  marked  uAppendix  Q,"  is  a  statement  of  revenues 
and  expenditures  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago  from  the  date  of  Amer- 


64  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

ican  occupation  to  the  end  of  the  fiscal  year  1902,  which  coincides 
with  the  end  of  the  government  under  the  authority  of  the  President 
and  the  beginning  of  government  under  the  direct  authority  of 
Congress.  The  total  revenues  have  amounted  to  $33,589,819.05  and 
the  total  expenditures  to  $23,253,573.13,  American  moneys 

The  relative  income  and  expenditure  by  fiscal  years  has  been  as 
follows: 


1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902. 


Income. 


$3,608,682.83 

6,763,527.73 

10,686,188.97 

12,631,419.52 


Expenditure. 


$2,376,008.62 
4,758,677.76 
6,073,766.44 

10,045,120.32 


The  surplus  of  income  over  expenditure  has  in  a  great  measure  been 
allotted  to  the  payment  of  various  contracts  for  public  improvements 
and  public  benefit,  so  that  the  real  surplus  of  free  cash  in  the  Treasury 
is  comparatively  small. 

1  shall  defer  comment  and  recommendation  generally  upon  Philip- 
pine affairs  until  1  transmit  the  report  of  the  Commission,  now  on  the 
way  to  this  country.  1  realize  that  it  is  hardty  to  be  expected  that 
Congress  shall  devote  much  time  to  legislation  for  the  Philippines 
during  the  approaching  short  session,  especially  in  view  of  the  great 
amount  of  time  which  they  devoted  to  the  subject  in  the  last  session 
and  the  scope  and  value  of  the  laws  which  they  then  considered  and 
passed. 

1  do  not  wish  to  delay,  however,  in  asking  the  attention  of  Congress 
to  two  subjects  upon  which,  I  think,  if  the  conditions  and  needs  of 
the  islands  could  be  fully  understood,  there  would  be  but  little 
controversy,  and  upon  which  very  simple  enactments  would  be  of 
immense  value  to  the  people  of  the  islands,  whose  welfare  the 
Government  of  the  United  States  is  bound  to  promote.  I  earnestly 
urge,  first,  that  the  duties  levied  in  the  United  States  upon  products 
of  the  Philippine  Archipelago  imported  therefrom  be  reduced  to 
25  per  cent  of  the  Dingley  tariff  rates;  second,  that  the  government 
of  the  island  be  permitted  to  establish  the  gold  standard  for  its 
currency,  and  to  bike  such  measures  as  it  finds  to  be  practicable 
and  prudent  to  keep  the  silver  coinage  which  it  is  authorized  to  issue 
at  parity  with  gold,  without  in  any  way  committing  the  United  States 
to  responsibility  therefor. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  65 

1  shall  not  now  undertake,  nor  is  it  the  proper  office  of  such  a 
report  as  this,  to  argue  the  economic  questions  which  may  be  raised 
by  the  consideration  of  these  recommendations.  The  views  upon 
which  they  are  based  have  been  presented  in  my  former  reports  and 
in  the  reports  of  the  Philippine  Commission.  The  reason  for  pre- 
senting them  now  is  that  the  ills  which  have  recently  befallen  the 
people  of  the  islands  call  urgently  for  active  and  immediate  measures 
of  relief.  The  people  of  a  country  just  emerging  from  nearly  six 
years  of  devastating  warfare,  during  which  productive  industry  was 
interrupted,  vast  amounts  of  property  were  destroyed,  the  bonds  of 
social  order  were  broken,  habits  of  peaceful  industry  were  lost,  and 
at  the  close  of  which  a  great  residuum  of  disorderly  men  were  left 
leading  a  life  of  brigandage  and  robbery,  had  a  sufficiently  difficult 
task  before  them  to  restore  order  and  prosperity.  In  addition  to 
this,  however,  the  people  of  the  Philippine  Islands  have  within  the 
past  year  been  visited  by  great  misfortunes. 

The  rinderpest  has  destroyed  about  90  per  cent  of  all  their  carabaos, 
leaving  them  without  draft  animals  to  till  their  land  and  aid  in  the 
ordinary  work  of  farm  and  village  life.  Carabaos  have  increased  in 
price  from  $20  to  $200  Mexican.  The  Eastern  disease  known  as 
64 surra"  has  killed  and  is  killing  the  native  and  American  horses, 
further  crippling  transportation.  The  rice  crop  has  been  reduced  to 
25  per  cent  of  the  ordinary  crop.  Last  year  in  the  Visayan  Islands 
and  this  year  in  Luzon  a  plague  of  locusts  has  come  upon  the  land, 
destroying  much  of  the  remaining  25  per  cent  of  the  rice  crop.  A 
drought  in  China  and  the  fall  in  the  price  of  silver  have  raised  the  price 
of  rice  from  $4  to  $7  a  picul.  The  Commission  has  been  obliged  to 
go  out  of  the  islands  and  use  insular  funds  to  buy  over  40,000,000 
pounds  of  rice  to  save  the  people  from  perishing  by  famine.  Cholera 
has  raged  and  is  raging  throughout  the'  islands.  The  ignorance  of  the 
people  and  their  unwillingness  to  submit  to  sanitary  regulations  have 
made  it  almost  impossible  to  check  the  ravages  of  the  disease,  which, 
it  is  estimated,  will  claim  not  less  than  100,000  victims.  The  decline 
in  the  price  of  silver  has  carried  Mexican  dollars  down  from  a  ratio 
of  two  to  one  in  gold  to  a  ratio  of  over  two  and  one-half  to  one,  and 
this  has  borne  heavily  on  the  commercial  interests  and  on  the  wage 
earners. 

war  1902— vol  1 5 


66  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

The  insular  government  has  in  ten  months  lost  over  $1,000,000  gold 
by  the  decline  in  silver  because  it  was  operating  on  a  silver  basis,  and 
this  has  changed  the  surplus  of  revenues  into  a  deficit  at  the  very  time 
when  the  other  causes  mentioned  have  caused  an  extraordinary  demand 
for  the  use  of  the  revenues  for  the  relief  of  the  people.  Agriculture 
is  prostrated.  Commerce  is  hampered  and  discouraged.  All  the 
political  parties  in  the  Philippines  urgently  demand  a  change  of  the 
present  currency  standard.  Some  relief  would  be  afforded  by  open- 
ing a  profitable  market  in  the  United  States  to  the  products  of  the 
islands.  Still  greater  relief  would  be  afforded  by  delivering  the  busi- 
ness of  the  islands  from  the  disastrous  effects  of  the  decline  in  the 
price  of  silver  and  the  fluctuations  in  exchange,  and  putting  it  upon 
the  substantial  basis  of  the  gold  standard  currency  which  exists  in  the 
United  States,  where  we  wish  them  to  do  their  business,  which  exists 
on  the  continent  of  Europe  and  in  India  and  Japan,  and  the  adoption 
of  which  is  now  under  consideration  in  the  Straits  Settlements. 

Realizing  the  difficulty  and  importance  of  many  of  the  questions 
with  which  we  were  about  to  be  confronted  in  our  undertaking  to 
govern  or  supervise  the  government  of  the  Philippines,  and  at  about 
the  time  of  sending  Mr.  Charles  A.  Conant  to  study  the  banking  and 
currency  questions  in  the  Philippines,  the  War  Department  sent  Prof. 
Jeremiah  W.  Jenks,  of  Cornell  University,  as  special  commissioner 
to  study  and  report  on  the  systems  of  currency,  labor,  and  internal 

• 

taxation  of  Burma,  the  Straits  Settlements,  the  Federated  Malay 
States,  iind  Java.  His  very  able  and  painstaking  report  upon  all  these 
subjects  was  received  in  September,  1902,  and  is  transmitted  here- 
with. Without  any  conference  between  himself  and  Mr.  Conant, 
starting  with  views  in  favor  of  the  silver  standard  and  proceeding 
upon  the  basis  of  an  entirely  independent  investigation,  viewing 
broadly  the  entire  conditions  in  the  Orient,  Professor  Jenks  has  come 
to  substantially  the  same  conclusion,  that  the  true  solution  of  the 
monetary  difficulties  in  the  Philippines  is  to  be  found  in  the  adoption 
of  the  gold  standard.  I  recommend  this  report  to  careful  considera- 
tion, and  urge  that  a  measure  based  upon  the  views  which  he  thus 
reenforces,  should  be  adopted  in  performance  of  the  peremptory  duty 
resting  upon  the  Government  of  the  United  States  to  act  and  not 
remain  indifferent  in  regard  to  the  evils  which  now  press  so  heavily 
upon  the  people  of  the  Philippine  Islands. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  67 

I  annex  hereto,  marked  4fc  Appendix  R,"  a  statement  showing  the 
commercial  relations  of  Cuba  with  the  United  States  and  other  coun- 
tries during  the  entire  period  of  American  occupation. 

I  submit  herewith  the  annual  reports  of  the  heads  of  the  bureaus  of 
the  War  Department  and  of  the  Lieutenant-General  Commanding  the 
Army,  to  which  are  appended  the  reports  to  him  by  division  and 
department  commanders,  including  separate  reports  of  military 
operations  in  the  Philippine  Islands. 

The  final  report  of  Brig.  Gen.  Leonard  Wood  as  military  governor 
of  Cuba,  when  received,  will  be  submitted  as  a  supplemental  report. 

The  reports  of  the  Board  of  Ordnance  and  Fortification;  the  com- 
missioners of  national  military  parks;  the  Board  of  Visitors  to  the 
United  States  Military  Academy  at  West  Point;  the  Superintendent 
of  the  United  States  Military  Academy;  the  Board  of  Commissioners 
of  the  Soldiers'  Home,  District  of  Columbia;  of  inspection  of  the 
Soldiers'  Home,  District  of  Columbia,  and  inspection  of  the  National 
Home  for  Disabled  Volunteer  Soldiers,  are  also  submitted. 

Elihu  Root, 

Secretary  of  War. 


APPENDIX  A. 


being  the  documentary  history  of  the  inauguration  of  the 

cuban  government. 

March  24,  1902. 

Sir:  You  are  authorized  to^provide  for  the  inauguration,  on  the  20th 
of  May  next,  of  the  government  elected  by  the  people  of  Cuba;  and 
upon  the  establishment  of  said  government  to  leave  the  government 
and  control  of  the  island  of  Cuba  to  its  people,  pursuant  to  the  pro- 
visions of  the  act  of  Congress  entitled  "An  act  making  appropriation 
for  the  Army  for  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30, 1902,"  approved  March 
2,  1901. 

Upon  the  transfer  of  government  and  control  to  the  President  and 
Congress  so  elected,  you  will  advise  them  that  such  transfer  is  upon 
the  express  understanding  and  condition  that  the  new  government 
does  thereupon,  and  by  the  acceptance  thereof,  pursuant  to  the  pro- 
visions of  the  appendix  to  the  constitution  of  Cuba,  adopted  by  the 
constitutional  convention  on  the  12th  of  June,  1901,  assume  and 
undertake  all  and  several  the  obligations  assumed  by  the  United  States 
with  respect  to  Cuba  by  the  treaty  between  the  United  States  of 
America  and  Her  Majesty  the  Queen  Regent  of  Spain,  signed  at  Paris 
on  the  10th  day  of  December,  1898.  It  is  the  purpose  of  the  United 
States  Government,  forthwith  upon  the  inauguration  of  the  new  gov- 
ernment of  Cuba,  to  terminate  the  occupancy  of  the  island  by  the 
United  States  and  to  withdraw  from  that  island  the  military  forces  now 
in  occupancy  thereof;  but  for  the  preservation  and  care  of  the  coast 
defenses  of  the  island,  and  to  avoid  leaving  the  island  entirely  defense- 
less against  external  attack,  you  may  leave  in  the  coast  fortifications 
such  small  number  of  artillerymen  as  may  be  necessary,  for  such  rea- 
sonable time,  as  may  be  required  to  enable  the  new  government  to 
organize  and  substitute  therefor  an  adequate  military  force  of  its  own; 
by  which  time  it  is  anticipated  that  the  naval  stations  referred  to  in 
the  statute  and  in  the  appendix  to  the  constitution  above  cited,  will 
have  been  agreed  upon,  and  the  said  artillerymen  may  be  transferred 
thereto. 

You  will  convene  the  Congress  elected  by  the  people  of  Cuba  in 
joint  session  at  such  reasonable  time  before  the  20th  of  May  as  shall 

69 


70  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

be  necessary  therefor,  for  the  purpose  of  performing  the  duties  of 
counting  and  rectifying  the  electoral  vote  for  President  and  Vice- 
President  under  the  fifty-eighth  article  of  the  Cuban  constitution. 
At  the  same  time  you  will  publish  and  certify  to  the  people  of  Cuba 
the  instrument  adopted  as  the  constitution  of  Cuba  by  the  constitu- 
tional convention  on  the  21st  day  of  February,  1901,  together  with 
the  appendix  added  thereto,  and  forming  a  part  thereof,  adopted  by  the 
said  convention  on  the  12th  day  of  June,  1901.  It  is  the  understand- 
ing of  the  Government  of  the  United  States  that  the  government  of 
the  island  will  pass  to  the  new  President  and  Congress  of  Cuba  as  a 
going  concern;  all  the  laws  promulgated  by  the  government  of  occu- 
pation continuing  in  force  and  effect,  and  all  the  judicial  and  subor- 
dinate executive  and  administrative  officers  continuing  in  the  lawful 
discharge  of  their  present  functions  until  changed  by  the  constitu- 
tional officers  of  the  new  government.  At  the  same  moment  the 
responsibility  of  the  United  States  for  the  collection  and  expenditure 
of  revenues,  and  for  the  proper  performance  of  duty  by  the  officers 
and  employees  of  the  insular  government,  will  end,  and  the  respon- 
sibility of  the  new  government  of  Cuba  therefor  will  commence. 

In  order  to  avoid  any  embarrassment  to  the  new  President  which 
might  arise  from  his  assuming  executive  responsibility  with  subordi- 
nates whom  he  does  not  know,  or  in  whom  he  has  not  confidence,  and 
to  avoid  any  occasion  for  sweeping  changes  in  the  civil -service  per- 
sonnel immediately  after  the  inauguration  of  the  new  government, 
approval  is  given  to  the  course  which  you  have  already  proposed  of 
consulting  the  President-elect,  and  substituting,  before  the  20th  of 
May,  wherever  he  shall  so  desire,  for  the  persons  now  holding  official 
positions,  such  persons  as  he  ma}7  designate.  This  method  will  make 
it  necessary  that  the  new  President  and  yourself  should  appoint  repre- 
sentatives to  count  and  certify  the  cash  and  cash  balances,  and  the 
securities  for  deposits,  transferred  to  the  new  government.  The  con- 
sent of  the  owner  of  the  securities  for  deposits  to  the  transfer  thereof 
you  will  of  course  obtain. 

The  vouchers  and  accounts  in  the  office  of  the  auditor  and  elsewhere 
relating  to  the  receipt  and  disbursement  of  moneys  during  the  govern- 
ment of  occupation  must  necessarily  remain  within  the  control,  and 
available  for  the  use,  of  this  department.  Access  to  these  papers  will, 
however,  undoubtedly  be  important  to  the  officers  of  the  new  govern- 
ment in  the  conduct  of  their  business  subsequent  to  the  20th  of  May. 
You  will  accordingly  appoint  an  agent  to  take  possession  of  these 
papers,  and  retain  them  at  such  place  in  the  island  of  Cuba  as  may 
be  agreed  upon  with  the  new  government,  until  they  can  be  removed 
to  the  United  States  without  detriment  to  the  current  business  of  the 
new  government. 


SEPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  7i 

I  desire  that  you  communicate  the  contents  of  this  letter  to  Mr. 
Palma,  the  President-elect,  and  ascertain  whether  the  course  above 
described  accords  with  his  views  and  wishes. 
Very  respectfully, 

Elihu  Root,  /Secretary  of  War. 
Brig.  Gen.  Leonard  Wood, 

Military  Governor  of  Cuba,  Havana,  Cuba. 

[First  indorsement.] 

The  proposals  included  in  this  letter  meet  my  personal  approval. 
Washington,  25th,  1902. 

T.  Estrada  Palma. 

[Second  indorsement.] 

Washington,  D.  C,  Mcvrch  25,  1902. 

Respectfully  returned  to  the  honorable  the  Secretary  of  War. 

I  have  the  honor  to  inform  you  that  I  have  complied  with  the  instruc- 
tions in  the  last  paragraph  of  the  within  letter,  which  I  have  the  honor 
to  return  to  you  with  the  indorsement  of  Senor  T.  Estrada  Palma, 
president-elect  of  Cuba.     Senor  Palma  has  also  placed  his  signature 

on  each  page  of  the  letter. 

Leonard  Wood, 

Brigadier- General,  If.  S.  A.,  Military  Gavemor  of  Cuba. 


War  Department, 
Washington,  March  27,  1902. 

Sir:  In  the  instructions  already  communicated  to  you  as  to  the  with- 
drawal of  the  army  from  Cuba  there  is  a  provision  that  you  may  leave 
a  small  force  of  artillery  troops  for  certain  purposes  therein  specified. 
The  retention  of  these  troops  will  require  that  special  arrangements 
be  made  for  the  maintenance  of  discipline  among  the  forces  so  remain- 
ing with  a  view  to  limit  their  action  to  the  ends  proposed.  From  the 
evacuation  provided  for  in  the  instructions  already  communicated 
exception  will,  therefore,  be  made  of  the  modern  fortifications  and  of 
the  barracks,  quarters,  buildings  and  grounds  appurtenant  thereto, 
constituting  a  part  of  the  seacoast  defenses  of  the  ports  of  Habana, 
Cienfuegos,  and  Santiago,  which  will  continue  to  be  garrisoned  by  the 
troops  of  the  United  States  until  a  date  to  be  hereafter  agreed  upon 
by  the  respective  Governments  of  the  United  States  and  of  Cuba. 

The  posts  to  be  thus  provisionally  garrisoned  by  the  military  forces 
of  the  United  States  will  be  designated  by  you,  and  the  boundaries  of 
the  tracts  constituting  the  reservations  pertaining  to  the  same  will  be 
described,  by  metes  and  bounds,  and  will  also  be  shown  on  maps  and 
plans  to  be  furnished  by  you  to  the  Government  of  Cuba ;  and  the 


72  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

lines  of  demarcation  so  described  and  shown  will  mark  and  define  the 
limits  of  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Government  of  Cuba  and  of  the  mili- 
tary jurisdiction  of  the  United  States  Government  over  the  forces  in 
its  military  service.  The  troops  thus  remaining  as  garrisons  of  the 
artillery  defenses  of  Havana,  Cienfuegos,  and  Santiago  will  enjoy  all 
the  privileges  of  exterritoriality  to  which  vessels  of  war  visiting  the 
territorial  waters  of  a  friendly  power  are  entitled  under  the  generally 
accepted  rules  of  international  law. 

The  troops  remaining  in  garrison  in  the  island  of  Cuba  will,  on  the 
date  of  the  evacuation,  cease  to  constitute  an  occupying  force  and  will 
thereafter  occupy  a  status  of  exterritoriality  to  be  presently  explained. 
The  duties  of  the  senior  officer  will  be  restricted  to  the  command  of 
the  military  forces  under  his  orders,  and  he  will  under  no  circum- 
stances exercise,  or  attempt  to  exercise,  any  authority  whatever  in  the 
governmental  affairs  of  Cuba;  and  as  to  himself  and  the  officers  and 
men  under  his  command  will  carefully  abstain  from  all  interference  in 
local  or  political  affairs.  You  will  ask  from  the  proper  governmental 
authority  an  assurance  that  it  will  refrain  from  ther  exercise  of  juris- 
diction over  the  officers  and  men  composing  the  garrisons  of  the 
defenses  hereinbefore  described,  their  armament  and  equipment,  and 
the  public  property  of  the  United  States  which  is  in  their  custodjr  and 
control. 

The  troops  of  the  United  States  so  remaining  in  the  island  of  Cuba, 
and  there  enjoying  the  privileges  of  exterritoriality,  are  to  be  under 
the  exclusive  military  command  and  control  of  the  senior  officer  sta- 
tioned therewith;  and  you  will  obtain  the  necessary  assurances  that 
the  right  of  transit  of  individuals,  detachments,  or  military  organiza- 
tions, to  and  from  the  United  States  and  from  one  post  to  another  in 
the  island  shall  not  be  denied,  impeded,  or  interfered  with,  and  the 
right  of  the  United  States  Government  to  inspect  and  communicate 
with  the  garrisons  above  named  and  of  its  subordinate  military  com- 
manders to  communicate  with  each  other  and  with  their  military  supe- 
riors in  the  United  States  by  mail,  telegraph,  telephone,  or  by  special 
messenger,  shall  be  maintained  and  protected.  You  will  also  ask  for 
similar  assurances  that  the  several  military  commands  herein  provided 
for  shall  have  the  right  to  procure  supplies  in  the  island  of  Cuba,  to 
receive  military  stores,  and  munitions  of  war  from  the  United  States, 
and  to  ship  stores,  military  supplies,  and  public  property  of  all  kinds, 
and  the  private  property  and  baggage  of  officers  and  enlisted  men  to 
the  United  States,  or  from  one  point  to  another  in  the  island  of  Cuba; 
that  such  importations  and  exports  shall  be  exempt  from  customs  and 
inspections,  from  insular  taxation,  and  from  municipal  impositions  of 
all  kinds;  and  that  such  stores,  supplies,  and  munitions  shall  during 
their  transit  from  point  to  point  in  Cuba  be  entitled  to  a  similar 


REPORT  OP  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  73 

immunity  from  local  jurisdiction  and  from  seizure  by  way  of  execu- 
tion or  otherwise. 

The  Government  of  Cuba  should  also  be  asked  to  pledge  itself  to 
protect  individual  officers  and  enlisted  men,  or  detachments  of  troops 
under  proper  military  commands,  while  on  duty  outside  of  the  limits 
of  the  reservations  hereinbefore  described.  The  proper  local  author- 
ities should  similarly  be  instructed  to  protect  individual  officers  and 
enlisted  men,  who  may  find  themselves  without  the  limits  of  their 
respective  reservations,  while  engaged  in  private  business,  in  making 
or  returning  official  or  personal  visits,  or  while  engaged  in  travel. 

You  will  endeavor  to  impress  upon  the  commander  of  the  artillery 
forces  constituting  the  garrisons  to  be  retained  in  the  island  the  impor- 
tance of  refraining  from  even  the  appearance  of  interference  in 
governmental  or  political  affairs.  He  will  render  appropriate  military 
honors  to  the  Cuban  flag  and  to  all  officers  of  the  Cuban  Government 
who  are  entitled  thereto,  and  will  treat  its  representatives  with  whom 
he  may  come  into  personal  or  official  contact  with  the  greatest  cour- 
tesy and  consideration,  upon  all  occasions. 

Very  respectfully,  Elihu  Root, 

Secretary  of  War. 

Brig.  Gen.  Leonard  Wood, 

Military  Governor  of  Cuba^  Havana,  Cuba. 


War  Department, 
Washington,  May  3,  1902. 
Sir:  I  inclose  herewith  four  papers  marked  respectively  " A,"  "B," 
"C,"  and  "D,"  for  your  official  action.  You  will  perceive  that  these 
are  papers  which  were  prepared  during  my  recent  visit  to  Havana, 
with  some  slight  verbal  changes.  They  have  now  been  submitted  to 
and  approved  by  the  President  and  his  Cabinet.  The  paper  marked 
"A"  you  will  publish  in  the  form  of  a  law  or  order  as  soon  as  practi- 
cable after  its  receipt.  The  paper  marked  "  B,"  with  the  blanks  prop- 
erly filled,  you  will  promulgate  by  publication  in  the  "  Official  Gazette" 
as  soon  as  the  Cuban  Congress  has  examined  the  credentials,  counted 
the  votes,  reached  the  decisions,  and  made  the  adjournment  therein 
recited.  At  the  same  time  such  further  steps  as  you  think  necessary 
should  be  taken  to  give  the  paper  full  publicity  in  all  parts  of  Cuba 
before- the  20th  of  May.  The  paper  marked  "  C,"  with  the  blank  prop- 
erly filled,  you  will  publish  in  the  "  Official  Gazette"  on  the  morning  of 
the  20th  of  May  instant.  At  noon  on  the  20th  of  May  the  newly 
elected  President  and  Congress  of  Cuba  being  assembled  in  one  place, 
you  will  publicly  read  to  them  the  declaration  of  transfer  marked  "  D" 
and  at  the  same  time  deliver  to  the  President  the  original  thereof 


7  4  REPORT   OF   THE   SECRETARY    OF   WA&. 

signed  by  you.  This  act  will  be  the  operative  act  to  terminate  the 
military  government.  At  some  convenient  time  before  the  day  of 
this  ceremony  the  President-elect,  Mr.  Palma,  should  be  informally 
furnished  with  a  copy  of  the  paper  which  you  propose  to  read  and 
deliver,  in  order  that  he  may  have  an  opportunity  to  consider  what 
reply,  if  any,  he  desires  to  make  on  the  moment,  and  also  have  an 
opportunity,  if  he  wishes  to  do  so,  to  provide  a  translation  for  the 
information  of  those  members  of  the  Cuban  Congress  who  do  not  under- 
stand English.  It  would  seem  appropriate  that  the  Cuban  flag  should 
be  raised  by  you  immediately  after  any  reply  which  Mr.  Palma  may 
make,  and  as  a  part  of  the  same  transaction.  This  is,  however,  to  be 
arranged  between  you  and  Mr.  Palma. 

Very  respectfully,  Elihu  Root, 

Secretary  of  War. 
Brig.  Gen.  Leonard  Wood, 

Militainj  Governor  of  Ctiba, 

Iiabana,  Ouba. 


A. 


Whereas  the  seventh  clause  of  the  transitory  rules  contained  in  the 
constitution  adopted  by  the  constitutional  convention  of  Cuba  provides 
as  follows: 

All  laws,  decrees,  regulations,  orders,  and  other  rulings  which  may  be  in  force  at 
the  time  of  the  promulgation  of  this  Constitution  shall  continue  to  be  observed  in  so 
far  as  they  do  not  conflict  with  the  said  Constitution  until  such  time  as  they  may  be 
legally  revoked  or  amended,  and 

Whereas  certain  of  the  laws,  decrees,  regulations,  orders  and  other 
rulings  made  and  promulgated  by  the  military  governor  of  Cuba  and 
now  in  force,  are  in  terms  specifically  applicable  and  apparently  limited 
to  the  military  government  and  the  officers  thereof: 

Now,  therefore,  to  the  end  that  the  foregoing  provision  may  be 
fully  operative  and  that  none  of  the  matters  and  things  to  which  said 
laws,  decrees,  regulations,  orders  and  rulings  relate  shall  be,  or 
appear  to  be,  without  regulation  and  control  after  the  termination  of 
the  military  government  and  pending  action  thereon  by  the  govern- 
ment established  under  the  said  constitution  when  the  same  shall  have 
taken  effect: 

It  is  hereby  declared  and  ordered  that  each  and  every  of  the  said 
laws,  decrees,  regulations,  orders  and  other  rulings  made  and  pro- 
mulgated by  and  under  the  military  government  of  Cuba  shall  be 
deemed  to  be  general  and  continuing  in  its  character,  and  to  be  appli- 
cable to  and  binding  upon  all  officers  of  the  Government  of  Cuba 
under  whatsoever  names  or  titles  who  shall  succeed  the  officers  of  the 
military  government,  and  to  continue  in  force  and  effect  under  what- 
soever government  shall  exist  in  Cuba  until  such  time  as  it  may  be 
legally  revoked  or  amended  pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  the  Consti- 
tution aforesaid. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  75 

B. 

Headquarters  Department  of  Cuba, 

Havana,  May  — ,  1902. 

It  is  hereby  made  known  to  the  people  of  Cuba: 

1.  That  the  Congress  of  Cuba,  elected  on  December  31,  1901,  and 
February  24, 1902,  under  the  provisions  of  the  electoral  law  published 
in  orders  No.  218,  October  14,  1901,  these  headquarters,  having  been 
duly  convened  in  Havana  on  the  5th  day  of  Ma}',  1902,  pursuant  to 
orders  No.  101,  April  14,  1902,  these  headquarters,  has  examined  into 
the  credentials  and  decided  as  to  the  validity  of  the  election  of  its 
members  and  has  found  and  decided  that  the  following-named  persons 
have  been  duly  elected  senators: 

(Here  will  follow  the  list  of  senators.) 

And  the  following-named  persons  have  been  duly  elected  represent- 
atives: 
(Here  will  follow  the  list  of  representatives.) 

2.  That  the  Congress  so  convened,  after  counting  and  ratifying  the 
electoral  vote,  has  found  and  proclaimed  to  be  elected  President  of  the 
Republic  of  Cuba  Tomas  Estrada  Palma,  and  to  be  elected  Vice-Presi- 
dent of  the  Republic  of  Cuba  Luis  Esteves  Romero. 

3.  That  the  said  Congress  has  adjourned  to  meet  at  Havana  on  the 
20th  day  of  May,  1902,  at  12  o'clock  noon. 

4.  That  on  the  said  20th  day  of  May,  1902,  at  12  o'clock  noon,  the 
constitution  adopted  by  the  constitutional  convention  at  Havana  on 
the  21st  day  of  February,  1901,  together  with  the  appendix  to  the  said 
constitution  adopted  by  said  convention  on  the  12th  day  of  June,  1901, 
will  be  promulgated  as  the  constitution  of  the  Republic  of  Cuba,  and 
will  go  into  full  force  and  effect;  and  thereupon  and  at  that  time  the 
occupation  of  Cuba  by  the  United  States  and  the  military  government 
of  the  island  will  cease  and  determine,  and  the  government  and  con- 
trol of  the  island  will  be  transferred  to  the  President  and  Congress  so 
elected,  to  be  held  and  exercised  by  them  under  the  constitution  so 
promulgated. 

Such  transfer  will  be  upon  the  understanding  and  condition  that  the 
new  government  does  thereby  and  by  the  acceptance  thereof,  pursu- 
ant to  the  provisions  of  the  said  appendix  to  the  constitution,  assume 
and  undertake  all  and  several  the  obligations  assumed  by  the  United 
States  with  respect  to  Cuba  by  the  treaty  between  the  United  States 
of  America  and  Her  Majesty  the  Queen  Regent  of  Spain,  signed  at 
Paris  on  the  10th  day  of  December,  1898. 

Military  Governor. 


C. 

Headquarters  Department  of  Cuba, 

Havana,  May  20,  1902. 

The  following  constitution,  adopted  by  the  constitutional  convention 
of  the  people  of  Cuba  on  the  21st  day  of  February,  1901,  together 
with  and  including  the  appendix  thereto,  adopted  by  said  convention 
on  the  12th  day  of  June,  1901,  is  hereby  promulgated  as  the  consti- 


16  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

tution  of  the  Republic  of  Cuba,  and  declared  to  be  in  full  force  and 
effect  on  and  after  this  day. 

(Take  in  the  constitution,  omitting  date  and  signatures  as  marked  in 
pencil  in  the  Gazette  of  April  14,  1902,  marked  K.) 

Military  Governor  of  Cuba. 


D. 


Headquarters  Department  of  Cuba, 

Havana,  Man/  20,  1902. 

To  the  President  and  Congress  of  the  Republic  of  Cuba. 

Sirs:  Under  the  direction  of  the  President  of  the  United  States,  1 
now  transfer  to  you  as  the  duly  elected  representatives  of  the  people 
of  Cuba  the  government  and  control  of  the  island;  to  be  held  and 
exercised  by  you,  under  the  provisions  of  the  constitution  of  the 
Republic  of  Cuba  heretofore  adopted  by  the  constitutional  convention 
ana  this  day  promulgated;  and  I  hereby  declare  the  occupation  of 
Cuba  by  the  United  States  and  the  military  government  of  the  island 
to  be  ended. 

This  transfer  of  government  and  control  is  upon  the  express  condi- 
tion, and  the  Government  of  the  United  States  will  understand,  that 
by  the  acceptance  thereof  you  do  now,  pursuant  to  the  provisions  of 
the  said  constitution,  assume  and  undertake,  all  and  several,  the  obli- 
gations assumed  by  the  United  States  with  respect  to  Cuba,  by  the 
treaty  between  the  United  States  of  America  and  Her  Majesty  the 
Queen  Regent  of  Spain,  signed  at  Paris  on  the  10th  day  or  Decem- 
ber, 1898. 

All  money  obligations  of  the  military  government  down  to  this  date 
have  been  paid  as  far  as  practicable.    The  public  civil  funds  derived  from 

the  revenues  of  Cuba  transferred  to  you  this  day  amounting  to  $ , 

are  transferred  subject  to  such  claims  and  obligations  properly  paya- 
ble out  of  the  revenues  of  the  island  as  may  remain.  The  sum  of 
$100,000  has  been  reserved  from  the  transfer  of  funds  to  defray  antic- 
ipated expenses  of  accounting,  reporting,  and  winding  up  the  affairs 
of  the  military  government,  after  which  any  unexpended  balance  of 
said  sum  will  be  paid  into  the  treasury  of  the  island. 

The  plans  already  devised  for  the  sanitation  of  the  cities  of  the  island 
and  to  prevent  a  recurrence  of  epidemic  and  infectious  diseases,  to 
which  the  Government  of  the  United  States  understands  that  tie  pro- 
vision of  the  constitution  contained  in  the  fifth  article  of  the  appendix 
applies,  are  as  follows: 

1.  A  plan  for  the  paving  and  sewering  of  the  city  of  Havana,  for 
which  a  contract  has  been  awarded  by  the  municipality  of  that  city  to 
McGivuev,  Rokeby  &  Co. 

2.  A  plan  for  waterworks  to  supply  the  city  of  Santiago  de  Cuba, 
prepared  by  Capt.  S.  D.  Rockenbach,  in  charge  of  the  district  of  San- 
tiago, and  approved  by  the  military  governor,  providing  for  taking 
water  from  tne  wells  of  San  Juan  Canyon  and  pumping  the  same  to 
reservoirs  located  on  the  heights  to  the  east  of  the  city. 


REPORT   OF   THE   SECRETARY    OF    WAR.  77 

3.  A  plan  for  the  sewering  of  the  city  of  Santiago  de  Cuba,  a  con- 
tract for  which  was  awarded  to  Michael  J.  Dady  &  Co.  by  the  military 
governor  of  Cuba,  and  now  under  construction. 

4.  The  rules  and  regulations  established  by  the  President  of  the 
United  States  on  the  17th  of  January,  1899,  for  the  maintenance  of 

2 uarantine  against  epidemic  diseases  at  the  ports  of  Havana,  Matanzas, 
Jienfuegos,  and  Santiago  de  Cuba,  and  thereafter  at  the  other  ports 
of  the  island,  as  extended  and  amended  and  made  applicable  to  future 

conditions  by  the  order  of  the  military  governor,  dated , 

published  in  the  Official  Gazette  of  Havana  on  the day  of  April, 

1902. 

5.  The  sanitary  rules  and  regulations  in  force  in  the  city  of  Havana 
(and  in  any  other  city  having  official  rules,  etc.). 

aIt  is  understood  by  the  United  States  that  the  present  government 
of  the  Isle  of  Pines  will  continue  as  a  de  facto  government,  pending 
the  settlement  of  the  title  to  said  island  by  treaty  pursuant  to  the  Cuban 
constitution  and  the  act  of  Congress  of  the  United  States  approved 
March  2,  1902. 

aI  am  further  charged  by  the  President  of  the  United  States  to 
deliver  to  you  the  letter  which  I  now  hand  you. 

Military  Governor. 


Action  in  Havana  under  above  Instructions. 

Correspondence  relative  to  the  United  States  artillery  forces  remaining 
m  Cuba  after  the  termination  of  the  military  government  of  that 
island  and  their  transfer  eventually  to  naval  stations,  being  a  letter  to 
Hon.  T.  Estrada  Palm  a,  dated  Ilavana ,  May  H,  1902,  Mr.  Palmds 
reply  thereto,  dated  May  16,  and  letter  of  may  1£  transmitting  the 
orders  of  the  military  governor  of  Cuha  to  the  commanding  officer  of 
artillery  forces  to  remain  in  Cuba. 

Headquarters  Military  Governor,  Island  of  Cuba, 

Havana,  May  H,  1902. 
Honorable  T.  Estrada  Palma, 

President-elect,  Republic  of  Cuba,  Havana,  Cuba. 

Sir:  As  you  are  aware,  a  certain  force  of  artillery  are  to  be  left  in 
the  fortifications  at  Santiago,  Cienfuegos  and  Havana,  pending  such 
arrangement  as  to  naval  stations  as  are  to  be  made  between  the  Gov- 
ernment of  the  United  States  and  the  Government  of  Cuba. 

The  posts  thus  to  be  garrisoned  by  the  military  forces  of  the  United 
States  will  be  designated  and  their  limits  defined  by  metes  and 
bounds  to  be  shown  upon  maps,  in  order  that  the  exact  limits  of  the 
military  jurisdiction  oi  the  United  States  Government  over  the  forces 
in  the  military  service  may  be  distinctly  defined. 

The  troops  thus  remaining  are  to  enjoy  all  the  privileges  of  exterri- 
toriality to  which  vessels  of  war  visiting  the  territorial  waters  of  a 
friendly  power  are  entitled  under  the  generally  accepted  rules  of  inter- 
national law. 

These  troops  will  cease  to  constitute  an  occupying  force  and  will 
occupy  a  status  of  exterritoriality.    They  will  have  no  intervention  in 

«As  amended  by  letters  May  10  and  16. 


78  REPORT  OF  THE  8EORETARY  OF  WAR. 

the  governmental,  local  or  political  affairs  of  the  Cuban  Government, 
and  it  is  desired  that  you  grant  an  assurance  that  the  Government  of 
the  Republic  of  Cuba  will  refrain  from  the  exercise  of  jurisdiction 
over  the  officers  and  men  composing  the  garrisons  of  tne  defenses 
herein  described,  their  armament  and  equipment,  and  the  public  prop- 
erty of  the  United  States  which  is  in  their  custody  and  control. 

it  is  further  desired  that  you  give  the  necessary  assurance  that  the 
right  of  transit  of  individuals,  detachments,  or  military  organizations 
to  and  from  the  United  States  and  from  one  post  to  another  in  the 
island  of  Cuba  shall  not  be  denied,  impeded,  or  interfered  with,  and 
the  right  of  the  United  States  Government  to  inspect  and  communi- 
cate with  the  garrisons  above  named  and  of  its  subordinate  military 
commanders  to  communicate  with  each  other  and  with  their  superiors 
in  the  United  States  by  mail,  telegraph,  telephone,  or  by  special  mes- 
senger, shall  be  maintained  and  protected;  and  that  the  military  com- 
mands herein  referred  to  shall  have  the  right  to  procure  supplies  in 
the  island  of  Cuba,  to  receive  military  stores,  ana  munitions  of  war 
from  the  United  States,  and  to  ship  stores,  military  supplies,  and  pub- 
lic property  of  all  kinds  and  the  private  property  of  officers  and 
enlisted  men  to  the  United  States,  from  one  point  to  another  in  the 
island  of  Cuba;  that  such  importations  and  exports  shall  be  exempt 
from  customs  inspections  and  duties,  from  insular  taxation  and  from 
municipal  impositions  of  all  kinds;  and  that  such  stores,  supplies,  and 
munitions  shall,  during  their  transit  from  point  to  point  in  Cuba,  be 
entitled  to  a  similar  immunity  from  local  jurisdiction  and  from  seizure 
by  way  of  execution  or  otherwise.  The  commanding  officer  will  be 
instructed  to  see  that  there  is  no  abuse  of  the  courtesy  thus  extended. 

Assurance  is  also  requested  that  the  Government  of  Cuba  pledge 
itself  to  protect  the  individual  officers  and  enlisted  men,  or  detach- 
ments of  troops  under  proper  commands,  while  outside  of  the  limits 
of  the  reservation  hereinbefore  described;  and  that  the  proper  local 
authorities  be  instructed  to  protect  individual  officers  and  enlisted 
men  who  may  find  themselves  without  the  limits  of  their  respective 
reservations,  while  engaged  in  private  business,  in  making  or  return- 
ing official  or  personal  visits,  or  while  engaged  in  travel. 

Assurance  on  these  points  is  desired  from  you  as  President-elect  of 
Cuba,  with  the  further  assurance  that  the  Executive  branch  of  the 
Cuban  Government  will  exercise  its  influence  to  the  end  that  that  Cuban 
Government,  when  constituted,  will  duly  confirm  the  assurances  above 
requested. 

The  officers  and  troops  of  the  United  States  will  render  appropriate 
honors  to  the  Cuban  flag  and  to  all  officials  of  the  Cuban  Government. 

It  is  earnestly  desired  that  the  subject-matter  of  this  letter  receive 
your  early  consideration  and  approval. 

Very  respectfully,  Leonard  Wood, 

Military  Governor  of  Cuba. 


Havana,  May  16,  1908. 
General  Leonard  Wood, 

Military  Governor  of  Cuba. 

Sir:  I  beg  to  acknowledge  your  communication  of  the  14th  instant 
in  reference  to  the  force  of  United  States  Artillery  which  are  to  remain 


BEPOjtwT   OF   THE    8E0BETARY    OF    WAR.  79 

in  certain  fortifications  of  the  island  of  Cuba,  pending  the  arrangement 
as  to  naval  stations  to  be  made  between  the  Government  of  the  United 
States  and  the  Government  of  Cuba. 

I  give  you  the  assurances,  as  President-elect,  that  I  will  do  all  which 
depends  on  me  to  carry  out  the  desires  expressed  in  the  said  commu- 
nication. 

Yours,  very  truly,  T.  Estrada  Palma. 


Headquarters  Military  Governor,  Island  of  Cuba, 

Havana,  May  11+,  190°2. 
Colonel  William  L.  Haskin, 

Artillery  Corps,  U.  S.  Army, 

Commanding  Artillery  Defenses,  Havana,  Cuba. 

Sir:  You  have  been  designated  to  command  the  United  States 
forces  which  are  to  remain  in  Cuba  subsequent  to  the  termination  of 
the  military  government  on  the  20th  of  May,  1902. 

The  following  relative  to  your  duties,  and  all  that  pertains  to  your 
relation  with  the  Cuban  Government,  is  transmitted  to  you  for  your 
information  and  guidance.  The  posts  to  be  garrisoned  by  the  troops 
under  your  command  are: 

(1)  Morro  Castle  Barracks,  Santiago,  Cuba.  The  military  jurisdic- 
tion will  be  coincident  with  the  boundaries  of  the  military  reservation 
as  heretofore  recognized  by  the  military  government,  and  as  indicated 
on  the  within  map  hereunto  attached,  marked  "A." 

(2)  Howell  Barracks,  at  the  entrance  of  the  harbor  of  Cienfuegos, 
Cuba.  The  military  jurisdiction  to  be  coincident  with  the  present  ter- 
ritory occupied  as  a  military  reservation,  as  indicated  in  the  map  here- 
unto attached,  marked  "B." 

(3)  Cabana  Barracks,  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  entrance  to  the  har- 
bor of  Havana,  including  Batteries  Nos.  1  and  2  and  Velasco  Battery. 

The  military  jurisdiction  over  the  barracks  and  batteries  above  men- 
tioned will  be  coincident  with  the  territory  embraced  in  the  map 
hereunto  attached,  marked  "C."  The  jurisdiction  of  the  military 
commander  does  not  include  the  Morro  and  Cabana  fortresses. 

(4)  Santa  Clara  Batteixy  and  batteries  Nos.  3,  1+,  and  5. — The  mili- 
tary jurisdiction  being  coincident  with  the  maps  hereunto  attached, 
marked  "  D,"  "  E,"  and  ';  F." 

All  forts  and  reservations  occupied  by  troops  will,  in  addition  to 
being  shown  on  maps  and  plans,  be  described  by  metes  and  bounds, 
and  the  lines  of  demarcation  so  described  and  shown  will  mark  and 
define  the  limits  of  the  military  jurisdiction  of  the  United  States  Gov- 
ernment over  the  forces  in  its  militarv  service. 

The  troops  remaining  as  garrisons  of  the  military  defenses  referred 
to  at  Havana,  Cienfuegos,  and  Santiago  will  cease  to  constitute  an 
occupying  force  and  will  enjoy  all  the  privileges  of  exterritoriality  to 
which  vessels  of  war  visiting  the  territorial  waters  of  a  friendly  power 
are  entitled  under  the  generally  accepted  rules  of  international  law. 

The  duties  of  the  senior  officer  will  be  restricted  to  the  command  of 
the  military  forces  under  his  orders,  and  he  will  under  no  circum- 
stances exercise  or  attempt  to  exercise  any  authority  whatever  in  the 


80  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

governmental  affairs  of  Cuba;  and  as  to  himself  and  the  officers  and 
men  under  his  command  will  carefully  abstain  from  all  interference  in 
local  or  political  affairs. 

Assurance  will  be  requested  from  the  Government  of  Cuba  that  it 
will  refrain  from  the  exercise  of  jurisdiction  over  the  officers  and  men 
composing  the  garrisons  of  the  defenses  hereinbefore  described,  their 
armament  and  equipment,  and  the  public  property  of  the  United 
States  which  is  in  their  custody  and  control. 

The  troops  of  the  United  States  so  remaining  in  the  Island  of  Cuba, 
and  there  enjoying  the  privileges  of  exterritoriality,  are  to  be  under 
the  exclusive  military  command  and  control  of  the  senior  officer 
stationed  therewith,  and  assurance  will  be  obtained  from  the  Cuban 
Government  that  the  right  of  transit  of  individuals,  detachments,  or 
military  organizations,  to  and  from  the  United  States  and  from  one 
post  to  another  in  the  island  of  Cuba,  shall  not  be  denied,  impeded,  or 
interfered  with,  and  the  right  of  the  United  States  Government  to 
inspect  and  communicate  with  the  garrisons  above  named,  and  of  its 
subordinate  military  commanders  to  communicate  with  each  other  and 
with  their  military  superiors  in  the  United  States  by  mail,  telegraph, 
telephone,  or  by  special  messenger,  shall  be  maintained  and  protected. 

Assurance  will  be  requested  from  the  Cuban  Government  that  it 
will  permit  the  several  military  commands  to  receive  military  stores, 
and  munitions  of  war  from  the  United  States,  and  to  ship  stores, 
military  supplies,  and  public  property  of  all  kinds,  and  the  private 
property  and  baggage  of  officers  and  enlisted  men  to  the  united 
btates,  or  from  one  point  to  another  in  the  island  of  Cuba;  that  such 
importations  and  exports  shall  be  exempt  from  customs  duties  and 
inspections,  from  insular  taxation  and  from  municipal  impositions  of  all 
kinds;  and  that  such  stores,  supplies  and  munitions  shall,  during  their 
transit  from  point  to  point  in  Cuba,  be  entitled  to  immunity  from  local 
jurisdiction  and  from  seizure  by  way  of  execution  or  otherwise,  and 
you  are  instructed  to  exercise  all  necessary  precautions  to  see  that  the 
courtesy  hereby  extended  is  not  abused. 

The  Government  of  Cuba  will  also  be  asked  to  protect  individual 
officers  and  enlisted  men,  or  detachments  of  troops  under  proper  mili- 
taiy  commands,  while  on  duty  outside  of  the  limits  of  the  reservations 
hereinbefore  referred  to.  The  proper  local  authorities  will  also  be 
requested  to  protect  individual  officers  and  enlisted  men,  who  may  find 
themselves  without  the  limits  of  their  respective  reservations,  while 
engaged  in  private  business,  in  making  or  returning  official  or  personal 
visits,  or  while  engaged  in  travel. 

You  must  bear  always  in  mind  that  even  the  appearance  of  interfer- 
ence in  governmental  or  political  affairs  must  be  avoided  by  the  offi- 
cers and  forces  of  the  United  States;  and  that  appropriate  military 
honors  will  be  rendered  the  Cuban  flag  and  to  all  officers  of  the  Cuban 
Government  who  are  entitled  thereto,  and  its  representatives  with 
whom  you  may  come  into  personal  or  official  contact  will  be  treated 
with  the  greatest  courtesy  and  consideration  upon  all  occasions. 
Very  respectfully, 

Leonard  Wood, 
Military  Governor  of  Ouba. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OP  WAR.  81 

No.  148.  Headquarters  Department  op  Cuba, 

Hcwma,  May  IS,  1902. 

Whereas  the  seventh  clause  of  the  transitory  rules  contained  in  the 
constitution  adopted  by  the  constitutional  convention  of  Cuba  pro- 
vides as  follows: 

"All  laws,  decrees,  regulations,  orders  and  other  rulings  which  may  be  in  force 
at  the  time  of  the  promulgation  of  this  constitution  shall  continue  to  be  observed,  in 
so  far  as  they  do  not  conflict  with  the  said  constitution,  until  such  time  as  they  may 
be  legally  revoked  or  amended." 

And  whereas  eertain  of  the  laws,  decrees,  regulations,  orders  and 
other  rulings  made  and  promulgated  by  the  military  governor  of  Cuba 
and  now  in  force  are  in  terms  specifically  applicable  and  apparently 
limited  to  the  military  government  and  the  officers  thereof; 

Now,  therefore,  to  the  end  that  the  foregoing  provision  may  be  fully 
operative,  and  that  none  of  the  matters  and  things  to  which  said  laws, 
decrees,  regulations,  orders  and  rulings  relate  shall  be  or  appear  to 
be  without  regulation  and  control  after  the  termination  of  the  mili- 
tary government  and  pending  action  thereon  by  the  government  estab- 
lished under  the  said  constitution  when  the  same  shallhave  taken  effect. 

It  is  hereby  declared  and  ordered  that  each  and  every  of  the  said 
laws,  decrees,  regulations,  orders  and  other  rulings  made  and  promul- 
gated by  and  under  the  military  government  of  Cuba  shall  be  deemed 
to  be  general  and  continuing  in  its  character,  and  to  be  applicable  to 
and  binding  upon  all  officersK)f  the  Government  of  Cuba  under  what- 
soever names  or  titles  who  shall  succeed  the  officers  of  the  military 
government,  and  to  continue  in  force  and  effect  under  whatsoever 
government  shall  exist  in  Cuba  until  such  time  as  it  may  be  legally 
revoked  or  amended  pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  the  constitution 
aforesaid. 

[seal.]  Leonard  Wood, 

Military  Governor. 


No.  158.  Headquarters  Department  of  Cuba, 

Havana,  May  16,  1902. 

It  is  hereby  made  known  to  the  people  of  Cuba: 

1.  That  the  Congress  of  Cuba  elected  on  December  31,  1901,  and 
February  24,  1902,  under  the  provisions  of  the  electoral  law  pub- 
lished in  Orders  No.  218,  October  14, 1901,  these  headquarters,  having 
been  duly  convened  in  Havana  on  the  5th  day  of  May,  1902,  pursuant 
to  Orders  No.  101,  April  14,  1902,  these  headquarters,  has  examined 
into  the  credentials  and  decided  as  to  the  validity  of  the  election  of  its 
members  and  has  found  and  decided  that  the  following-named  persons 
have  been  duly  elected  senators: 

Province. 

Adolfo  Cabello  y  Bermiidez Havana. 

Nicasio  Estrada  y  Mora 

Carlos  I.  Parraga  y  Hernandez 

Alfredo  Zayas  y  Alfonso 

Luis  Fortun  y  Govfn Matanzas. 

Pedro  E.  Betancourt  y  Davalos 

Domingo  Mendez  Capote 

Manuel  Sanguily  y  Garit 

WAB  1902— VOL  1 6 


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82  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

Province. 

Antonio  Sanchez  Bustamante  y  Sirvent Pinar  del  Rfo. 

Manuel  Lazo  Valdes " 

Ricardo  Dolz  y  Arango " 

Antonio  Gonz&les  BeTtran " 

Francisco  Carillo  y  Morales Santa  Clara. 

Jose"  de  Jesus  Monteagudo  y  Consuegra 

Martfn  Morua  Delgado 

Jose"  Antonio  Frfas  y  Perez 

Salvador  Cisneros  Betancourt Puerto  Prfncipe. 

Manuel  Ram6n  Silva  Zayas " 

Augusto  Betancourt  Pichardo " 

Tomas  RecioLoin&z " 

Antonio  Bravo  Correoso Santiago  de  Cuba. 

Eudaldo  Tamayo  Pav6n " 

Jos6  Ferndndez  Rondan " 

Federico  Rey  Bruchet " 

and  the  following-named  persons  have  been  duly  elected  representa- 
tives: 

Province. 

Gonzalo  de  Quesada Pinar  del  Rfo. 

Alberto  Nodarse " 

Alfredo  Betancourt  Manduley " 

Faustino  Guerra.. " 

Guillermo  Gonz&les  Arocha " 

Jose"  Antonio  Blanco " 

Jose*  Rodriguez  Acosta " 

Juan  Jose*  ae  la  Maza  v  Artola Havana. 

Francisco  Peraza " 

Augustfn  Garcfa  Osuna 

Mario  Garcia  Kohly ^ 

Ambrosio  Bones " 

Jos£  Lorenzo  Castellanon " 

Gustavo  P£rez  Abreu " 

Carlos  de  la  Torre " 

Felipe  Gonzdles  Sarrafn " 

Antonio  Gonzalo  P£rez " 

Francisco  Leyte  Vidal " 

Francisco  Chenard " 

Bernabe*  Boza " 

Jose*  A.  Mall>erti " 

Jos6  Manuel  Govfn " 

Carlos  Font  Sterling " 

Juan  Antonio  Garmendfa Matanzas. 

Manuel  Sobrado " 

Teodoro  Cardenal " 

Joaquin  Garcfa  Pola " 

Felipe  Fontanills " 

Alejandro  Neyra :  " 

Fernando  M6ndez  Capote " 

Juan  Felipe  Risque! " 

Pedro  Cue Santa  Clara. 

Jose*  M.  Nunez " 

Ricardo  Fuste* 

Pebro  Albarran " 

Carlos  Mendieta " 

Santiago  Garcfa  Cafiizares  " 

Enrique  Villuendas " 

Antonio  Torrado " 

Pelayo  Garcfa " 

Rafael  Martfnez  Ortfz.   " 

Manuel  Gutierrez  Quiros " 

Gonzalo  Garcfa  Vieta " 

Fernando  Escobar " 

Augustfn  Cruz  Gonzales " 

Juan  Xiques  y  Arango Puerto  Prfncipe. 

Pedro  Mendoza  Guerra u 


BEPOET  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  83 

Province. 

Enrique  Loinaz  del  Castillo Puerto  Principe. 

Francisco  Duque  Estrada  Varona " 

Rafael  Portuondo  Tamayo Santiago  de  Cuba. 

Carlos  Manuel  de  Cespedes " 

Luis  A.  Columbia " 

Mariano  Corona " 

Pedro  Martfnez  Rojas " 

Antonio  Poveda  Ferrer " 

Juan  Le6n  Bello " 

Augustfn  Cebreco " 

AlvaroCatd " 

Am£rico  Feria  Nogales " 

Antonio  Masferrer  y  Grave  de  Peralta " 

Faustino  Sirven " 

2.  That  the  Congress  so  convened,  after  counting  and  ratifying  the 
electoral  vote  has  found  and  proclaimed  to  be  elected  President  of  the 
Republic  of  Cuba  Tomas  Estrada  Palma,  and  to  be  elected  Vice-Presi- 
dent of  the  Republic  of  Cuba  Luis  Estevez  Romero. 

3.  That  the  said  Congress  has  adjourned  to  meet  at  Havana  on  the  20th 
day  of  May,  1902,  at  12  o'clock  noon. 

4.  That  on  the  said  20th  day  of  May,  1902,  at  12  o'clock  noon,  the 
constitution  adopted  by  the  constitutional  convention  at  Havana  on  the 
21st  day  of  February,  1901,  together  with  the  appendix  to  the  said  con- 
stitution adopted  by  said  convention  on  the  12th  day  of  June,  1901, 
will  be  promulgated  as  the  constitution  of  the  Republic  of  Cuba,  and 
will  go  into  full  force  and  effect;  and  thereupon  and  at  that  time  the 
occupation  of  Cuba  by  the  United  States  the  military  government  of 
the  island  will  cease  and  determine,  and  the  government  and  control 
of  the  island  will  be  transferred  to  the  President  and  Congress  so  elected, 
to  be  held  and  exercised  by  them  under  the  constitution  so  promulgated. 

Such  transfer  will  be  upon  the  understanding  and  condition  that  the 
new  government  does  thereby  and  by  the  acceptance  thereof,  pursuant 
to  the  provisions  of  the  said  appendix  to  the  constitution,  assume  and 
undertake  all  and  several  the  obligations  assumed  by  the  United  States 
with  respect  to  Cuba  by  the  treaty  between  the  United  States  of 
America  and  Her  Majesty  the  Queen  Regent  of  Spain,  signed  at  Paris 
on  the  10th  day  of  December,  1898. 

Leonard  Wood, 
Military  Governor. 


Martes,  20  de  Mayo  de  1902.  Oaceta  de  la  Habana  (Periodieo  Oficial 
del  Gobiemd).  Edieidn  Extraor  dinar  ia.  Parte  Oficial.  Awmini- 
stracidn  General.     Gobierno  Militar  de  la  Ida  de  Cvba. 

No.  181. 

Cuartel  General,  Departamento  de  Cuba, 

Habana,  Mayo  20  de  1902. 

La  Constituci6n  que  sigue,  acordada  por  la  Convenci6n  Constituyente 
del  pueblo  de  Cuba  el  dia  21  de  Febrero  de  1901,  juntamente  6  inclu- 
yendo  el  Ap^ndice  k  la  misma  acordado  por  dicha  Convention  el  dia 
12  de  Junio  de  1901,  queda  por  la  presente  promulgada  como  Consti- 
tuci6n  de  la  Republica  de  Cuba,  y  se  declara  que  queda  en  todo  su 
vigor  y  efecto  desde  esta  fecha  en  adelante: 


84  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 


CONSTITUCI6N  DE  LA  REPtJBLICA  DE  CUBA. 

Nosotros,  los  Delegados  del  pueblo  de  Cuba,  reunidos  en  Convenci6n 
Constituyente,  &  fin  de  redactor  y  adoptar  la  Ley  Fundamental  de  su 
organizaci6n  como  Estado  independiente  y  soberano,  estableciendo  un 
gobierno  capaz  de  cumplir  sus  obligaciones  internacionales,  mantener 
el  orden,  asegurar  la  libertad  y  la  justicia  y  promover  el  bienestar 
general— acordamos  y  adoptamos,  invocando  el  favor  de  Dios,  la 
siguiente  Constituci6n: 

TiTULO  I. 
DE  LA  NACl6N,  DE  SU  FORMA  DE  GOBIERNO,  Y  DEL  TERRTFORIO  N  AC  ION  A  L. 

ArtIculo  1.°  El  pueblo  de  Cuba  se  constituye  en  Estado  indepen- 
diente y  soberano,  y  adopta,  como  forma  de  gobierno,  la  republicans. 

Art/culo  2.°  Componen  el  territorio  de  la  Repfiblica,  la  Isla  de 
Cuba,  asi  como  las  islas  y  cayos  adyacentes  que  con  ella  estaban  bajo 
la  soberania  de  Espana  hasta  la  ratificaci6n  del  Tratado  de  Paris  de  10 
de  Diciembre  de  1898. 

ArtIculo  3.°  El  territorio  de  la  Repfiblica  se  divide  en  las  seis  Pro- 
vincial que  existen  actualmcnte,  y  con  sus  mismos  If  mites;  correspon- 
diendo  ai  Consejo  Provincial  de  cada  una  determinar  sus  respectivas 
denominaciones. 

Las  Provincias  podr&n  incorporarse  unas  a  otras  6  dividirse  para 
f ormar  nuevas  Provincias,  mediante  acuerdo  de  los  respectivos  Consejos 
Provinciales  y  aprobaci6n  del  Congreso. 

TITULO  II. 
DE   LOS   CUBANOS. 

ArtIculo  4.°  La  condicion  de  cubano  se  adquiere  por  nacimiento  6 
por  natural  izacion. 

ArtIculo  5.°  Son  cubanos  por  nacimiento: 

1.°  Los  nacidos,  dentro  6  fuera  del  territorio  de  la  Repfiblica,  de 
padres  cubanos. 

2.°  Los  nacidos  en  el  territorio  de  la  Repfiblica  de  padres  extran- 
jeros,  siempre  que,  cumplida  la  mayor  edad,  reclamen  su  inscripci6n, 
como  cubanos,  en  el  Registro  correspondiente. 

3.°  Los  nacidos  en  el  extranjevo  de  padres  naturales  de  Cuba  que 
hayan  perdido  la  nacionalidad  cubana,  siempre  que,  cumplida  la  mayor 
edad,  reclamen  su  inscripcion,  como  cubanos,  en  el  mismo  Registro. 

ArtIculo  6.°  Son  cubanos  por  naturalizaci6n: 

1.°  Los  extranjeros  que  habiendo  pertenecido  al  Ej6rcito  Libertador 
reclamen  la  nacionalidad  cubana  dentro  de  los  seis  meses  siguientes  i 
la  promulgaci6n  de  esta  Constituci6n. 

2.°  Los  extranjeros  que  establecidos  en  Cuba  antes  del  1.°  de  Enero 
de  1899  hayan  conservado  su  domicilio  despu^s  de  dicha  fecha,  siempre 
que  reclamen  la  nacionalidad  cubana  dentro  de  los  seis  meses  siguientes 
a  la  promulgacion  de  esta  Constitucion,  6,  si  fueren  menores,  dentro 
de  un  plazo  igual  desde  que  alcanzaren  la  mayoria  de  edad. 

3.°  Los  extranjeros  que,  despues  de  cinco  anos  de  residencia  en  el 
territorio  de  la  Repfiblica,  y  no  menos  de  dos  desde  que  declaren  su 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  85 

intenci6n  de  adquirir  la  nacionalidad  cubana,  obtengan  carta  de  natu- 
ralizaci6n  con  arreglo  &  las  leyes. 

4.°  Los  espanoles  residentes  en  el  territorio  de  Cuba  el  11  de  Abril 
de  1899  que  no  se  hayan  inscripto  como  tales  espanoles  en  los  Registros 
correspondientes,  hasta  igual  mes  y  dia  de  1900. 

5.°  Los  africanos  que  navan  sido  eselavos  en  Cuba,  y  los  emancipa- 
dos  comprendidos  en  el  articulo  13  del  Tratado  de  28  de  Junio  de  1835, 
celebrado  entre  Espana  e*  Inglaterra. 

ArtIculo  7.°  La  condicion  de  cubano  se  pierde: 

1.°  Por  adquirir  ciudadanfa  extranjera. 

2.°  Por  admitir  empleo  u  honores  de  otro  Gobierno  sin  licencia  del 
Senado. 

3.°  Por  entrar  al  servicio  de  las  armas  de  una  Nacion  extranjera  sin 
la  misma  licencia. 

4.°  Por  residir  el  cubano  naturalizado  cinco  anos  continuos  en  el  pais 
de  su  nacimiento,  &  no  ser  por  razon  de  empleo  6  comision  del  Gobierno 
de  la  Republica. 

ARTfcuLO  8.°  La  condicion  de  cubano  podra  recobrarse  con  arreglo 
&  lo  que  prescriban  las  leyes. 

ArtIculo  9.°  Todo  cubano  est&  obligado — 

1.°  A  servir  &  la  patria  con  las  armas,  en  los  casos  y  forma  que 
determinen  las  leyes. 

2.°  A  contribuir  para  los  gastos  publicos,  en  la  forma  y  proporci6n 
que  dispongan  las  leyes. 

TlTULO  HI- 
DE LOS  EXTRANJEROS. 

ArtIculo  10.  Los  extranjeros  residentes  en  el  territorio  de  la 
Republica,  se  equipardn  k  los  cubanos: 

1.°  En  cuanto  k  la  protecci6n  de  sus  personas  y  bienes. 

2.°  En  cuanto  al  goce  de  los  derechos  garantizados  en  la  seccion  l.A 
del  titulo  siguiente>  con  excepcion  de  los  que  en  ella  se  reconoeen 
exclusivamente  &  los  nacionales. 

3.°  En  cuanto  al  goce  de  los  derechos  civiles  en  las  condiciones  y  con 
las  limitaciones  que  establezca  la  ley  de  Extranjeria. 

4.°  En  cuanto  &  la  obligaci6n  de  observar  y  cumplir  las  leyes,  decre- 
tos,  reglamentos  y  demds  disposiciones  que  est£n  en  vigor  en  la 
Republica. 

5.°  En  cuanto  k  la  sumisi6n  &  la  potestad  y  a  las  resoluciones  de  los 
Tribunales  y  dem^s  Autoridades  de  la  Republica. 

6.°  Y  en  cuanto  &  la  obligaci6n  de  contribuir  &  los  gastos  publicos 
del  Estado,  la  Provincia  y  el  Municipio. 

TlTULO  IV. 
DE   LOS   DERECHOS   QUE   GARANTIZA   ESTA   CONSTITUCI6n. 

Secci6n  Primera. — Derechos  tndiviahiales. 

ARTfcuLO  11.  Todos  los  cubanos  son  iguales  ante  la  Ley.  La 
Republica  no  reconoce  f  ueros  ni  privilegios  personales. 

ArtIoulo  12.  Ninguna  ley  tendrd  erecto  retroactivo,  excepto  las 
penales,  cuando  sean  f  avorables  al  delincuente  6  procesado. 


86  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR, 

ArtIculo  13.  Las  obligaciones  de  car&cter  civil  que  nazcan  de  los 
contratos  6  de  otros  actos  li  omisiones  que  las  produzcan,  no  pod  ran 
ser  anuladas  ni  alteradas  por  el  Poder  Legislativo  ni  por  el  Ejecutivo. 

ARTfcuLO  14.  No  podrd  imponerse,  en  ningun  caso,  la  pena  de 
muerte  por  delitos  de  car&cter  politico,  los  cuales  ser&n  defimdos  por 
la  Ley. 

ArtIculo  15.  Nadie  podrd,  ser  detenido  sino  en  los  casos  y  en  la 
forma  que  prescriban  las  leyes. 

ARTfcuLO  16.  Todo  detenido  sera  puesto  en  libertad  6  entregado  al 
Juez  6  Tribunal  competente  dentro  de  las  veinticuatro  horas  siguientes 
al  acto  de  la  detencion. 

ARTfcuLO  17.  Toda  detencion  se  dejani  sin  efecto,  6  se  elevari  & 

Srision,  dentro  de  las  setenta  y  dos  horas  de  haber  sido  entregado  el 
etenido  al  Juez  6  Tribunal  competente. 

Dentro  del  mismo  plazo  se  notificard  al  interesado  la  providencia  que 
se  dictare. 

ARTfcuLO  18.  Nadie  podra  ser  preso,  sino  en  virtud  de  mandamiento 
de  Juez  6  Tribunal  competente. 

El  auto  en  que  se  haya  dictado  el  mandamiento  se  ratificarfi,  6 
repondrfi,  oido  el  presunto  reo,  dentro  de  las  setenta  y  dos  horas 
siguientes  al  acto  de  la  prision. 

ArtIculo  19.  Nadie  podra  ser  procesado  ni  sentenciado  sino  por 
Juez  6  Tribunal  competente,  en  virtud  de  leyes  anteriores  al  delito  y 
en  la  forma  que  6stas  establezcan. 

ARTfcuLO  20.  Toda  persona  detenida  6  presa  sin  las  formalidades 
legales,  6  f uera  de  los  casos  previstos  en  esta  Constituci6n  6  en  las 
leyes,  sera  puesta  en  libertad  a  peticion  suya  6  de  cuakjuier  ciudadano. 

La  Ley  determinant  la  forma  de  proceder  sumariamente  en  este 
caso. 

Art/culo  21.  Nadie  esta  obligado  &  declarar  contra  si  mismo,  ni 
contra  su  conyuge  6  sus  parientes  dentro  del  cuarto  grado  de  con- 
sanguinidad  6  segundo  de  afinidad. 

ARTfcuLO  22.  Es  inviolable  el  secreto  de  la  correspondencia  y  demfc 
documentos  privados,  y  ni  aquella  ni  ^stos  podran  ser  ocupados  ni 
examinados  sino  por  disposicion  de  Autoridad  competente  y  con  las 
formalidades  que  prescriban  las  leyes.  En  todo  caso  se  guardara 
secreto  respecto  de  los  extremos  ajenos  al  asunto  que  motive  la  ocupa- 
cion  6  examen. 

ArtIculo  23.  El  domicilio  es  inviolable,  y  en  consecuencia  nadie 
podrd  penetrar  de  noche  en  el  ajeno,  sin  el  consentimiento  de  su  mora- 
dor,  d  no  ser  para  auxiliar  6  socorrer  &  victimas  de  delito  6  desastre; 
ni  de  dia,  sino  en  los  casos  y  en  la  forma  detenninados  por  las  leyes. 

ArtIculo  24.  Nadie  podrd  ser  compelido  a  mudar  de  domicilio  6 
residencia  sino  por  mandato  de  Autoridad  competente  y  en  los  casos 
prescriptos  por  las  leyes. 

ArtIculo  25.  Toda  persona  podrd  libremente,  y  sin  sujeci6n  k  cen- 
sura  previa,  einitir  su  pensamiento,  de  palabi^a  6  por  escrito,  por  medio 
de  la  imprenta  6  por  cualquier  otro  procedimiento;  sin  perjuicio  de 
las  responsabilidades  que  impongan  las  leyes,  cuando  por  alguno 
de  aquellos  medios  se  atente  contra  la  honra  de  las  personas,  el  orden 
social  6  la  tranquilidad  pfiblica. 

Art/culo  20.  Es  libre  la  profesion  de  todas  las  religiones  as!  como 
el  ejercicio  de  todos  los  cultos,  sin  otra  limitacion  que  el  respeto  &  la 
moral  cristiana  y  al  orden  pfiblico. 


KEPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  87 

La  Iglesia  estara  separada  del  Estftdo,  el  cual  no  podra  subvencionar, 
en  caso  alguno,  ningun  culto. 

ArtIculo  27.  Toda  persona  tiene  el  derecho  de  dirigir  peticiones  6 
las  Autoridades;  de  que  sus  peticiones  sean  resueltas,  y  de  que  se  le 
comunique  la  resolucion  que  a  ellas  recaiga. 

ArtIculo  28.  Todos  los  habitantes  de  la  Republica  tienen  el  derecho 
de  reunirse  pacificamente  y  sin  armas,  y  el  de  asociarse  para  todos  los 
fines  licitos  ae  la  vida. 

ARTfcuiiO  29.  Toda  persona  podra  entrar  en  el  territorio  de  la  Repu- 
blica, salir  de  61,  viajar  dentro  de  sus  limites,  y  mudar  de  residencia, 
sin  necesidad  de  carta  de  seguridad,  pasaporte  u  otro  requisite  seme- 
jante;  salvo  lo  que  se  disponga  en  las  leyes  sobre  inmigracion,  y  las 
facultades  atribuidas  &  la  Autoridad  en  caso  de  responsabilidad  criminal. 

ARTfciJLO  30.  Ningun  cubano  podrd  ser  expatriado,  ni  &  ninguno 
podrd  prohibirsele  la  entrada  en  el  territorio  de  la  Republica. 

ArtIculo  31.  La  ensenanza  primaria  es  obligatoria,  y  asi  6sta  como 
la  de  Artes  y  Oficios  seran  gratuitas.  Ambas  estaran  k  cargo  del 
Estado,  mientras  no  puedan  sostenerlas  respectivamente,  por  carecer 
de  recursos  suficientes,  los  Municipios  y  las  Provincias. 

La  segunda  ensenanza  y  la  superior  estar&n  &  cargo  del  Estado.  No 
obstante,  toda  persona  podra  aprender  6  enseiiar  libremente  cualquiera 
ciencia,  arte  6  profesion,  y  fundar  y  sostener  establecimientos  de  edu- 
cacion  y  de  ensenanza;  pero  corresponde  al  Estado  la  determinacion  de 
las  profesiones  en  que  exija  titulos  especiales,  la  de  las  condiciones 
para  su  ejercicio,  la  de  los  requisites  necesarios  para  obtener  los 
titulos,  y  la  expedicion  de  los  mismos,  de  conformidad  con  lo  que  esta- 
blezcan  las  leyes. 

ArtIculo  32.  Nadie  podrd  ser  privpxlo  de  su  propiedad,  sino  por 
Autoridad  competente  y  por  causa  justificada  de  utilidad  pubhca, 
previa  la  correspondiente  indenmizacion.  Si  no  precediere  este  requi- 
site, los  Jueces  y  Tribunales  amparar&n  y,  en  su  caso,  reintegrardn  al 
expropiado. 

ArtIculo  33.  No  podra  imponerse,  en  ningun  caso,  la  pena  de  con- 
fiscaci6n  de  bienes. 

ArtIculo  34.  Nadie  esta  obligado  k  pagar  contribucion  ni  impuesto 
que  no  estuvieren  legalmente  estableciaos,  y  cuya  cobranza  no  se 
niciere  en  la  forma  prescripta  por  las  leyes. 

ARTfcuLO  35.  Todo  autor  6  inventor  gozard  de  la  propiedad  exclu- 
siva  de  su  obra  6  invencion,  por  el  tiempo  y  en  la  forma  que  determine 
la  Ley. 

ArtIculo  36.  La  enumeraci6n  de  los  dereehos  garantizados  expresa- 
mente  por  esta  Constitucion,  no  excluye  otros  que  se  deriven  del  prin- 
cipio  de  la  soberania  del  pueblo  y  de  la  forma  republicana  de  gobierno. 

ARTfcuLO  37.  Las  leyes  que  regulen  el  ejercicio  de  los  dereehos  que 
esta  Constituci6n  garantiza,  seran  nulas  si  los  disminuyen,  restringen 
6  adulteran. 

Secci6n  Segunda. — Derec/io  de  mfragio. 

ArtIculo  38.  Todos  los  cubanos,  varones,  may  ores  de  veinte  y  un 
anos,  tienen  derecho  de  sufragio,  con  excepcion  de  los  siguientes: 

1.°  Los  asilados. 

2.°  Los  incapacitados  mentalmente,  previa  declaracion  judicial  de  su 
incapacidad. 

3.°  Los  inhabilitados  judicialmente  por  causa  de  delite. 


88  BEP0BT?  OF  ?HE   8ECBEtAfcir   OF  WAB. 

4.°  Los  individuos  pertenecientes  6.  las  fuerzas  de  mar  y  tierra,  que 
estuvieren  en  servicio  active 

AbtIculo  39.  Las  leyes  establecer&n  reglas  y  procedimientos  que 
aseguren  la  intervencion  de  las  minorias  en  la  formaci6n  del  Censo  de 
electores  y  dem&s  operaciones  electorates  y  su  representacion  en  la 
Camara  de  Representantes,  en  los  Consejos  Provinciales  y  en  los 
Ayuntamientos. 

Secci6n  Tercera. — Suspension  de  las  garantias  constihunoriales. 

ArtIoulo  40.  Las  garantias  establecidas  en  los  articulos  d£cimo 
quinto,  d^cimo  sexto,  d£cimo  septimo,  d^cimo  nono,  vig&imo  segundo, 
vig^simo  tercero,  vig&simo  cuarto  y  vig^simo  septimo  de  la  seccion 
primera  de  este  Titulo,  no  podr£n  suspenderse  en  toda  la  Repiibliea  ni 
en  parte  de  ella,  sino  temporalmente  y  cuando  lo  exija  la  seguridad  del 
Estado,  en  caso  de  invasion  del  territorio  6  de  grave  perturbacion  del 
orden  que  amenace  la  paz  publica. 

ArtIculo  41.  El  territorio  en  que  fueren  suspendidas  las  garantias 
que  se  determinan  en  el  articulo  anterior,  se  regird  durante  la  suspen- 
sion, por  la  Ley  de  Orden  Publico,  dictada  de  antemano.  Pero  ni  en 
dicha  ley,  ni  en  otra  alguna,  podra  disponerse  la  suspensi6n  de  nifis 
garantias  que  las  ya  mencionaaas. 

Tampoco  podra  hacerse,  durante  la  suspensi6n,  declaraci6n  de  nuevos 
delitos,  ni  imponerse  otras  penas  que  las  establecidas  en  las  leyes 
vigentes  al  decretarse  la  suspension. 

Queda  prohibido  al  Poder  Ejecutivo  el  extranamiento  6  la  deporta- 
ci6n  de  los  ciudadanos,  sin  que  pueda  desterrarlos  &  m&s  de  ciento 
veinte  kilometros  de  su  domicilio,  ni  detenerlos  por  m&s  de  diez  dias, 
sin  hacer  entrega  de  ellos  a  la  Autoridad  judicial;  ni  repetir  la  deten- 
ci6n  durante  el  tiempo  de  la  suspension  de  garantias.  Los  detenidos 
no  podran  serlo  sino  en  departamentos  especiales  de  los  establecimientos 
publicos,  destinados  &  la  detencion  de  procesados  por  causa  de  delitos 
comunes. 

ARTfcuLO  42.  La  suspension  de  las  garantias  de  <jue  se  trata  en  el 
articulo  cuadrag^simo,  solo  podra  dictarse  por  medio  de  una  ley  6, 
cuando  no  estuviere  reunido  el  (Jongreso,  por  un  decreto  del  Presi- 
dente  de  la  Republica.  Pero  6ste  no  podrd  decretar  la  suspensi6n  mas 
de  una  vez  durante  el  periodo  comprendido  entre  dos  legislaturas,  ni 
por  tiempo  indefinido,  ni  mayor  de  treinta  dias,  sin  convocar  al  Con- 
greso  en  el  mismo  decreto  de  suspension.  En  todo  caso  deber&  darle 
cuenta  para  que  resuelva  lo  que  estime  procedente. 

TtTULO  V. 
DE   LA   SOBERANfA   Y   DE   LOS  PODERES  PUBLICOS. 

ArtIculo  43.  La  soberania  reside  en  el  pueblo  de  Cuba,  y  de  &te 
dimanan  todos  los  Poderes  publicos. 

TtTULO  VI. 
DEL  PODER  LEGISLATTVO. 

Secci6n  Primera. — Delos  Cuerpos  Colegisladores. 

ArtIculo  44.  El  Poder  Legislativo  se  ejerce  por  dos  cuerpos  electi- 
vos,  que  se  denominan  CfcC6mara  de  Representantes"  y  "Senado,"y 
conjuntamente  reciben  el  nombre  de  "  (Jongreso. " 


REPORT   OF   THE    8E0RETARY   OF   WAR.  89 

Secci6n  Segunda. — Del  Senado,  su  composition  y  atribuciones. 

ArtIculo  45.  El  Senado  se  compondrd  de  cuatro  Senadores  por  pro- 
vincia?  elegidos,  en  cada  una,  para  un  periodo  de  ocho  anos,  por  los 
Conseieros  Provinciates  y  por  aoble  numero  de  Coinpromisarios,  con- 
stituiaos  con  aqu£llos  en  Junta  electoral. 

La  mitad  de  los  Compromisarios  seran  mayores  contribuyentes,  y  la 
otra  mitad  reunirdn  las  condiciones  de  capacidad  que  determine  la  Ley; 
debiendo  ser  todos,  adem&s,  mayores  de  edad  y  vecinos  de  t£rminos 
municipales  de  la  provincia. 

La  eleccion  de  los  Compromisarios  se  hara  por  los  electores  de  la 
Provincia,  cien  dfas  antes  de  la  de  Senadores. 

El  Senado  se  renovard,  por  mitad,  cada  cuatro  anos. 

ARTfcuLO  46.  Para  ser  Senador  se  requiere: 

1.°  Ser  cubano  por  nacimiento. 

2.°  Haber  cumplido  35  anos  de  edad. 

3.°  Hallarse  en  el  pleno  goce  de  los  derechos  civiles  y  politicos. 

ArtIculo  47.  Son  atribuciones  propias  del  Senado: 

1.°  Juzgar,  constituido  en  Tribunal  de  Justicia,  al  Presidente  de  la 
Republica,  cuando  fuere  acusado  por  la  Camara  de  Representantes,  de 
delito  contra  la  seguridad  exterior  del  Estado,  contra  el  libre  funcio- 
namiento  de  los  Poderes  Legislativo  6  Judicial,  6  de  infraccion  de  los 
preceptos  constitucionales. 

2.°  Juzgar,  constituido  en  Tribunal  de  Justicia,  &  los  Secretarios 
del  Despacho,  cuando  f  ueren  acusados  j>or  la  Camara  de  Representan- 
tes, de  aelito  contra  la  seguridad  exterior  del  Estado,  contra  el  libre 
funcionamiento  de  los  Poderes  Legislativo  6  Judicial,  de  infraccion  de 
los  preceptos  constitucionales,  6  de  cualquier  otro  delito  de  caracter 
politico  que  las  leyes  determinen. 

3.°  Juzgar,  constituido  en  Tribunal  de  Justicia,  a  los  Gobernadores 
de  las  Provincias,  cuando  f  ueren  acusados  por  el  Consejo  Provincial  6 
por  el  Presidente  de  la  Republica,  de  cualquiera  de  los  delitos  expre- 
sados  en  el  p&rrafo  anterior. 

Cuando  el  Senado  se  constituya  en  Tribunal  de  Justicia,  ser&  presi- 
dido  por  el  Presidente  del  Tribunal  Supremo,  y  no  podrd  imponer  a 
los  acusados  otras  penas  que  la  de  destituci6n,  6  las  de  destitucion  6 
inhabilitaci6n  para  el  ejercicio  de  cargos  publicos,  sin  perjuicio  de  que 
los  Tribunales  que  las  leyes  declaren  competentes,  les  impongan  cual- 
quier otra  en  que  hubieren  incurrido. 

4.°  Aprobar  los  nombramientos  que  haga  el  Presidente  de  la  Repu- 
blica, del  Presidente  y  Magistrados  del  Tribunal  Supremo  de  Justicia: 
de  los  Representantes  diplom&ticos  y  Agentes  consulares  dc  la  Nacion, 
y  de  los  demds  funcionarios  cuyo  nombramiento  requiera  su  aprobacion, 
segun  las  leyes. 

5.°  Autorizar  &  los  nacionales  para  admitir  empleos  li  honores  de 
otro  Gobierno,  6  paraservirlo  con  las  armas. 

6.°  Aprobar  los  Tratados  que  negociare  el  Presidente  de  la  Republica 
con  otras  naciones. 

Secci6n  Tergera. — De  la  Camara  de  Representantes,  su  composicidn 

y  atribuciones. 

ARTfcuLO  48.  La  C&niara  de  Representantes  se  compondrd  de  un 
Representante  por  cada  veinte  y  cinco  mil  habitantes  6  fraccion  de  mds 


90  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OP  WAR. 

de  doce  mil  quinientos,  elegido,  para  un  periodo  de  cuatro  afios,  por 
sufragio  directo  y  en  la  forma  que  determine  la  Ley. 

La  Cdmara  de  Representantes  se  rcnovard,  por  mitad,  cada  dos  anas. 

ArtIculo  49.  Para  ser  Representante  se  requiere: 

1.°  Ser  cubano  por  nacimiento  6  naturalizado  con  ocho  afios  de  resi- 
dencia  en  la  Republica,  contados  desde  la  naturalization. 

2.°  Haber  cumplido  veinte  y  cinco  anos  de  edad. 

3.°  Hallarse  en  el  pleno  goce  de  los  derechos  civilea  y  politicos. 

ARTfcui,o  50.  Corresponde  d  la  Camara  de  Representantes,  acusar, 
ante  el  Senado,  al  Presidente  de  la  Repulica  y  ,d  los  Secretarios  del 
Despacho,  en  los  casos  determinados  en  los  pdrraf os  primero  y  segundo 
dol  articulo  47,  cuando  las  dos  terceras  partes  del  numero  total  de 
Representantes,  acordaren  en  sesi6n  secreta  la  acusaei6n. 

Secci6n  Cuarta. — Dixpoisioioneti  eorrvunes  d  los  Cuerpos  Colegisladores. 

ARTfcuLO  51.  Los  cargos  de  Senador  y  de  Representante  son  in- 
compatibles  con  cualesquiera  otros  retribuidos,  de  nombramiento  del 
Gobierno;  exceptuandose  el  de  Catedratico  por  oposicion  de  Estable- 
cimiento  oficial,  obtenido  con  anterioridad  d  la  elecci6n. 

ArtIculo  52.  Los  Senadores  y  Representantes  recibirdn  del  Estado 
una  dotaci6n,  igual  para  ambos  cargos,  y  cuya  cuantia  podrd  ser  alte- 
rada  en  todo  tiempo;  pero  no  surtird  efecto  la  alteraci6n  hasta  que  sean 
renovados  los  Cuerpos  Colegisladores. 

ARTfcuLO  53.  Los  Senadores  y  Representantes  ser&n  inviolables  por 
las  opiniones  y  votos  que  emitan  en  el  ejercicio  de  sus  cargos.  Los 
Senadores  y  Representantes  solo  podran  ser  detenidos  6  procesados  con 
autorizacion  del  Cuerpo  d  oue  pertenezcan,  si  estuviese  reunido  el  Con- 
greso;  excepto  en  el  caso  ae  ser  hallados  infraganti  en  la  comisi6n  de 
algfin  delito.  En  este  caso,  y  en  el  de  ser  detenidos  6  procesados 
cuando  estuviere  cerrado  el  Congrcso,  se  dara  cuenta,  lo  mfis  pronto 
posible,  al  Cuerpo  respectivo,  para  la  resoluci6n  que  corresponda. 

ARTfcuLO  54.  Las  Caniaras  abriran  y  cerraran  sus  sesiones  en  un 
mismo  dia,  residiran  en  una  misma  poblacion  y  no  podrdn  trasladarse 
6.  otro  lugar,  ni  suspender  sus  sesiones  por  m&s  de  tres  dias,  sino  por 
acuerdo  de  ambas. 

Tampoco  podrfin  comenzar  sus  sesiones  sin  la  presencia  de  las  dos 
terceras  partes  del  numero  total  de  sus  miembros;  ni  continuarlas  sin 
la  mayoria  absoluta  de  ellos. 

ARTfcuLO  55.  Cada  Cdmara  resolvera  sobre  la  validez  de  la  elecci6n 
de  sus  respectivros  miembros,  y  sobre  las  renuncias  que  presenten. 
Ningiin  Senador  6  Representante  podra  ser  expulsado  ae  la  Cdmara  d 
que  pertenezca,  sino  en  virtud  de  causa  previamente  determinaday  por 
el  acuerdo  de  las  dos  terceras  partes,  por  lo  menos,  del  numero  total 
de  sus  miembros. 

ARTfcuLO  56.  Cada  Camara  formard  su  reglamento,  y  elegird 
entrc  sus  miembros,  su  Presidente,  Vice-Presidentes  y  Seicretarios. 
No  obstante,  el  Presidente  del  Senado  solo  ejercerd  su  cargo  cuando 
f alte  el  Vice-Presidente  de  la  Republica,  6  este  ejerciendo  la  Presiden- 
cia  de  la  misma. 

Secoi6n  Quinta. — Del  Congrew  y  sus  atribuciones. 

ARTfcuLO  57.  El  Congreso  se  reunira  por  derecho  propio,  dos  vecee 
al  ano,  y  permanecera  funcionando  durante  cuarenta  dias  hdbiles,  por 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  91 

lo  menos,  en  cada  legislatura.  Una  empezard  el  primer  lunes  de  Abril 
y  la  otra  el  primer  lunes  de  Noviembre. 

Se  reunira  en  sesiones  extraordinarias  en  los  casos  y  en  la  forma  que 
determinen  los  Reglamentos  de  los  Cuerpos  Colegisladores,  y  cuando 
el  Presidente  de  la  Kepublica  lo  convoque  con  arreglo  a  lo  establecido 
en  esta  Constitucion.  En  dichos  casos  solo  se  ocupard  del  asunto  6 
asuntos  que  motiven  su  reunion. 

ARTfcmx)  58.  El  Congreso  se  reunira  en  un  solo  Cuerpo  para  pro- 
clamar  al  Presidente  y  Vice-Presidente  de  la  Republica,  previa  rectifi- 
cacion  y  comprobacion  del  escrutinio. 

En  este  caso  desempenara  la  Presidencia  del  Congreso,  el  Presidente 
del  Senado,  y  en  su  def  ecto,  el  de  la  Camara  de  Representantes,  &  titulo 
de  Vice-Presidente  del  propio  Congreso. 

Si  del  escrutinio  para  Presidente  resultare  que  ninguno  de  los  candi- 
dates reune  mayoria  absoluta  de  votos,  6  hubiere  empate,  el  Congreso, 
por  igual  mayoria,  elegira  el  Presidente  de  entre  los  dos  candidates 
que  hubieren  obtenido  mayor  numero  de  votos. 

Si  fuesen  m&s  de  dos  los  que  se  encontraren  en  este  caso,  por  haber 
obtenido  dos  6  m&s  candidates  igual  numero  de  votos,  elegird,  entre 
todos  ellos  el  Congreso. 

Si  en  el  Congreso,  resultare  tambi^n  empate,  se  repetira  la  votacion; 
y  si  el  resultado  de  6sta  f  uese  el  mismo  el  voto  del  Presidente  decidird. 

El  procedimiento  establecido  en  el  parrafo  anterior  se  aplicard  &  la 
eleccion  del  Vice-Presidente  de  la  Republica. 

El  escrutinio  se  ef  ectuara  con  anterioridad  a  la  expiracion  del  t^rmino 
presidencial. 

ArtIculo  59.  Son  atribuciones  propias  del  Congreso: 

1.°  Formar  los  Codigos  y  las  le}res  de  caracter  general;  determinar 
el  regimen  que  deba  observarse  para  las  elecciones  generates,  provin- 
ciates y  municipales;  dictar  las  disposiciones  que  regulen  y  organicen 
cuanto  se  relaciona  con  la  administracion  general,  la  provincial  y  la 
municipal;  y  todas  las  demas  leyes  y  resoluciones  que  estimare  con- 
venientes  sobre  cualesquiera  otros  asuntos  de  interns  publico. 

2.°  Discutir  y  aprobar  los  presupuestos  de  gastos  6  ingresos  del 
Estado.  Dichos  gastos  6  ingresos,  con  excepcion  de  los  que  se  men- 
cionardn  mas  adelante,  se  incluirdn  en  presupuestos  anuales  y  solo 
regir&n  durante  el  ano  para  el  cual  hubieren  siao  aprobados. 

lx)R  gastos  del  Congreso;  los  de  la  Administraci6n  de  Justicia;  los 
de  intereses  y  amortizacion  de  empr^stitos,  y  los  ingresos  con  que  deben 
ser  cubiertos,  tendran  el  caracter  de  permanentes  y  se  incluirdn  en 
presupuesto  fijo,  que  regira  mientras  no  sea  reformado  por  leyes 
especiales. 

3.°  Acordar  emprestitos,  pero  con  la  obligacion  de  votar,  al  mismo 
tiempo,  los  ingresos  permanentes,  necesarios  para  el  pago  de  intereses 
y  amortizaci6n. 

Todo  acuerdo  sobre  emprestitos  requiere  el  voto  de  las  dos  terceras 
partes  del  numero  total  de  los  miembros  de  cada  Cuerpo  Colegislador. 

4.°  Acunar  moneda,  determinando  su  patron,  ley,  valor  y  denomi- 
naci6n. 

5.°  Regular  el  sistema  de  uesas  y  medidas. 

6.°  Dictar  disposiciones  para  el  regimen  y  fomento  del  comercio 
interior  y  exterior. 

7.°  Regular  los  servicios  de  comunicaciones  y  ferrocariles,  caminos, 
canales  y  puertos,  creando  los  que  exija  la  conveniencia  pfiblica. 


92  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

8.°  Establecer  las  contritiuciones  6  impuestos,  de  cardcter  nacional, 
que  sean  necesarios  para  las  atenciones  del  Estado. 

9.°  Fijar  las  reglas  y  procedimientos  para  obtener  la  naturalizacion. 

10.  Conceder  amnistias. 

11.  Fijar  el  ndraero  de  las  fuerzas  de  mar  y  tierra  y  determinar  su 
organizacion. 

12.  Declarar  la  guerra  y  aprobar  los  Tratados  de  paz,  que  el  Presi- 
dente  de  la  Republica  haya  negociado. 

13.  Designar,  por  meaio  de  una  ley  especial,  aui6n  debe  ocupar  la 
Presidencia  de  la  Republica  en  el  caso  de  que  el  Presidente  y  el  Vice- 
Presidente  sean  destituidos,  fallezcan,  renuncien  6  se  incapaciten. 

ArtIculo  60.  El  Congreso  no  podra  incluir  en  las  leyes  de  presu- 
puestos,  disposiciones  que  ocasionen  reformas  legislativas  6  adminis- 
trativas  de  otro  orden;  ni  podra  reducir  6  suprimir  ingresos  de  car&c- 
ter  permanente,  sin  establecer  al  mismo  tierapo  otrosque  losustituyan, 
salvo  el  caso  que  la  reduccion  6  supresion  procedan  de  reduccion  6 
supresion  de  gastos  perraanentes  equivalentes;  ni  asignar  &  ningun 
servicio  que  deba  ser  dotado  en  el  presupuesto  anual,  mayor  cantidad 
que  la  propuesta  en  el  proyecto  del  Gobierno;  pero  si  podrd  crear 
nuevos  serviciosy  reformar  6  ampliar  los  existentes,  por  medio  de  leyes 
especiales. 

Secci6n  Sexta. — De  la  iniciativa  yformacidn  de  lm  leyes,  su  sancufn 

y  prmn  tdgact&i, 

ArtIculo  61.  La  iniciativa  de  las  leyes  se  ejercerd  por  cado  uno  de 
los  Cuerpos  Colegisladores  indistintamente. 

ARTfcuLO  62.  Todo  proyecto  de  ley  que  haya  obtenido  la  aprobaci6n 
de  ambos  Cuerpos  Colegisladores,  y  toda  resolucion  de  losmismos  que 
haya  de  ser  ejecutada  por  el  Presidente  de  la  Republica,  deber&n  pre- 
sentarse  &  6ste  para  su  sancion.  Si  los  aprueba,  los  autorizard  desde 
luego;  devolviendolos  en  otro  caso,  con  las  objeciones  que  hiciere,  al 
Cuerpo  Colegislador  que  los  hubiere  propuesto;  el  cual  consignari  las 
refendas  objeciones  integramente  en  acta,  discutiendo  de  nuevo  el 
proyecto  6  resolucion. 

Si  despu^s  de  esta  discusion  dos  terceras  partes  del  numero  total  de 
los  mierabros  del  Cuerpo  Colegislador,  votasen  en  favor  del  proyecto 
6  resolucion,  se  pasara,  con  las  objeciones  del  Presidente,  al  otro 
Cuerpo,  que  tambi^n  lo  discutini  y  si  por  igual  mayoria  lo  aprueba,  ser6 
ley.     En  todos  estos  casos  las  votaciones  ser£n  nominates. 

Si  dentro  de  los  diez  dias  hit  biles  siguientes  &  la  remisi6n  del  pro- 
yecto 6  resolucion  al  Presidente,  6ste  no  lo  devolviere,  se  tendril  por 
sancionado  y  ser&  ley. 

Si,  dentro  de  los  ultimos  diez  dias  de  una  legislatura,  se  presentare 
un  proyecto  de  ley  al  Presidente  de  la  Republica.  y  6ste  se  propusiere 
utilizar  todo  el  t^rmino  <jue,  al  efecto  de  la  sancion,  se  le  conceae  en  el 
p&rrafo  anterior,  eomunicard  su  proposito,  en  el  mismo  dia,  al  Con- 
greso, &  fin  de  que  permanezca  reunido,  si  lo  quisiere,  hasta  el  venci- 
miento  del  expresado  t^rmino.  De  no  hacerlo  asi  el  Presidente,  se 
tendrd  por  sancionado  el  proyecto  y  serd  ley. 

Ningun  proyecto  de  ley  desechado  totalmente  por  algunos  de  loe 
Cuerpos  Colegisladores,  podra  discutirse  de  nuevo  en  la  misma  legis- 
latura. 


REPORT  OP  THE  8ECRETARY  OF  WAR.  93 

AbtIculo  63.  Toda  ley  sera  promulgada  dentro  de  los  diez  dias 
siguientes  al  de  su  sancion,  proceaa  6sta  del  Presidente  6  del  Congreso, 
segfin  los  casos  mencionados  en  el  articulo  precedente. 

TtTULO  VII. 

DEL  PODER  EJECUTTVO. 

Seoci6n  Primera/ — Del  ejercicio  del  Poder  Ejecutivo. 

ArtIculo  64.  El  Poder  Ejecutivo  se  ejerce  por  el  Presidente  de  la 
Republica. 

Secci6n  Segunda. — Del  Presidente  de  la  Republica,  #U8  atribuciones 

y  deberes. 

ArtIculo  65.  Para  ser  Presidente  de  la  Republica  se  requiere: 

1.°  Ser  cubano  por  nacimiento  6  naturalizacion,  y  en  este  ultimo  caso, 
haber  servido  con  las  armas  k  Cuba,  en  sus  guerras  de  independencia, 
diez  anos  por  lo  menos. 

2.°  Haber  cumplido  cuarenta  anos  de  edad. 

3.°  Hallarse  en  el  pleno  goce  de  los  derechos  civiles  y  politicos. 

ArtIculo  66.  El  Presidente  de  la  Republica  ser&  elegido  por  sufra- 
gio  de  segundo  grado,  en  un  solo  dia,  y  conf  orme  ,al  procedimiento 
que  establezca  la  Ley. 

El  cargo  durard  cuatro  anos;  y  nadie  podra  ser  Presidente  en  tres 
periodos  consecutivos. 

ArtIculo  67.  El  Presidente  jurara  6  prometera,  ante  el  Tribunal 
Supremo  de  Justicia,  al  tomar  posesion  de  su  cargo,  desempenarlo  fiel- 
mente,  cumpliendo  y  haciendo  cumplir  la  Constitucion  y  las  leyes. 

ARTfcuLO  68.  Corresponde  al  Presidente  de  la  Republica: 

1.°  Sancionar  y  promulgar  las  leyes,  ejecutarlas  y  hacerlas  ejecutar; 
dictar,  cuando  no  lo  hubiere  hecho  el  Congreso,  los  reglamentos  para 
la  mejor  ejecucion  de  las  leyes;  y  expedir,  ademas,  los  decretos  y  las 
ordenes  que,  para  este  fin  y  para  cuando  incumba  al  gobierno  y 
administracion  del  Estado,  creyere  convenientes,  sin  contravenir  en 
ningfin  caso  lo  establecido  en  dichas  leyes. 

2.°  Convocar  a  sesiones  extraordinarias  al  Congreso,  6  solamente  al 
Senado,  en  los  casos  que  senala  esta  Constitucion,  6  cuando,  &  su  juicio, 
fufcre  necesario. 

3.°  Suspender  las  sesiones  del  Congreso,  cuando  tratandose  en  este 
de  su  suspension,  no  hubiere  acuerdo  acerca  de  ella  entre  los  Cuerpos 
Colegisladores. 

4.°  Presentar  al  Congreso,  al  principio  de  cada  legislatura  y  siempre 
que  lo  estimare  oportuno,  un  Mensaje  referente  a  los  actos  de  la 
Administracion,  y  demostrativo  del  estado  general  de  la  Republica; 
y  recomendar,  ademds,  la  adopcion  de  las  leyes  y  resoluciones  que 
creyere  necesarias  6  utiles. 

5.°  Presentar  al  Congreso,  en  cualquiera  de  sus  Camaras,  y  antes  del 
dia  quince  de  Noviembre,  el  Proyecto  de  los  Presupuestos  anuales. 

6.°  Facilitar  al  Congreso  los  informes  que  ^ste  solicitare  sobre  toda 
clase  de  asuntos  que  no  exijan  reserva. 

7.°  Dirigir  las  negociaciones  diplomaticas,  y  celebrar  tratados  con 
las  otras  naciones,  debiendo  someterlos  a  la  aprobacion  del  Senado, 
sin  cuyo  requisite  no  tendran  validez  ni  obligaran  a  la  Republica. 


94  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

8.°  Nombrar  y  remover  libremente  a  los  Secretarios  del  Despacho, 
dando  cuenta  al  Congreso. 

9.°  Nombrar,  con  la  aprobacion  del  Senado,  al  Presidente  y  Magis- 
trados  del  Tribunal  Supremo  de  Justicia,  y  a  los  Representantes  diplo- 
matics y  Agentes  consulares  de  la  Repfiblica;  puaiendo  hacer  nom- 
bramientos  interinos  de  dichos  f  uncionarios,  cuando  en  caso  de  vacante, 
no  est6  reunido  el  Senado. 

10.  Nombrar,  para  el  desempeno  de  los  demas  cargos  instituidos 
por  la  Ley,  k  los  f uncionarios  correspondientes,  cuyo  nombramiento 
no  est6  atribufdo  a  otras  Autoridades. 

11.  Suspender  el  ejercicio  de  los  derechos  que  se  enumeran  en  el 
articulo  40  de  esta  Constitucion,  en  los  casos  y  en  la  forma  que  se 
expresan  en  los  articulos  41  y  42. 

12.  Suspender  los  acuerdos  de  los  Consejos  Provinciales  y  de  los 
Ayuntamientos,  en  los  casos  y  en  la  forma  que  determina  esta 
Constitucion. 

13.  Decretar  la  suspension  de  los  Gobernadores  de  Provincia,  en  los 
casos  de  extralimitacion  de  funciones  y  de  infracci6n  de  las  leyes, 
dando  cuenta  al  Senado,  segun  lo  que  se  establezca,  para  la  resolucion 
que  correspohda. 

14.  Acusar  &  los  Gobernadores  de  Provincia  en  los  casos  expresa- 
dos  en  el  pdrrafo  tercero  del  articulo  47. 

15.  Indultar  a  los  delincuentes  con  arreglo  a  lo  que  prescriba  la  Ley, 
excepto  cuando  se  trate  de  f  uncionarios  pfiblicos  penados  por  delitos 
cometidos  en  el  ejercicio  de  sus  funciones. 

16.  Recibir  a  los  Representantes  diplom&ticos  y  admitir  &  los  Agen- 
tes consulares  de  las  otras  Naciones. 

17.  Disponer,  como  Jef e  Supremo,  de  las  f  uerzas  de  mar  y  tierra  de 
la  Republica.  Proveer  &  la  defensa  de  su  territorio,  dando  cuenta 
al  Congreso;  y  a  la  conservacion  del  orden  interior.  Siempre  que 
hubiere  peligro  de  invasion  6  cuando  alguna  rebelion  amenazare  grave- 
mente  la  seguridad  piiblica,  no  estando  reunido  el  Congreso,  el  Presi- 
dente lo  convocara  sin  demora  para  la  resolucion  que  corresponda. 

ArtIculo  69.  El  Presidente  no  podra  salir  del  territorio  de  la  Repu- 
blics sin  autorizacion  del  Congreso. 

ARTfcuLO  70.  El  Presidente  sera  responsable,  ante  el  Tribunal 
Supremo  de  Justicia,  por  los  delitos  de  caracter  comfin  que  cometiere 
durante  el  ejercicio  de  su  cargo;  pero  no  podra  ser  procesado  sin  previa 
autorizacion  del  Senado. 

ARTfcuLO  71.  El  Presidente  recibirti  del  Estado  una  dotaci6n,  que 
podra  ser  alterada  en  todo  tiempo;  pero  no  surtira  efecto  la  alteracion 
sino  en  los  periodos  presidenciales  siguientes  a  aqu^l  en  que  se  acordare. 

TlTULO  VIII. 
DEL   VICE-PRESIDENTE    DE   LA   REPtJBLICA. 

ArtIculo  72.  Habrfi  un  Vice-Presidente  de  la  Repdblica,  que  sei*a 
elegido  en  la  misma  forma  y  para  igual  periodo  de  tiempo  que  el 
Presidente,  y  conjuntamente  con  cste;  requiriendose  para  ser  Vice- 
Presidente  las  mismas  condiciones  que  prescribe  esta  Constituci6n  para 
ser  Presidente. 

ARTfcuLO  73.  El  Vice-Presidente  de  la  Republica  ejercerfi  la  Presi- 
dencia  del  Senado;  pero  solo  tendra  voto  en  los  casos  de  empate. 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  95 

ARTfcuiiO  74.  Por  falta,  temporal  6  definitiva,  del  Presidents  de  la 
Repfiblica,  le  sustituird  el  Vice-Presidente  en  el  ejercicio  del  Poder 
Ejecutivo.  Si  la  falta  fuere  definitiva  durara  la  sustitucion  hasta  la 
terminaei6n  del  periodo  presidencial.  ^ 

ArtIculo  75.  El  Vice-Presidente  recibird  del  Estado  una  dotaci6n, 
que  podrd  ser  alterada  en  todo  tierapo;  pero  no  surtira  efecto  la  altera- 
cion  sino  en  los  periodos  presidenciales  siguientes  a  aqu61  en  que  se 
acordare. 

TITULO  IX. 
DE   LOS   SECRETARIOS   DEL   DE8PACHO. 

ArtIculo  76.  Para  el  ejercicio  de  sus  atribuciones  tendrd  el  Presi- 
dente  de  la  Repfiblica,  los  Secretarios  del  Despacho  que  determine  la 
Ley;  debiendo  recaer  el  nombramiento  de  6stos  en  ciudadanos  cubanos 
que  se  ballen  en  el  pleno  goce  de  los  derechos  civiles  y  politicos. 

ArtIculo  77.  Todos  los  decretos,  ordenes  y  resoluciones  del  Presi- 
dents de  la  Repfiblica  habr&n  de  ser  refrendados  por  el  Secretario  del 
ramo  correspondiente,  sin  cuyo  requisite  careceran  de  fuerza  obliga- 
toria  y  no  ser&n  cumplidos. 

ArtIculo  78.  Los  Secretarios  ser&n  personalmente  responsables  de 
los  actos  que  refrenden,  y,  ademas,  solidariamente,  de  los  que,  juntos, 
acuerden  6  autoricen.  Esta  responsabilidad  no  excluye  la  personal  y 
directa  del  Presidents  de  la  Repfiblica. 

ArtIculo  79.  Los  Secretarios  del  Despacho  serdn  acusados  por  la 
C&mara  de  Representantes,  ante  el  Senado,  en  los  casos  que  se  men- 
cionan  en  el  parrafo  segundo  del  articulo  47. 

ArtIculo  80.  Los  Secretarios  del  Despacho  recibiran  del  Estado 
una  dotaci6n  que  podrd  ser  alterada  en  todo  tiempo;  pero  no  surtirfi 
efecto  la  alteracion  sino  en  los  perfodos  presidenciales  siguientes  & 
aqu£l  en  que  se  acordare. 

TITULO  X. 
DEL   PODER   JUDICIAL. 

Secci6n  Prime ra» — Del  ejercicio  del  Poder  Judicial. 

ArtIculo  81.  El  Poder  Judicial  se  ejerce  por  un  Tribunal  Supremo 
de  Justicia  y  por  los  demas  Tribunales  que  las  Leyes  establezcan. 
Estas  regularan  sus  respectivas  organizacion  y  facultades,  el  modo  de 
ejercerlas  y  las  condiciones  que  deban  concurrir  en  los  f  uncionarios 
que  los  compongan. 

Secci6n  Segunda. — Del  Tribunal  Supremo  de  Justicia. 

ArtIculo  82.  Para  ser  Presidente  6  Magistrado  del  Tribunal 
Supremo  de  Justicia,  se  requiere: 

1.°  Ser  cubano  por  nacimiento. 

2.°  Haber  cumplido  treinta  y  cinco  anos  de  edad. 

3.°  Hallarse  en  el  pleno  goce  de  los  derechos  civiles  y  politicos  y  no 
haber  sido  condenado  a  pena  aflictiva  por  delito  comfin. 

4  °  Reunir,  ademds,  algunas  de  las  circunstancias  siguientes: 

Haber  ejercido,  en  Cuba,  durante  diez  aiios,  por  lo  raenos,  la  pro- 
fesi6n  de  Abogado;  6  desempenado,  por  igual  tiempo,  funciones  judi- 


96  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR, 

ciales;  6  explicado,  el  mismo  numero  de  afios,  una  c&tedra  de  Derecho 
en  Establecimiento  oficial  de  Ensenanza. 

Podr&n  ser  tambi£n  nombrados  para  los  cargos  de  Presidente  y 
Magistrados  del  Tribunal  Supremo,  siempre  que  reunan  las  condiciones 
de  los  numeros  1,  2  y  3  de  este  articulo: 

(a)  Los  que  hubieren  ejercido,  en  la  Magistratura,  cargo  de  cate- 
goria  igual  6  inmediatamente  inferior,  por  el  tiempo  que  determine 
la  Ley. 

(b)  Los  que,  con  anterioridad  &  la  promulgaci6n  de  esta  Constituci6n, 
hubieren  sido  Magistrados  del  Tribunal  Supremo  de  la  lsla  de  Cuba. 

El  tiempo  de  ejercicio  de  funciones  judiciales  se  computarfi  como  de 
ejercicio  de  la  Abogacia;  al  efecto  de  capacitar  a  los  Abogados  para 
poder  ser  nombrados  Magistrados  del  Tribunal  Supremo. 

ArtIculo  83.  Adem&s  de  las  atribuciones  que  le  estuvieren  anterior- 
mente  senaladas  y  de  las  que  en  lo  sucesivo  le  confieran  las  leyes, 
corresponden  al  Tribunal  Supremo  las  siguientes: 

l.a  Uonocer  de  los  recursos  de  casaci6n. 

2.a  Dirimir  las  corapetencias  entre  los  Tribunales  que  le  sean  inme- 
diatamente inferiores  6  no  tengan  un  superior  comun. 

3.a  Couocer  de  los  juicios  en  que  litiguen  entre  si  el  Estado,  las 
Provincias  y  los  Municipios. 

4.a  Decidir  sobre  la  constitucionalidad  de  las  leyes,  decretos  y  regla- 
mentos,  cuando  f uere  objeto  de  controversia  entre  partes. 

Secci^n  Tercera. — Disposiciaties  geiierales  acerca  de  la  Administra- 

ci&ti  de  Justicia. 

ARTfcmx)  84.  La  justicia  se  administrara  gratuitamente  en  todo  el 
territorio  de  la  Repiiblica. 

ARTfcuix)  85.  Los  Tribunales  conoccr&n  de  todos  los  juicios,  ya  sean 
civiles,  criminales  6  contencioso-administrativos. 

ARTfcuLO  86.  No  se  podr£n  crear,  en  ningun  caso,  ni  bajo  ninguna 
denominacion,  Coniisiones  judiciales  ni  Tribunales  extraordinarios. 

ArtIculo  87.  Ningun  f uncionario  del  orden  judicial podr&  ser suspen- 
dido  ni  separado  de  su  destino  6  empleo,  sino  por  raz6n  de  dehto  fi 
otra  causa  grave,  debidamente  acreditada,  y  siempre  con  su  audiencia. 

Tampoco  podrd  ser  trasladado  sin  su  consentimiento,  &  no  ser  por 
motivo  evidente  de  conveniencia  piiblica. 

ARTfcuLO  88.  Todos  los  funcionarios  del  orden  judicial  ser&n  per- 
sonalmente  responsables,  en  la  forma  que  determinen  las  leyes,  de  toda 
infraction  de  ley  que  cometieren. 

ARTfcuLO  89.  La  dotaeion  de  los  funcionarios  del  orden  judicial,  no 
podrfi  ser  alterada  sino  en  periodos  may  ores  de  cinco  anos,  y  por  medio 
de  una  ley.  Esta  no  podra  asignar  distintas  dotaciones  a  cargos  cuyo 
grado,  categoria  y  funciones  sean  iguales. 

ARTfcuLO  90.  Los  Tribunales  de  las  f uerzas  de  mar  y  tierra  se 
regular&n  por  una  ley  org&nica  especial. 

t1tx;lo  xi. 

DEL  REGIMEN   PROVINCIAL. 

Secci6n  Primera. — Disposiciones  generates. 

ArtIculo  91.  La  Provincia  comprende  los  t£rminos  Municipales 
enclavados  dentro  de  sus  limites. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  97 

ArtIculo  92.  En  cada  Provincia  habra  un  Gobernador  y  un  Consejo 
Provincial,  elegidos  por  sufragio  de  primer  grado  en  la  forma  que 
prescriba  la  Ley. 

El  numero  de  Consejeros,  en  cada  una,  no  sera  menor  de  ocho  ni 
mayor  de  veinte. 

Secci6n  Segunda. — De  los  Consejos  Provinciales  y  sus  atrifniciones. 

ArtIculo  1)3.  Corresponde  a  los  Consejos  Provinciales: 

1.°  Acordar  sobrc  todos  los  asuntos  que  conciernan  a  la  Provincia  y 
que,  por  la  Constitucion,  por  los  Tratados  6  por  las  leyes>  no  corres- 
pondan  6.  la  competencia  general  del  Estado  6  &  la  privativa  de  los 
Ayuntamientos. 

2.°  Formal"  sus  presupuestos,  estableciendo  los  ingresos  necesarios 
para  cubrirlos,  sin  otra  limitacion  que  la  de  hacerlos  compatibles  con 
el  sistema  tributario  del  Estado. 

3.°  Acordar  empr6stitos  para  obras  pfiblicas  de  interes  provincial; 
pero  votando  al  mismo  tiempo  los  ingresos  permanentes  necesarios 
para  el  pago  de  sus  intercses  y  amortizacion. 

Para  que  dichos  emprestitos  puedan  rcalizarse,  habran  de  ser  apro- 
bados  por  las  dos  terceras  partes  de  los  Ayuntamientos  de  la  Provincia. 

4.°  Acusar  ante  el  Senaao  al  Gobernador,  en  los  casos  determinados 
en  el  parrafo  tercero  del  articulo  47,  cuando  los  dos  tercios  del  numero 
total  de  los  Consejeros  Provinciales,  acordaren,  en  sesion  secreta,  la 


acusacion. 


5.°  Nombrar  y  remover  los  empleados  provinciales  con  arreglo  a  lo 
que  establezcan  las  leyes. 

ARTfcuLO  94.  Los  Consejos  Provinciales  no  podran  reducir  6  supri- 
mir  ingresos  de  caracter  permanente,  sin  establecer  al  mismo  tiempo 
otros  que  los  sustituyan;  salvo  en  el  caso  de  que  la  reduction  6 
supresion  procedan  de  rcduccion  6  supresion  de  gastos  permanentes 
equivalentes. 

ARTfcuLO  95.  Los  acuerdos  de  los  Consejos  Provinciales  seran  pre- 
sentados  al  Gobernador  de  la  Provincia.  Si  fete  los  aprobare,  los 
autorizara  con  su  tirma.  En  otro  caso,  los  devolvera,  con  sus  obje- 
ciones,  al  Consejo,  el  cual  discutira  de  nuevo  el  asunto.  Y,  si  despue^ 
de  la  segunda  discusion,  las  dos  terceras  partes  del  numero  total  de 
Consejeros  votaren  en  favor  del  acuerdo,  este  sera  ejecutivo. 

Cuando  el  Gobernador,  transcurridos  diez  dias  desde  la  presentacion 
de  un  acuerdo,  no  lo  devolviere,  se  tendra  por  aprobado  y  sera  tambi^n 
ejecutivo. 

ArtIculo  96.  Los  acuerdos  de  los  Consejos  Provinciales  podran  ser 
suspendidos  por  el  Gobernador  de  la  Provincia  6  por  el  Presidente  de 
la  Repfiblica,  cuando,  a  su  juicio,  fueren  contrarios  a  la  Constitucion, 
a  los  Tratados,  a  las  leyes  6  a  los  acuerdos  adoptados  por  los  Ayunta- 
mientos, dentro  de  sus  atribuciones  propias.  Pero  se  reservara  &  los 
Tribunales  el  conocimiento  y  la  resolucion  de  las  reclamaciones  que  se 
promuevan  con  motivo  de  la  suspension. 

ARTfcuLO  97.  Ni  los  Consejeros  Provinciales  ni  ninguna  Seccion  6 
Comision,  de  su  seno  6  por  ellos  designada  fuera  de  61,  podran  tener 
intervencion  en  las  operaciones  que  correspondan  al  procedimiento 
electoral  para  cualquier  clase  de  elecciones. 

ARTfcuLO  98.  Los  Consejeros  Provinciales  seran  personalmente 
responsables,  ante  los  Tribunales,  en  la  forma  que  las  leyes  prescriban, 
de  los  actos  que  ejecuten  en  el  ejercicio  de  sus  funciones. 

WAR  1902— vol  1 7 


98  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

Seccion  Tercera. — De  los  Gobemadores  de  JProvmeias  y  sus  atribu- 

eiones. 

ArtIcuix)  99.  Corresponde  a  los  Gobemadores  de  Provincia: 

1.°  Cumplir  y  hacer  cumplir,  en  los  extremos  que  les  conciernan,  las 
leyes,  decretos  y  reglamentos  generates  de  la  Nacion. 

2.°  PubKcar  los  acuerdos  del  Consejo  Provincial  que  tengan  fuerza 
obligatoria,  ejecutdndolos  y  haci^ndolos  ejecutar. 

3.°  Expedir  ordenes  y  dictar  adem&s  las  instrucciones  y  reglamentos 
para  la  mejor  ejecuci6n  de  los  acuerdos  del  Consejo  Provincial,  cuando 
6ste  no  los  hubiere  hecho. 

4.°  Convocar  al  Consejo  Provincial  a  sesiones  extraordinarias  cuando, 
a  su  juieio,  fuere  necessario;  expres&ndose  en  la  convocatoria  el 
objoto  de  las  sesiones. 

5.°  Suspender  los  acuerdos  del  Consejo  Provincial  y  de  los  Ayunta- 
mientos,  en  los  casos  que  determina  esta  Constituci6n. 

6.°  Acordar  la  suspensi6n  de  los  Alcaldes  en  los  casos  de  extralimi- 
tacion  de  facultades,  violacion  de  la  Constituci6n  6  de  lasleves,infrac- 
cion  de  los  acuerdos  de  los  Consejos  Provinciales,  6  incumplimiento  de 
sus  deberes;  dando  cuenta  al  Consejo  Provincial,  en  los  terminos  que 
establezca.n  las  leyes. 

7.°  Nombrar  y  remover  los  enipleados  de  su  despacho  conf orme  a 
lo  que  establezcan  las  leyes. 

AitTfcuLO  100.  El  Gobernador  sera  responsable  ante  el  Senado,  en 
los  casos  (Hie  en  esta  Constitucion  se  senalan,  y  ante  los  Tribunales 
en  los  demas  casos  de  delito,  con  arreglo  a  lo  que  prescriban  las  leyes. 

ARTfciiLO  101.  El  Gobernador  recibira  del  Tesoro  provincial  una 
dotacion,  que  podra  ser  altemda  en  todo  tiempo;  pcro  no  surtira  efecto 
la  alteracion  smo  despu^s  que  se  veritique  nueva  eleccion  de  Goberna- 
dor. 

ARTfcuix)  102.  Por  falta,  temporal  6  definitiva,  del  Gobernador  do 
la  Provincia  le  sustituira  en  el  ejercicio  do  su  cargo,  el  Presidente  del 
Consejo  Provincial.  Si  la  falta  fuere  definitiva  durard  la  sustituci6n 
hasta  que  termine  el  periodo  para  que  hubiere  sido  electo  el  Gobernador. 

TITULO  XII. 
DEL  REGIMEN   MUNICIPAL. 

Seccion  Primera. — Disposiciones  generates. 

ARTfcuLo  103.  Los  Terminos  municipales  seran  regidos  por  Ayun- 
tamiontos,  compuestos  de  Concejales  elegidos  por  sufragio  de  primer 
gmdo,  en  el  niimero  y  en  la  forma  quo  la  ley  prescriba. 

Art/cuix)  104.  En  cada  T^rmino  municipal  habr&  un  Alcalde,  ele- 
gido  por  sufragio  de  primer  grado,  en  la  forma  que  establezca  la  Ley. 

Seccion  Seounda. — De  los  Ayuntwaientos  y  »us  atribxiciones. 

AiiTfcuix)  105.  CoiTesponde  a  los  Ayuntamientos: 

1.°  Acordar  sobre  todos  los  asuntos  que  conciernan  exclusivamente 
al  t<5rmino  municipal. 

2.°  Formar  sus  presupuestos,  estableciendo  los  ingresos  necesarios 
para  cubrirlos,  sin  otra  limitacion  que  la  de  hacerlos  compatibles  con 
el  sistema  tributario  del  Estado. 


BEPOET  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  99 

* 

3.°  Acordar  empr^stitos;  pero  votando  al  mismo  tiempo  los  ingresos 
permanentes  necesarios  para  el  pago  de  sus  intereses  y  amortizacion. 

Para  que  dichos  emprestitos  pueaan  realizarse,  habran  de  ser  apro- 
bados  por  las  dos  terceras  partes  de  los  electores  del  T6rmino  munici- 
pal. 

4.°  Nombrary  remover  los  empleados  municipales  conforme  &  lo 
que  establezcan  las  leyes. 

ArtIculo  106.  Los  Ayuntamientos  no  podran  reducir  6  suprimir 
ingresos  de  caracter  permanente  sin  establecer  al  mismo  tiempo  otros 
que  los  sustituyan,  salvo  en  el  caso  de  que  la  reduccion  6  supresion 
procedan  de  reduccion  6  supresion  de  gastos  permanentes  equivalentes. 

ARTfcmx)  107.  Los  acuerdos  de  los  Ayuntamientos  serdn  presenta- 
dos  al  Alcalde.  Si  6ste  los  aprobare,  los  autorizara  con  su  firma.  En 
otro  caso,  los  devolvera,  con  sus  objeciones,  al  Ayuntamiento;  el  cual 
discutird  de  nuevo  el  asunto.  Y  si  despu^s  de  la  segunda  discusion,  las 
dos  terceras  partes  del  numero  total  de  Concejales  votaren  en  favor 
del  acuerdo,  este  sera  ejecutivo. 

Cuando  el  Alcalde,  transcurridos  diez  dias  desde  la  presentacion  de 
un  acuerdo,  no  lo  devolviere,  se  tendra  por  aprobado  y  sera  tambien 
ejecutivo. 

ARTfcuLO  108.  Los  acuerdos  de  los  Ayuntamientos  podran  ser  sus- 
pendidos  por  el  Alcalde,  por  el  Gobernador  de  la  Provincia  6  por  el 
Presidfente  de  la  Repiiblica,  cuando,  &  su  juicio,  fueren  contrarios  k  la 
Constituci6n,  &  los  Tratados,  a  las  leyes  6  &  los  acuerdos  adoptados  por 
el  Consejo  Provincial  dentro  de  sus  atribuciones  propias.  Pero  se 
reservara  a  los  Tribunales  el  conocimiento  y  la  resolucion  de  las  recla- 
maciones  que  se  promuevan  con  motivo  de  la  suspension. 

ArtIculo  109.  Los  Concejales  seran  personalmente  responsables, 
ante  los  Tribunales  de  Justicia,  en  la  forma  que  las  leyes  prescriban, 
de  los  actos  que  ejecuten  en  el  ejercicio  de  sus  f  unciones. 

Seccion  Tercera. — De  los  Alcaldes  sus  atribuciones  y  deberes. 

ArtIculo  110.  Corresponde  &  los  Alcaldes: 

1.°  Publicar  los  acueraos  de  los  Ayuntamientos  que  tengan  fuerza 
obligatoria,  ejecutandolos  y  haci^ndolos  ejecutar. 

2.°  Ejercer  las  f unciones  activas  de  la  administraci6n  municipal, 
expidiendo,  al  efecto,  ordenes  y  dictando  ademds  instrucciones  y  re- 
glamentos  para  la  mejor  ejecucion  de  los  acuerdos  del  Ayuntamiento, 
cuando  £ste  no  los  hubiere  hecho. 

3.°  Nombrar  y  remover  los  empleados  de  su  despacho,  conforme  & 
lo  que  establezcan  las  leyes. 

ArtIculo  111.  El  Alcalde  ser&  personalmente  responsable,  ante  los 
Tribunales  de  Justicia,  en  la  forma  que  las  leyes  prescriban,  de  los 
actos  que  ejecuten  en  el  ejercicio  de  sus  f unciones. 

Art£culo  112.  El  Alcalde  recibird,  del  Tesoro  Municipal  una  dota- 
cion  que  podrd  ser  alterada  en  todo  tiempo;  pero  no  surtird  efecto  la 
alteraci6n  sino  desde  que  se  verifique  nueva  eleccion  de  Alcalde. 

ArtIculo  113.  Por  falta,  tempo  ml  6  definitiva  del  Alcalde,  le  susti- 
tuira  en  el  ejercicio  de  su  cargo  el  Presidente  del  Ayuntamiento. 

Si  la  falta  fuere  definitiva  durara  la  sustituci6n  hasta  que  termine  el 
perlodo  para  que  hubiere  sido  electo  el  Alcalde. 


•    .  •  ! 


•  •  •«•  - 


100  REPORT    OF   THE    SECRETARY    OF   WAR, 

TITULO  XIII. 
DE   LA    HACIENDA    NACIONAL. 

ArtIculo  114.  Pertenecen  al  Estado  todos  los  bienes,  existentes  en 
el  territorio  de  la  Repiiblica,  que  no  correspondan  &  las  Provincias  6 
a  los  Municipios,  ni  seau,  individual  6  colectivamente,  de  propiedad 
particular. 

TITULO  XIV. 
DE   LA   REFORMA    DE    LA    CONSTITUCl6N. 

Art/culo  115.  La  Constitucion  no  podra  ref  ormarse,  total  ni  parcial- 
mente,  sino  por  acuerdo  de  las  dos  terceras  partes  del  numero  total  de 
los  miembros  de  cada  Cuerpo  Colegislador. 

Seis  meses  despu^s  de  acordada  la  reforma,  se  procederd  k  convocar 
una  Convencion  Constituyente,  que  se  liniitara  a  aprobar  6  desechar 
la  reforma  votada  por  las  Cuerpos  Colegisladores;  los  cuales  continua- 
ran  en  el  ejercicio  de  sus  funciones  con  entera  independencia  de  la 
Convencion. 

Los  Delegados  a  dicha  Convenci6n  serdn  elegidos  por  provinces,  en 
la  proporcion  de  uno  por  cada  cincuenta  mil  habitantes,  y  en  la  forma 
que  establezcan  las  leyes. 

Disposiciones  Transitorias. 

TRIMERA. 

La  Repiiblica  de  Cuba  no  reconoce  mas  deudas  y  compromisos  que 
los  contraidos  legitimamente,  en  beneficio  de  la  Revolucion,  por  los 
Jefes  de  Cuerpo  del  Ejercito  Libertador,  despu&j  del  24  de  Febrero  de 
1895,  y  con  anterioridad  al  19  de  Septiembre  del  mismo  ano,  fecha»en 
que  se  promulgo  la  Constitucion  de  Jimaguayu;  y  las  deudas  y  com- 
promisos que  elGobierno  Revolucionario  hubiere  contraido  posterior- 
mente,  por  si  6  por  sus  legitiinos  representantes  en  el  extrangero.  El 
Congreso  calificara  dichas  deudas  y  compromisos,  y  resolverl  sobre  el 
pago  de  los  que  f  ueren  legitimos. 

SEGUNDA. 

Los  nacidos  en  Cuba  6  los  hijos  de  naturales  de  Cuba  que,  al  tiempo 
de  promulgarse  esta  Constitucion,  fueren  ciudadanos  de  algfin  listado 
extranjero,  no  podran  gozar  de  la  nacionalidad  cubana  sin  renunciar, 
previa  y  expresamente,  la  que  tuvieren. 

TERCERA. 

El  tiempo  que  los  extranjeros  hubieren  servido  en  las  guerras  por 
la  independencia  de  Cuba,  se  computard  como  tiempo  de  naturaliza- 
ci6n  y  ae  residencia  para  la  adquisicion  del  derecbo  que  &  los  naturali- 
zados  reconoce  el  articulo  49. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  101 

CUARTA. 

La  base  de  poblacion  que  se  establece,  en  relacion  con  las  elecciones 
de  Representantes  y  de  Delegados  a  la  Convencion  Constituyente,  en 
los  articulos  48  y  115,  podra  modificarse  por  una  ley  cuando  d  juicio 
del  Congreso  lo  exigiere  el  aumento  de  habitantes  que  resulte  de  los 
Censos  periodicainente  formados. 

QUINTA. 

Al  constituirse  por  primera  vez  el  Senado,  los  Senadores,  al  efecto 
de  su  renovaci6n,  se  dividirdn  en  dos  series.  Los  comprendidos  en  la 
primera,  cesardn  al  fin  del  cuarto  ano,  y  los  comprendidos  en  la  segunda, 
al  terminar  el  octavo;  decidiendo  la  suerte  los  dos  Senadores  que 
correspondan,  por  cada  provincia,  d  una  }r  otra  serie. 

La  Ley  establecerd  el  procedimiento  para  la  formacion  de  las  dos 
series  en  que  haya  de  dividirse,  d  los  ef ectos  de  su  renovacion  parcial, 
la  Camara  de  Representantes. 

SEXTA. 

Noventa  dias  despu^s  de  promulgada  la  Ley  Electoral  que  habra  de 
redactar  y  adoptar  la  Convencion  Constituyente,  se  procederd  a  elegir 
los  funcionarios  creados  por  la  Constitucion,  para  el  traspaso  del 
Gobierno  de  Cuba  a  los  que  resulten  elegidos,  conforme  d  lo  dispuesto 
en  la  Orden  numero  301  del  Cuartel  General  de  la  Division  de  Cuba, 
de  25  de  Julio  del  ano  1900. 

SEPTIMA. 

Todas  las  leyes,  decretos,  reglamentos,  ordenes  y  demds  disposi- 
ciones  que  estuvieren  en  vigor  al  promulgarse  esta  Constitucion,  con- 
tinuardn  observandose  en  cuanto  no  se  opongan  a  ella,  mientras  no 
f  ueren  legalmente  derogadas  6  modificadas. 

Apendice. 

Art£cul,o  1.°  El  Gobierno  de  Cuba  nunca  celebrard  con  ningun 
Poder  6  Poderes  extranjeros  ningun  Tratado  u  otro  pacto  que  menos- 
cabe  6  tienda  d  menoscabar  la  independencia  de  Cuba,  ni  en  raanera 
alguna  autorice  6  permita  d  ningun  Poder  6  Poderes  extrangeros 
obtener  por  colonizacion  6  para  propositos  navales  6  mil i tares  6  de 
otra  manera  asiento  en  6  jurisdiccion  sobre  ninguna  porcion  de  dicha 
Isla. 

ARTfcoLO  2.°  Dicho  Gobierno  no  asumird  6  contraerd  ninguna 
deuda  publica  para  el  pago  do  cuyos  intereses  y  amortizacion  definitiva, 
despu^s  de  cubiertos  los  gastos  corrientes  del  Gobierno,  resulten  ina- 
decuados  los  ingresos  ordinarios. 

ArtIculo  3.°  El  Gobierno  de  Cuba  consiente  que  los  Estados  Uni- 
dos  puedan  ejercer  el  derecho  de  inter\  enir  pai*a  la  preservacion  de  la 
independencia  de  Cuba,  y  el  sostenimiento  de  un  Gobierno  adecuado 
d  la  protecci6n  de  la  viua,  la  propiedad  y  la  libertad  individual,  y  al 
cumplimiento  de  las  obligaciones,  con  respecto  k  Cuba,  impuestas  a  los 
Estados  Unidos  por  el  Tratado  de  Paris  y  que  deben  ahora  ser  asumi- 
das  y  complidas  por  el  Gobierno  de  Cuba. 


102  REPOBT  OF  THE  SECRET ABT  OF  WAR. 

ARTfcuLO  4.°  Todos  los  actos  realizados  por  los  Estados  Unidos  en 
Cuba  durante  su  ocupacion  militar,  ser£n  ratificados  y  tenidos  por 
validos,  y  todas  los  derechos  legalraente  adquiridos  &  virtud  de  aquellos, 
seran  mantenidos  y  protegidos. 

ArtIculo  5.°  l5l  Gobierno  de  Cuba  ejecutara  y  hasta  donde  fuere 
necesario  ainpliard  los  planes  ya  proyectados  6  otros  que  mutuamente 
se  convengan,  para  el  saneaniiento  de  las  poblaciones  de  la  Isla,  con 
el  fin  de  evitar  la  recurrencia  de  enfermedades  epidemicas  6  infecciosas. 
protegiendo  asi  al  pueblo  y  al  comercio  de  Cuba,  lo  mismo  que  al 
comercio  y  al  pueblo  de  los  puertos  del  Sur  de  los  Estados  Unidos. 

ARTfcuLO  G.°  La  Isla  de  Pinos  queda  omitida  de  los  limites  de  Cuba 
propuestos  por  la  Constitucion,  dejdndose  para  un  futuro  Tratado  la 
fijacion  de  su  pertenencia. 

Art^gulo  7.°  Para  poner  en  condiciones  &  los  Estados  Unidos  de 
mantener  la  independencia  de  Cuba  y  protejer  al  pueblo  de  la  misraa, 
asi  como  para  su  propia  dcfensa,  el  Gobierno  de  Cuba  venderd  6  arren- 
dard  a  los  Estados  Unidos  las  tierras  necesarias  para  carboneras  6 
estaciones  navales  en  ciertos  puntos  determinados  que  se  convendran 
con  el  Presidents  de  los  Estados  Unidos. 

ArtIculo  8.°  El  Gobierno  de  Cuba  insertard  las  anteriores  disposi- 
ciones  en  un  Tratado  pennanente  con  los  Estados  Unidos. 

Leonard  Wood, 
Gobwruidm*  Militar  de  Cuba. 


[Translation.] 

Tuesday r,  May  20,  1902.  Havana  Gazettee  {official  newspaper  of  the 
Government).  Extra  edition.  Official  section.  General  adminis- 
tration.    Military  government  of  i/te  island  of  Cuba. 

No.  181. 

Headquarters  Department  of  Cuba, 

Havana,  May  80,  1902. 

The  following  constitution  adopted  by  the  constitutional  convention 
of  the  people  of  Cuba  on  the  21st  day  of  February,  1901,  together 
with  and  including  the  appendix  thereto  adopted  by  said  convention 
on  the  12th  day  of  June,  1901,  is  hereby  promulgated  jus  the  constitu- 
tion of  the  Republic  of  Cuba,  aud  declared  to  be  in  full  force  and  effect 
on  and  after  tnis  day. 

CONSTITUTION  OF  THE  REPUBLIC  OF  CUBA. 

We,  the  delegates  of  the  people  of  Cuba,  having  met  in  Constitu- 
tional Convention  for  the  purpose  of  preparing  and  adopting  the 
fundamental  law  of  their  organization  as  an  independent  and  sovereign 
people,  establishing  a  government  capable  of  fulfilling  its  international 
obligations,  maintaining  public  peace,  insuring  liberty,  justice,  and 
promoting  the  general  welfare,  do  hereby  agree  upon  and  adopt  the 
following  Constitution,  invoking  the  protection  of  tne  Almighty. 


REPORT   OF   THE   SECRETARY    OF   WAR.  103 

TITLE  I. 
.   THE   NATION,  ITS   FORM  OF   GOVERNMENT,    AND   IT8  TERRITORY. 

Article  1.  The  people  of  Cuba  are  hereby  constituted  a  sovereign 
and  independent  State  and  adopt  a  republican  form  of  government. 

Art.  2.  The  territory  of  the  Republic  is  composed  of  the  island  of 
Cuba,  as  well  as  the  adjacent  islands  and  keys,  which,  together  there- 
with, were  under  the  sovereignty  of  Spain  Until  the  ratification  of  the 
treaty  of  Paris  on  December  10,  1898. 

Art.  3.  The  territory  of  the  Republic  shall  be  divided  into  six  prov- 
inces, as  they  exist  at  present  and  with  the  same  boundaries,  the  pro- 
vincial council  of  each  to  determine  their  respective  names. 

The  provinces  may  be  incorporated  with  each  other  or  divided  into 
new  provinces  through  actions  that  may  be  agreed  upon  by  the  respec- 
tive provincial  councils  and  approved  by  Congress. 

TITLE  II. 
THE   CUBAN   PEOPLE. 

Art.  4.  Cuban  citizens  are  native  born  or  naturalized. 

Art.  5.  Native-born  Cubans  are: 

First.  Those  born  of  Cuban  parents  within  or  without  the  territory 
of  the  Republic. 

Second.  Those  born  within  the  territory  of  the  Republic  of  foreign 
parents,  provided  that  on  becoming  of  age  they  claim  the  right  of 
inscription  as  Cubans  in  the  proper  register. 

Third.  Those  born  in  foreign  countries  of  native-born  parents,  who 
have  forfeited  their  Cuban  nationality,  provided  that  on  becoming  of 
age  they  claim  their  inscription  as  Cubans  in  the  same  register. 

Art.  6.  Naturalized  Cubans  are: 

First.  Foreigners  who,  having  served  in  the  Liberating  Army,  may. 
claim  Cuban  nationality  within  six  months  following  the  promulgation 
of  this  Constitution. 

Second.  Foreigners  established  in  Cuba  prior  to  January  1st,  1809, 
who  may  have  retained  their  residence  after  said  date,  provided  they 
claim  Cuban  nationality  within  the  six  months  next  following  the  pro- 
mulgation of  this  Constitution,  or,  if  minors,  within  a  like  period  after 
they  shall  have  attained  their  majority. 

Third.  Foreigners  who,  after  five  years'  residence  in  the  territory 
of  the  Republic  and  not  less  than  two  years  from  the  time  that  they 
declared  their  intention  of  acquiring  Cuban  citizenship,  may  obtain 
their  letters  of  naturalization  in  conformity  with  the  laws. 

Fourth.  Spaniards  residing  in  the  territory  of  Cuba  on  the  11th 
day  of  April,  1899,  who  may  not  have  been  registered  as  such  in  the 
proper  registers  prior  to  the  same  mouth  and  day  of  1900. 

Fifth.  Africans  who  may  have  been  slaves  in  Cuba,  and  those  who 
were  emancipated  and  comprised  in  article  13  of  the  treaty  of  June 
28th,  1835,  entered  into  by  opain  and  England. 

Art.  7.  Cuban  citizenship  is  forfeited: 

First.  By  acquiring  foreign  citizenship. 

Second.  By  accepting  employment  or  honors  from  auother  govern- 
ment without  permission  of  the  Senate. 


104  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAS. 

Third.  By  entering  the  military  service  of  a  foreign  nation  without 
a  like  permission. 

Fourth.  By  a  naturalized  Cuban  residing  five  years  continuously  in 
his  native  country,  except  by  reason  of  his  being  in  the  employ  of  or 
fulfilling  a  commission  of  the  Government  of  the  Republic. 

Art.  8.  Cuban  citizenship  may  be  reacquired  as  may  be  provided 
for  by  law. 

Art.  9.  Every  Cuban  shall — 

First.  Bear  arms  in  defense  of  his  country  in  such  cases  and  in  the 
manner  determined  by  the  laws. 

Second.  Contribute  to  the  payment  of  public  expenses  in  such  man- 
ner and  proportion  as  the  laws  may  prescribe. 

TITLE  III. 

FOREIGNERS. 

Art.  10.  Foreigners  residing  within  the  territory  of  the  Republic 
shall  have  the  same  rights  and  obligations  as  Cubans — 

First.  As  to  protection  of  their  persons  and  properties. 

Second.  As  to  the  enjoyment  of  the  rights  guaranteed  by  Section  I 
of  the  following  title,  excepting  those  exclusively  reserved  to  citizens. 

Third.  As  to  the  enjoyment  of  civil  rights  under  the  conditions  and 
limitations  prescribed  in  the  law  of  alieus. 

Fourth.  As  to  the  obligation  of  respecting  and  obeying  the  laws, 
decrees,  regulations,  and  all  other  enactments  that  may  be  in  force  in 
the  Republic. 

Fifth.  As  to  submission  to  the  jurisdiction  and  decisions  of  the 
courts  of  justice  and  all  other  authorities  of  the  Republic. 

Sixth.  As  to  the  obligation  of  contributing  to  the  public  expenses 
of  the  State,  province,  and  municipality. 

TITLE  IV. 

RIGHTS   GUARANTEED   BY   THIS   CONSTITUTION. 

Section  Fi  rst.  — In  dividual  rights. 

Art.  11.  All  Cubans  have  equal  rights  before  the  law.  The  Repub- 
lic does  not  recognize  any  personal  privileges  or  special  rights. 

Art.  V2.  No  law  shall  have  anv  retroactive  effect,  other  than  penal 
ones  favorable  to  convicted  or  indicted  persons. 

Art.  13.  Obligations  of  a  civil  nature  arising  from  contracts  or 
other  acts  or  omissions,  shall  not  be  annulled  or  altered  by  either  the 
legislature4  or  Executive  power. 

Art.  14.  The  penalty  of  death  shall  in  no  case  be  imposed  for  crimes 
of  a  political  nature,  which  shall  be  defined  by  law. 

Art.  15.  No  person  shall  be  arrested  except  in  such  cases  and  in 
the  manner  prescribed  by  law. 

Art.  1(>.  Every  person  arrested  shall  be  set  at  liberty  or  placed  at 
the*  disposal  of  a  competent  judge  or  court  within  twenty-four  hours 
immediately  following  the  arrest. 

Art.  17.  All  persons  arrested  shall  be  set  at  liberty  or  their  impris- 
onment ordered  within  seventy-two  hours  after  having  been  placed  at 
the  disposal  of  the  competent  judge  or  court.     Within  the  same  time 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SEORETABY  OF  WAB.  105 

notice  shall  be  served  upon  the  party  interested  of  any  action  which 
may  have  been  taken  in  the  matter. 

Art.  18.  No  person  shall  be  arrested  except  by  warrant  of  a  compe- 
tent judge  or  court.  The  order  directing  tne  serving  of  the  warrant 
of  arrest  shall  be  affirmed  or  reversed,  after  the  accused  shall  have 
been  heard  in  his  defense,  within  seventy-two  hours  next  following 
his  imprisonment. 

Art.  19.  No  person  shall  be  indicted  or  sentenced  except  by  compe- 
tent judge  or  court,  by  virtue  of  laws  in  force  prior  to  the  commission 
of  the  crime,  and  in  such  manner  as  therein  prescribed. 

Art.  20.  Any  person  arrested  or  imprisoned  without  legal  formali- 
ties, or  not  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  this  Constitution  and 
the  laws,  shall  be  set  at  liberty  at  his  own  request  or  that  of  any  citi- 
zen. The  law  will  determine  the  prompt  action  which  shall  be  taken 
in  the  case. 

Art.  21.  No  person  whatsoever  is  bound  to  give  evidence  against 
himself,  nor  huslband  or  wife  against  each  other,  nor  relatives  within 
the  fourth  degree  of  consanguinity  or  second  of  affinity. 

Art.  22.  All  correspondence  and  other  private  documents  are  invi- 
olable, and  neither  shall  be  seized  or  examined  except  by  order  of  a 
competent  authority  and  with  the  formalities  prescribed  by  the  laws, 
and  in  all  cases  all  points  therein  not  relating  to  the  matter  under 
investigation  shall  be  kept  secret. 

Art.  23.  No  person's  domicile  shall  be  violated;  and  therefore  no 
one  shall  enter  that  of  another  at  night,  except  by  permission  of  its 
occupant,  unless  it  be  for  the  purpose  of  giving  aid  and  assistance  to 
victims  of  crime  or  accident;  or  in  the  daytime,  except  in  such  cases 
and  manner  as  prescribed  by  law. 

Art.  24.  No  person  shall  be  compelled  to  change  his  domicile  or 
residence  except  by  virtue  of  an  order  issued  by  a  competent  authority 
and  in  the  manner  prescribed  by  law. 

Art.  25.  Every  person  may  freely,  without  censorship,  express  his 
thoughts  either  by  word  of  mouth  or  in  writing,  through  the  press,  or 
in  any  other  manner  whatsoever,  subject  to  the  responsibilities  speci- 
fied by  law,  whenever  thereby  attacks  are  made  upon  the  honor  of 
individuals,  upon  social  order,  and  upon  public  peace. 

Art.  26.  The  profession  of  all  religious  beliefs,  as  well  as  the  prac- 
tice of  all  forms  of  worship,  arc  free,  without  further  restriction  than 
that  demanded  by  the  respect  for  Christian  morality  and  public  order. 
The  church  shall  be  separated  from  the  state,  which  shall  in  no  case 
subsidize  any  religion. 

Art.  27.  All  persons  shall  have  the  right  to  address  petitions  to  the 
authorities,  to  have  them  duly  acted  upon,  and  to  be  informed  of  the 
action  taken  thereon. 

Art.  28.  All  inhabitants  of  the  Republic  have  the  right  to  assemble 
peacefully  unarmed,  and  to  associate  for  all  lawful  pursuits  of  life. 

Art.  29.  All  persons  shall  have  the  right  to  enter  into  and  depart 
from  the  territory  of  the  Republic,  to  travel  within  its  boundaries, 
and  to  change  their  residence  without  requiring  any  safeguard,  pass- 
port, or  any  other  similar  requisite,  except  as  may  be  required  by  the 
laws  governing  immigration,  and  b}7  the  authorities,  in  cases  of  crimi- 
nal responsibility,  by  virtue  of  the  powers  vested  in  them. 

Art.  30.  No  Cuban  shall  be  banished  from  the  territory  of  the 
Republic  or  be  prohibited  from  entering  therein. 


106  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

Art.  31.  Primary  education  is  compulsory  and  shall  be  gratuitous, 
as  also  that  of  arts  and  trades.  The  expenses  thereof  shall  be  defrayed 
by  the  State  during  such  time  as  the  municipalities  and  provinces, 
respectively,  may  Tack  sufficient  means  therefor.  Secondary  and 
advanced  education  will  be  controlled  by  the  State.  However,  all  per- 
sons may,  without  restriction,  study  or  teach  any  science,  art,  or  pro- 
fession, and  found  and  maintain  establishments  of  education  and  in- 
struction, but  it  pertains  to  the  State  to  determine  what  professions 
shall  require  special  titles,  the  conditions  necessary  for  their  practice, 
the  necessary  requirements  to  obtain  the  titles,  and  the  issuing  of  the 
same  as  may  be  established  by  law. 

Art.  32.  No  person  shall  he  deprived  of  his  property,  except  by 
competent  authority  for  the  justified  reason  of  public  benefit,  and 
after  being  duly  indemnified  for  the  same.  Should  the  latter  require- 
ment not  have  been  complied  with,  the  judges  and  courts  shall  give 
due  protection;  and  in  such  case  they  shall  restore  possession  of  the 
property  to  the  person  who  may  have  been  deprived  thereof. 

Art.  33.  In  no  case  shall  the  penalty  of  confiscation  of  property  be 
imposed. 

Art.  34.  No  person  is  obliged  to  pay  any  tax  or  impost  not  legally 
established  and  the  collection  thereof  is  not  carried  out  in  the  manner 
prescribed  by  the  laws. 

Art.  35.  Every  author  or  inventor  shall  enjoy  the  exclusive  owner- 
ship of  his  work  or  invention  for  the  time  and  in  the  manner  deter- 
mined by  law. 

Art.  36.  The  enumeration  of  the  rights  expressly  guaranteed  by 
this  Constitution  does  not  exclude  others  that  may  be  based  upon  the 
principle  of  the  sovereignty  of  the  people  and  upon  the  republican 
form  of  Government. 

Art.  37.  The  laws  regulating  the  exercise  of  the  rights  which  this 
Constitution  guarantees  shall  become  null  and  void  if  they  diminish, 
restrict,  or  change  the  said  rights. 

Section  Second. — Right  of  suffrage. 

Art.  38.  All  male  Cubans  over  twenty-one  years  of  age  have  the 
right  of  suffrage,  with  the  following  exceptions: 

First.  Inmates  of  asylums. 

Second.  Persons  mentally  incapacitated  after  having  been  judicially 
so  declared. 

Third.  Persons  judicially  deprived  of  civil  rights  on  account  of 
crime. 

Fourth.  Persons  in  active  service  belonging  to  the  land  or  naval 
forces. 

Art.  39.  The  laws  shall  establish  rules  and  procedures  to  guarantee 
the  intervention  of  the  minority  in  the  preparation  of  the ^Electoral 
Census,  and  in  other  electoral  matters,  and  their  representation  in  the 
House  of  Representatives  and  in  provincial  and  municipal  councils. 

Section  Third. — Siispensi<m  of  constitutional  guarantees. 

Art.  40.  The  guarantees  established  in  articles  15,  10,  17,  19,  23, 
23,  24,  and  27  of  the  tirst  section  of  this  title  shall  not  be  suspended 
throughout  the  entire  Republic,  or  in  any  part  thereof,  except  tempo- 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  107 

rarily  and  when  the  safety  of  the  state  may  require  it,  in  cases  of 
invasion  of  the  territory  or  of  serious  disturbances  that  may  threaten 
public  peace. 

Art.  41.  The  territory  within  which  the  guarantees  determined  in 
the  preceding  article  may  have  been  suspended  shall  be  governed  dur- 
ing the  period  of  suspension  b}'  the  Law  of  Public  Order  previously 
enacted,  but  neither  in  the  said  law,  or  in  any  other,  shall  the  suspen- 
sion be  ordered  of  any  other  guarantees  than  those  already  mentioned. 
Nor  shall  there  be  made,  during  the  period  of  suspension,  any  decla- 
ration of  new  crimes,  nor  shall  there  be  imposed  other  penalties  than 
those  established  by  the  law  in  force  at  the  time  the  suspension  was 
ordered. 

The  Executive  power  is  prohibited  from  banishing  or  exiling  citi- 
zens to  a  greater  distance  than  one  hundred  and  twenty  kilometers 
from  their  domicile,  and  from  holding  them  under  arrest  for  more 
than  ten  days  without  turning  them  over  to  the  judicial  authorities, 
and  from  rearresting  them  during  the  period  of  the  suspension  of 
guarantees.  Persons  arrested  shall  not  be  detained  except  in  special 
departments  of  public  establishments  used  for  the  detention  of  persons 
indicted  for  ordinary  offenses. 

Art.  42.  The  suspension  of  the  guarantees  specified  in  article  40 
shall  only  be  orderea  by  means  of  a  law,  or,  when  Congress  is  not  in 
session,  by  a  decree  of  the  President  of  the  Republic;  but  the  latter 
shall  not  order  the  suspension  more  than  once  during  the  period  com- 
prised between  two  legislatures,  nor  for  an  indefinite  period  of  time, 
nor  for  more  than  thirty  days,  without  convening  Congress  in  the 
same  order  of  suspension.  In  every  case  the  President  shall  report  to 
Congress  for  such  action  as  Congress  may  deem  proper. 

TITLE  V. 
SOVEREIGNTY   AND  PUBLIC    POWERS. 

Art.  43.  Sovereignty  is  vested  in  the  people  of  Cuba  and  all  public 
powers  are  derived  therefrom. 

TITLE  VI. 
LEGISLATIVE   POWERS. 

•  

Section  First. — The  legislative  bodies. 

Art.  44.  The  legislative  power  is  exercised  by  two  elective  bodies, 
which  shall  be  known  as  the  House  of  Representatives  and  the  Senate, 
and  which  conjointly  will  be  called  Congress. 

Section  Second. — The  Senate;  its  organization  and  attributes. 

Art.  45.  The  Senate  shall  be  composed  of  four  Senators  from  each 
Province,  elected  therefrom  for  a  period  of  eight  years  by  the  provin- 
cial councilmen  and  by  a  double  number  of  electors,  who,  together 
with  the  provincial  councilmen,  shall  constitute  an  Electoral  Board. 

One-half  of  the  electors  must  be  persons  who  pay  the  highest  amount 
of  taxes  and  the  remainder  shall  possess  the  qualifications  that  may  be 


108  REPORT  OB'  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAB. 

determined  by  law.  All  of  the  electors  must  also  be  of  age  and  resi- 
dents of  municipal  districts  of  the  Province. 

The  electors  shall  be  chosen  by  the  voters  of  the  Province  one  hun- 
dred days  prior  to  the  election  of  Senators. 

One-halt  of  the  members  of  the  Senate  shall  be  elected  every  four 
years. 

Art.  46.  To  become  a  Senator  it  is  necessary — 

First.  To  be  a  native-born  Cuban. 

Second.  To  have  attained  to  the  age  of  35  years. 

Third.  To  be  in  full  possession  of  all  civil  and  political  rights. 

Art.  47.  The  inherent  attributes  of  the  Senate  are — 

First.  To  try,  sitting  as  a  court  of  justice,  the  President  of  the 
Republic  whenever  he  be  accused  by  the  House  of  Representatives  of 
crimes  against  the  external  security  of  the  State,  against  the  free  exer- 
cise of  legislative  or  judicial  powers,  or  of  violation  of  the  Constitution. 

Second.  To  try,  sitting  as  a  court  of  justice,  Cabinet  ministers  when- 
ever they  be  accused  by  the  House  of  Representatives  of  crimes  against 
the  external  security  of  the  State,  against  the  free  exercise  of  legisla- 
tive or  judicial  powers,  or  of  violation  of  the  Constitution,  or  of  any 
other  offense  of  a  political  nature  specified  by  law. 

Third.  To  try,  sitting  as  a  court  of  justice,  governors  of  Provinces, 
whenever  they  be  accused  by  the  provinciates  councils  or  by  the  Presi- 
dent of  the  Republic  of  any  of  the  offenses  specified  in  the  preceding 
paragraph.  Whenever  the  Senate  sits  as  a  court  of  justice  it  shall  be 
presided  over  by  the  Chief  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court,  and  it  shall 
not  impose  upon  the  accused  any  other  penalty  than  that  of  removal 
from  office,  or  removal  from  office  and  disqualification  to  hold  any 
public  office,  without  detriment  to  any  other  penalty  which  the  accused 
may  have  incurred  which  may  be  imposed  by  the  courts  declared  to  be 
competent  by  law. 

Fourth.  To  confirm  the  appointments  made  by  the  President  of  the 
Republic  of  Chief  Justice  and  associate  justices  of  the  Supreme  Court 
of  Justice;  of  diplomatic  representatives  and  consular  agents  of  the 
nation,  and  of  all  other  public  officers  whose  appointment  may  require 
the  approval  of  the  Senate  in  accordance  with  tne  law. 

Fifth.  To  authorize  Cuban  citizens  to  accept  employment  or  honors 
from  another  government  or  to  serve  in  the  army  thereof. 

Sixth.  To  ratify  the  treaties  entered  into  by  the  President  of  the 
Republic  with  other  nations. 

Section  Third. — Tlui  House  of  Representatives;  its  organization  and 

attributes. 

Art.  48.  The  House  of  Representatives  shall  be  composed  of  one 
Representative  for  each  twenty-five  thousand  inhabitants  or  fraction 
thereof  over  twelve  thousand  five  hundred,  elected  for  the  period  of 
four  years  by  direct  vote  and  in  the  manner  provided  for  by  law. 

Ouc-half  of  the  members  of  the  House  of  Representatives  shall  be 
elected  everv  two  vears. 

Art.  49.  The  following  qualifications  are  necessary  to  be  a  Repre- 
sentative: 

First.  To  bo  a  native-born  or  naturalized  Cuban  citizen  who  has 
resided  for  eight  years  in  the  Republic  from  and  after  the  date  of  his 
naturalization. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  109 

Second.  To  have  attained  to  the  age  of  twenty-five  years. 

Third.  To  be  in  full  possession  of  all  civil  and  political  rights. 

Art.  50.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  House  ot  Representatives  to 
impeach  in  the  Senate  the  President  of  the  Republic,  and  the  Cabinet 
ministers  in  all  cases  prescribed  in  paragraphs  h'rst  and  second  of  article 
47,  whenever  two-thirds  of  the  total  number  of  Representatives  shall 
so  resolve  in  secret  session. 

# 

Section  Fourth. — Provisions  common  to  both  colegislative  bodies. 

Art.  51.  The  positions  of  Senator  and  Representative  are  incom- 
patible with  the  holding  of  any  paid  position  of  government  appoint- 
ment, with  the  exception  of  that  of  a  professorship  in  a  government 
institution,  obtained  by  competitive  examination  prior  to  election  to 
the  first-named  positions. 

Art.  52.  Senators  and  Representatives  shall  receive  from  the  State 
a  pecuniary  remuneration,  alike  for  both  positions,  the  amount  of 
which  may  be  changed  at  any  time;  but  the  change  shall  not  take  effect 
until  after  the  future  election  of  one-half  of  the  members  of  the  colegis- 
lative bodies. 

Art.  53.  Senators  and  Representatives  shall  not  be  held  liable  for 
the  votes  and  opinions  given  and  expressed  in  the  discharge  of  their 
duties.  Senators  and  Representatives  shall  only  be  arrested  or  indicted 
by  authority  of  the  body  of  which  they  form  part,  should  Congress  be 
in  session  at  the  time,  except  in  case  of  being  actually  discovered  in 
fliUfrante  delicto.  In  this  case,  and  in  case  of  their  being  arrested  or 
indicted  at  the  time  when  Congress  is  not  in  session,  report  shall  be 
made  as  soon  as  practicable'  to  the  body  to  which  they  belong  for  proper 
action. 

Art.  54.  Both  Houses  of  Congress  shall  open  and  close  their  ses- 
sions on  the  same  day;  they  shall  be  established  at  the  same  place,  and 
neither  the  Senate  nor  the  House  of  Representatives  shall  remove  to 
any  other  place  nor  adjourn  for  more  than  three  days,  except  by  joint 
resolution  of  both  Houses. 

Neither  shall  they  open  their  sessions  without  two-thirds  of  the  total 
number  of  their  members  being  present,  nor  shall  they  continue  their 
sessions  without  an  absolute  majority  of  members  being  present. 

Art.  55.  Each  House  shall  decide  as  to  the  validity  of  the  election 
of  its  respective  members  and  as  to  the  resignations  presented  by  them. 
•  No  Senator  or  Representative  shall  be  expelled  from  the  House  to 
which  be  belongs,  except  by  virtue  of  a  case  previously  decided 
against  him,  and  by  resolution  of  at  least  two-thiras  of  the  total  num- 
ber of  its  members. 

Art.  56.  Each  House  shall  frame  its  respective  rules  and, regula- 
tions, and  elect  from  among  its  members  its  President,  vice-presidents, 
and  secretaries.  However,  the  President  of  the  Senate  will  only  dis- 
charge the  duties  of  office  when  the  Vice-President  of  the  Republic  is 
absent  or  is  fulfilling  the  duties  of  President  of  the  same. 

Section  Fifth. — Congress  and  its  powers. 

Art.  57.  Congress  shall  meet  by  virtue  of  the  inherent  rights  thereof 
twice  in  each  year,  and  shall  remain  in  session  during  a  period  of  at 
least  forty  legal  working  days  during  each  term. 


110         BEPORT  OF  THE  SECRET ABY  OF  WAR, 

The  first  session  shall  begin  on  the  first  Monday  in  April  and  the 
other  on  the  first  Monday  inNovember.  It  will  meet  in  extra  sessions 
in  such  cases  and  in  such  manner  as  provided  for  by  the  rules  and 
regulations  of  the  colegislative  bodies  and  whenever  convened  bv  the 
President  of  the  Republic  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  01  this 
Constitution. 

In  such  cases  it  shall  only  consider  the  express  object  or  objects  for 
which  it  meets. 

Art.  58.  Congress  shall  meet  as  a  joint  body  to  proclaim,  after 
counting  and  rectifying  the  electoral  vote,  the  President  and  Vice- 
President  of  the  Republic. 

In  this  case  the  duties  of  the  President  of  Congress  shall  be  per- 
formed by  the  President  of  the  Senate,  and  in  nis  absence  bv  the 
President  of  the  House  of  Representatives  as  vice-president  of  said 
Congress. 

If  upon  counting  the  votes  for  President  it  should  appear  that  none 
of  the  candidates  has  an  absolute  majority  of  votes,  or  if  there  should 
be  a  tie,  Congress,  by  a  majority  of  votes,  shall  elect  as  President  one 
of  the  two  candidates  having  obtained  the  greatest  number  of  votes. 

Should  two  or  more  candidates  be  in  the  same  condition,  by  two  or 
more  of  them  having  obtained  a  like  number  of  votes,  Congress  shall 
elect  one  of  their  number. 

Should  the  vote  of  Congress  also  result  in  a  tie,  the  vote  shall  be 
again  taken;  and  if  the  result  of  the  second  vote  be  the  same,  the 
President  shall  cast  the  deciding  vote. 

The  method  established  in  the  preceding  paragraph  shall  be  emplo}-ed 
in  the  election  of  Vice-President  of  the  Republic. 

The  counting  of  the  electoral  vote  shall  take  place  prior  to  the 
expiration  of  the  Presidential  term. 

Art.  50.  Powers  of  Congress. 

First.  To  prepare  the  national  codes  and  laws  of  a  general  nature; 
to  determine  the  rules  that  shall  be  observed  for  general,  provincial, 
and  municipal  elections;  to  issue  orders  for  the  regulation  and  organi- 
zation of  all  matters  pertaining  to  the  general  administration  of  public, 
provincial,  and  municipal  affairs,  and  issue  all  other  laws  and  decisions 
which  it  may  deem  proper  in  connection  with  all  other  matters  what- 
soever of  public  interest. 

Second.  To  discuss  and  approve  the  budgets  of  Government  revenue 
and  expenditure.  The  saia  revenue  and  expenditure,  except  such  as 
will  be  mentioned  hereinafter,  shall  be  included  in  annual  budgets  and# 
shall  only  remain  in  force  during  the  year  for  which  they  shall  have' 
been  approved. 

The  expenses  of  Congress,  those  of  the  administration  of  justice, 
those  for  interest  and  redemption  of  loans,  and  the  revenues  with  which 
they  have  to  be  paid  shall  be  of  a  permanent  nature  and  shall  lie 
included  in  a  fixed  budget  which,  shall  remain  in  force  until  changed 
by  special  laws. 

Third.  To  contract  loans;  but  at  the  same  time  it  shall  be  under  the 
obligation  of  deciding  what  permanent  revenues  shall  be  necessary  for 
the  payment  of  the  interest  and  redemption  thereof.  All  action  relat- 
ing to  loans  shall  require  two-thirds  of  the  vote  of  the  total  number  of 
the  members  of  each  colegislative  body. 

Fourth.  To  coin  money,  specifying  the  standard,  weight,  value,  and 
denomination  thereof. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  Ill 

Fifth.  To  regulate  the  system  of  weights  and  measures. 

Sixth.  To  establish  rules  for  regulating  and  developing  internal  and 
foreign  commerce. 

Seventh.  To  regulate  the  postal  service;  also  railroads,  public  roads, 
canals,  and  harbors,  establishing  those  required  by  public  convenience. 

Eighth.  To  establish  the  duties,  and  taxes  of  a  national  character 
necessary  for  the  needs  of  the  Government. 

Ninth.  To  establish  rules  and  procedures  for  naturalization  of  citi- 
zens. 

Tenth.  To  grant  amnesties. 

Eleventh.  To  fix  the  number  of  the  land  and  naval  forces  and  to 
determine  the  organization  thereof. 

Twelfth.  To  declare  war  and  approve  treaties  of  peace  made  by  the 
President  of  the  Republic. 

Thirteenth.  To  designate,  by  means  of  a  special  law,  who  shall  be 
President  of  the  Republic  in  case  of  the  removal  from  office,  death, 
resignation,  or  incapacity  of  the  President  and  Vice-President  thereof. 

Art.  60.  Congress  shall  not  include  in  the  budget  laws  provisions 
that  may  bring  about  legislative  or  administrative  changes  01  any  other 
nature;  nor  shall  it  reduce  or  suppress  any  revenue  of  a  permanent 
nature  without  establishing  at  the  same  time  others  in  substitution 
thereof,  except  in  case  of  reduction  or  suppression  caused  by  the 
reduction  or  suppression  of  equivalent  permanent  expenses;  nor  shall 
Congress  assign  to  any  service  that  has  to  be  provided  for  in  the  annual 
budget  a  greater  amount  than  that  recommended  in  the  project  of  the 
Government;  but  it  may  establish  new  services  aud  reform  or  give 
greater  scope  to  those  already  existing  by  enactment  of  special  laws. 

Section  Sixth. — The  initiative,  preparation,  sanction,  and jwomuUja- 

tion  oj  the  laws. 

Art.  61.  The  initiative  in  respect  to  the  laws  is  in  each  of  the 
colegislative  bodies  without  distinction. 

Art.  62.  Every  bill  which  shall  have  passed  both  colegislative  bodies, 
and  every  resolution  of  the  said  bodies  that  may  have  to  be  executed 
by  the  President  of  the  Republic  must  be  presented  to  him  for 
approval.  If  he  approve  them  he  will  sign  them  at  once,  otherwise 
he  shall  return  them  with  his  objections  to  the  colegislative  body  in 
which  they  shall  have  originated;  which  body  shall  enter  the  said 
objections  at  large  upon  its  minutes  and  will  again  discuss  the  bill  or 
resolution.  If,  after  this  second  discussion,  two-thirds  of  the  total 
number  of  members  of  the  colegislative  bod}r  should  vote  in  favor  of 
the  bill  or  resolution,  it  shall  be  sent,  together  with  the  objections  of 
the  President,  to  the  other  body,  where  it  shall  also  be  discussed,  and 
if  the  latter  should  approve  same  by  like  majority  it  shall  become  a 
law.     In  all  the  above  cases  the  vote  shall  be  taken  by  name. 

If  within  the  following  ten  working  days  after  having  received  a 
bill  or  resolution  the  President  shall  not  have  returned  the  same,  it 
shall  be  considered  approved  and  become  law. 

If  within  the  last  ten  days  of  a  legislative  session  there  should  be 
presented  to  the  President  of  the  Republic  any  bill,  and  he  should  decide 
to  take  advantage  of  the  entire  period,  in  accordance  with  the  preced- 
ing paragraph,  granted  to  him  by  law  for  the  approval  thereof,  he 
shall  notify  Congress  on  the  same  day  of  his  determination,  in  order 


112  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

that  the  latter  may  remain  in  session,  should  it  so  desire,  until  the 
expiration  of  the  said  period.  Should  the  President  not  do  so,  the  bill 
shall  be  considered  approved  and  become  law. 

No  bill  after  being  defeated  in  its  entirety  by  either  of  the  colegis- 
lative  bodies  shall  be  again  presented  for  discussion  during  the  same 
legislative  session. 

Akt  63.  Every  law  shall  be  promulgated  within  ten  days  next  fol- 
lowing the  date  of  its  approval  by  either  the  President  or  Congress, 
as  the  case  may  be,  according  to  the  preceding  article. 

TITLE  VII. 
THE   EXECUTIVE   POWER. 

Secttion  First. — The  exercise  of  Executive  power. 

Art.  64.  The  Executive  power  shall  be  vested  in  the  President  of 
the  Republic. 

Second  Section. — The  President  of  the  Republic,  his  powers  and 

duties. 

Art.  65.  The  President  of  the  Republic  must  possess  the  following 
qualifications: 

First.  He  must  be  a  native-born  or  naturalized  Cuban  citizen,  and 
in  the  latter  case  must  have  served  in  the  Cuban  Army  in  its  wars  of 
Independence  for  at  least  ten  years. 

Second.  He  must  have  attained  to  the  age  of  forty  years. 

Third.  He  must  be  in  full  possession  of  his  civil  ana  political  rights. 

Art.  ()(y.  The  President  of  the  Republic  shall  be  elected  by  Presi- 
dential electors  on  one  single  day  and  as  provided  for  by  law. 

The  term  of  office  shall  be  four  years,  and  no  person  shall  be  Presi- 
dent for  three  consecutive  terms. 

Art.  67.  The  President  shall  take  oath  of  office,  or  make  affirma- 
tion, before  the  Supreme  Court  of  Justice,  upon  taking  office,  faith- 
fully to  discharge  the  duties  thereof,  to  comply  with  and  enforce  tie 
Constitution  and  the  laws. 

Art.  68.  The  duties  of  the  President  of  the  Republic  are: 

First.  He  shall  sanction  and  promulgate  the  laws,  execute  and 
enforce  them ;  issue,  when  Congress  may  not  have  done  so,  the  regu- 
lations for  the  better  enforcement  of  the  laws,  and,  in  addition  thereto, 
the  decrees  and  orders  which,  for  this  purpose  and  for  all  that  which 
pertains  to  the  control  and  administration  of  the  nation,  he  may  deem 
proper,  without  in  any  case  violating  the  provisions  established  in 
said  laws. 

Second.  He  shall  convene  special  sessions  of  Congress,  or  of  the 
Senate  alone,  in  the  cases  specified  in  this  Constitution  or  when  in  his 
judgment  it  may  be  necessary. 

Third.  He  shall  adjourn  Congress  whenever  therein  an  agreement  in 
this  particular  shall  not  have  been  arrived  at  between  the  colegislative 
bodies.  ' 

Fourth.  He  shall  present  to  Congress  at  the  opening  of  each  legisla- 
tive session  and  at  such  other  times  as  he  may  deem  proper  a  message 
relating  to  the  acts  of  his  administration,  demonstrating  the  general 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  113 

condition  of  the  Republic:  and  he  shall  furthermore  recommend  the 
adoption  of  such  laws  and  resolutions  as  he  may  deem  necessary  or 
advantageous. 

Fifth.  He  shall  present  to  either  House  of  Congress  prior  to  the  15th 
day  of  November  the  project  of  the  annual  budgets. 

Sixth.  He  shall  furnish  Congress  with  all  the  information  that  it 
may  ask  for  in  reference  to  all  matters  that  do  not  demand  secrecy. 

Seventh.  He  shall  direct  diplomatic  negotiations  and  make  treaties 
with  all  nations,  but  he  must  submit  same  for  the  approval  of  the 
Senate,  without  which  they  shall  not  be  valid  or  binding  upon  the 
Republic. 

Eighth.  He  shall  have  the  power  to  freely  appoint  and  remove  from 
office  the  members  of  his  Cabinet,  notifying  Congress  of  such  action. 

Ninth.  He  shall  appoint,  subject  to  the  approval  of  the  Senate,  the 
Chief  Justice  and  justices  of  the  Supreme  Court  and  the  diplomatic 
representatives  and  consular  agents  of  the  Republic,  with  power  to 
make  pro  tempore  appointments  of  such  functionaries  in  cases  of 
vacancy  when  the  Senate  is  not  in  session. 

Tenth.  He  shall  appoint  such  other  public  officers  to  all  positions 
specified  by  law  whose  appointment  does  not  pertain  to  any  other 
authoritv. 

Eleventh.  He  shall  have  the  right  to  suspend  the  exercise  of  the 
powers  enumerated  in  article  40  of  this  Constitution  in  such  cases  and 
in  the  manner  stated  in  articles  41  and  42. 

Twelfth.  He  shall  have  the  right  to  suspend  the  resolutions  of  pro- 
vincial and  municipal  councils  in  such  cases  and  in  the  manner  deter- 
mined by  this  Constitution. 

Thirteenth.  He  shall  have  the  right  to  order  the  suspension  from 
office  of  governors  of  Provinces  in  case  of  their  exceeding  their  powers 
and  violating  the  laws,  reporting  the  fact  to  the  Senate  in  such  manner 
as  may  be  determined,  for  proper  action. 

Fourteenth.  He  shall  have  the  right  to  prefer  charges  against  the 
governors  of  Provinces  in  the  cases  stated  in  paragraph  third  of  arti- 
cle 47. 

Fifteenth.  He  shall  have  the  right  to  pardon  criminals  in  accordance 
with  the  provisions  of  the  law,  except  public  officers  who  may  have 
been  convicted  of  crimes  committed  in  the  performance  of  their  duties. 

Sixteenth.  He  shall  receive  the  diplomatic  representatives  and  rec- 
ognize the  consular  agents  of  other  nations. 

Seventeenth.  He  shall  have  at  his  disposal,  as  Commander  in  Chief, 
the  land  and  naval  forces  of  the  Republic,  take  proper  measures  for 
the  defense  of  its  territory,  reporting  to  Congress  the  action  taken  for 
the  purpose,  and  take  proper  measures  for  the  maintenance  of  the 
public  peace  whenever  there  shall  arise  any  danger  of  invasion  or  any 
rebellion  seriously  threatening  public  safety.  At  a  time  when  Congress 
is  not  in  session  the  President  shall  convene  same  without  delay  for 
proper  action. 

Art.  69.  The  President  shall  not  leave  the  territory  of  the  Republic 
without  the  authority  of  Congress. 

Art.  70.  The  President  shall  be  responsible  before  the  Supreme 
Court  of  Justice  for  all  ordinary'crimes  committed  by  him  during  his 
term  of  office;  but  he  shall  not  be  indicted  without  previous  authority 
of  the  Senate. 

war  1902— vol  1 8 


114  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

Art.  71.  The  President  shall  receive  from  the  State  a  salavy  which 
may  be  changed  at  any  time;  but  the  change  shall  not  take  effect 
except  within  the  Presidential  periods  next  following  that  in  which  it 
may  have  been  agreed  upon. 

TITLE  VIII. 

THE  VICE-PRESIDENT  OF  THE   REPUBUC. 

Art.  72.  There  shall  be  a  Vice-President  of  the  Republic^  who  shall 
be  elected  in  the  same  manner  and  for  a  like  period  of  time  as  the 
President  and  conjointly  with  the  latter.  To  become  Vice-President, 
the  same  qualifications  prescribed  for  President  by  this  Constitution 
are  necessary. 

Art.  73.  The  Vice-President  of  the  Republic  shall  be  President  of 
the  Senate,  but  shall  only  be  entitled  to  vote  in  case  of  a  tie. 

Art.  74.  In  case  of  temporary  or  permanent  absence  of  the  President 
of  the  Republic,  the  Vice-President  shall  substitute  him  in  the  exercise 
of  the  Executive  power.  Should  the  absence  be  permanent,  the  substi- 
tution shall  continue  until  the  end  of  the  Presidential  term. 

Art.  75.  The  Vice-President  shall  receive  a  salary  from  the  State 
which  may  be  changed  at  an}r  time,  but  the  change  shall  not  take  effect 
except  within  the  Presidential  periods  next  following  that  in  which  it 
may  nave  been  agreed  upon. 

TITLE  IX. 

Art.  70.  For  the  exercise  of  his  powers  the  President  of  the  Repub- 
lic shall  have  such  Cabinet  Ministers  as  may  be  prescribed  by  law,  and 
Cuban  citizens  only  in  the  full  enjoyment  of  their  civil  and  political 
rights  shall  be  appointed. 

Art.  77.  All  decrees,  orders,  and  decisions  of  the  President  of  the 
Republic  shall  bear  the  referendum  of  the  respective  Cabinet  Min- 
ister, without  which  they  shall  not  be  enforceable  and  shall  not  be 
executed. 

Art.  78.  The  Cabinet  Ministers  shall  be  personally  responsible  for 
all  acts  bearing  their  referendum  and  jointly  and  severally  respon- 
sible for  those  which  they  mav  jointly  decree  or  sanction.  This 
responsibility  does  not  exempt  the  President  from  the  personal  and 
direct  responsibility  which  he  may  incur. 

Art.  7i).  The  Cabinet  Ministers  shall  be  impeached  bv  the  House 
of  Representatives,  in  the  Senate,  in  the  cases  mentioned  in  paragraph 
two  of  article  47. 

Art.  80.  The  Cabinet  Ministers  shall  receive  a  salary  from  the  State 
which  may  be  changed  at  any  time,  but  the  change  shall  not  go  into 
effect  except  within  the  Presidential  periods  next  following  the  one  in 
which  it  may  have  been  agreed  upon. 

TITLE  X. 

Section  First. — The  exercise  of  judicial  powers. 

Art.  SI.  The  judicial  power  shall  be  vested  in  a  Supreme  Court  of 
Justice  and  in  such  other  courts  as  may  be  established  by  law.  The 
said  law  will  regulate  their  respective  organization  and  powers,  the 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  115 

manner  of  exercising  the  same,  and  the  qualifications  that  must  be 
possessed  by  the  functionaries  composing  the  said  courts. 

Section  Second. — Supreme  Court  of  Justice. 

Art.  82.  To  be  Chief  Justice  or  justices  of  the  Supreme  Court  the 
following  conditions  are  required: 

First.  To  be  a  Cuban  by  birth. 

Second.  To  have  attained  to  the  age  of  thirty-five  years. 

Third.  To  be  in  the  full  enjoyment  of  civil  and  political  rights,  and 
not  to  have  been  condemned  to  any  penaaflictiva  for  ordinary  offenses. 

Fourth.  To  possess,  in  addition,  any  of  the  following  qualifications: 

To  have  practiced  in  Cuba,  during  ten  years  at  least,  the  profession 
of  law,  or  discharged  for  a  like  period  of  time  judicial  duties,  or  occu- 
pied for  the  same  number  of  years  a  chair  of  law  in  an  official  educa- 
tional establishment. 

Other  persons  may  be  also  appointed  to  the  positions  of  Chief  Justice 
and  justices  of  the  Supreme  Court,  provided  they  possess  the  qualifica- 
tions required  by  conditions  1,  2,  and  3  of  this  article. 

(a)  Those  persons  who  may  have  previously  held  positions  in  the 

{'udiciary  of  a  similar  or  next  inferior  grade  for  the  period  that  may 
>e  provided  for  by  law. 

(o)  Those  persons  who,  prior  to  the  promulgation  of  this  Constitu- 
tion, may  have  been  justices  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  Island  of 
Cuba. 

The  time  during  which  lawyers  shall  have  exercised  judicial  func- 
tions shall  be  reckoned  as  that  of  the  practice  of  law  necessary  to 
qualify  them  for  appointment  as  justices  of  the  Supreme  Court. 

Art.  83.  In  addition  to  the  powers  that  ma}r  have  been  conferred 
previously,  or  may  be  in  future  conferred  by  the  laws,  the  Supreme 
Court  shall  be  vested  with  the  following: 

First.  To  take  cognizance  of  appeals  for  the  cassation  of  decisions 
of  .inferior  courts. 

Second.  To  decide  as  to  the  right  of  jurisdiction  of  courts  immedi- 
ately below  it,  or  which  may  not  be  under  the  control  of  a  higher 
court,  common  to  both. 

Third.  To  have  cognizance  of  all  cases  in  litigation  to  which  the 
State,  Provinces,  and  municipalities  are  parties  inter  se. 

Fourth.  To  decide  as  to  the  constitutionality  of  the  laws,  decrees, 
and  regulations,  wheuever  questions  relating  thereto  shall  arise  between 
interested  parties. 

Section  Third. — General  rules  relating  to  the  administration  of  justice. 

Art.  84.  Justice  shall  be  administered  gratuitously  throughout  the 
territory  of  the  Republic. 

Art.  85.  The  courts  of  law  shall  have  cognizance  of  all  suits,  either 
civil,  criminal,  or  interadministrative  (contencioso-administrativos). 

Art.  86.  There  shall  not  be  created,  under  any  circumstances  or 
title  whatsoever  any  judicial  commission  or  special  courts. 

Art.  87.  No  judicial  functionary  shall  be  suspended  or  discharged 
from  his  office  or  position  except  by  reason  of  crime  or  other  serious 
cause,  duly  proven,  and  always  after  he  has  been  heard. 


116  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

Neither  shall  he  bo  removed  to  another  position  without  his  consent 
unless  it  be  for  the  manifest  benefit  of  the  public  service. 

Art.  88.  All  judicial  functionaries  shall  be  personally  responsible, 
in  the  manner  which  the  laws  may  determine,  for  all  violations  of  the 
laws  committed  by  them. 

Art.  89.  The  salaries  of  judicial  functionaries  shall  only  be  changed 
at  periods  of  over  five  years,  the  said  change  to  be  made  by  a  special 
law.  The  law  shall  not  assign  different  salaries  for  positions  the  grade, 
category,  and  duties  of  which  are  equal. 

Art.  90.  Military  and  naval  courts  shall  be  regulated  by  a  special 
organic  law. 

TITLE  XL 

PROVINCIAL   GOVERNMENT. 

Section  First. — General  rules. 

Art.  91.  Provinces  shall  comprise  the  municipal  districts  within 
their  limits. 

Art.  92.  Each  Province  shall  have  one  governor  and  one  provincial 
council,  elected  by  the  direct  vote  of  the  people  in  the  manner  pre- 
scribed by  law.  The  number  of  councilmen  in  each  Province  shall  not 
be  less  than  eight  nor  more  than  twenty. 

Section  Second. — Provincial  councils  and  their  powers. 

Art.  93.  Provincial  councils  shall  have  the  right  to — 

First.  Decide  all  matters  concerning  the  Province,  and  which,  under 
the  Constitution,  treaties,  or  laws,  are  not  within  the  general  juris- 
diction of  the  State  or  the  special  jurisdiction  of  the  ayuntamientos. 

Second.  Prepare  their  budgets,  providing  the  necessary  incomes  to 
meet  them,  without  any  other  limitations  thereto  than  that  consistent 
with  the  tax  system  of  the  Government. 

Third.  Contract  loans  for  public  works  for  the  benefit  of  the  Prov- 
ince, but  voting  at  the  same  time  the  necessary  permanent  incomes  for 
the  payment  of  the  interest  and  redemption  of  said  loans. 

In  order  that  said  loans  may  be  raised,  they  must  be  approved  by 
two-thirds  of  the  members  of  the  municipal  councils  of  the  Province. 

Fourth.  To  impeach  the  governor  before  the  Senate,  in  the  cases 
specified  in  paragraph  3  of  article  47,  whenever  two-thirds  of  the  total 
number  of  provincial  councilmen  shall  decide,  in  secret  session  to 
prefer  such  charges. 

Fifth.  To  appoint  to  and  remove  from  office  provincial  employees, 
in  accordance  with  provisions  which  may  be  established  by  law. 

Art.  94.  Provincial  councils  shall  not  reduce  or  suppress  revenues 
of  a  permanent  character  without  establishing,  at  the  same  time,  others 
in  substitution  thereof,  except  when  the  reduction  or  suppression  shall 
arise  from  the  reduction  or  suppression  of  equivalent  permanent 
expenses. 

Art.  95.  The  decisions  of  the  provincial  councils  shall  be  presented 
to  the  governor  of  the  Province,  and  should  he  approve  the  same  he 
shall  affix  his  signature  thereto.  Otherwise,  he  shall  return  them, 
with  his  objections,  to  the  council,  which  will  again  discuss  the  matter. 


RKPORT  OF  THE  8ECRETARY  OF  WAR.  117 

If,  after  this  second  discussion,  two-thirds  of  the  total  number  of  coun- 
cilmen should  vote  in  favor  of  the  measure  it  shall  be  executed. 

Whenever  the  governor  does  not,  within  ten  days  after  the  presen- 
tation of  the  resolution,  return  the  same  it  will  be  considered  approved, 
and  shall,  in  a  like  manner,  be  executed. 

Art.  96.  All  resolutions  of  the  provincial  councils  may  be  suspended 
by  the  governor  of  the  Province  or  by  the  President  of  the  Republic, 
whenever,  in  their  judgment,  they  may  be  contrary  to  the  Constitu- 
tion, treaties,  laws,  or  resolutions  adopted  by  the  municipal  councils 
in  the  exercise  of  their  inherent  rights.  But  the  right  of  cognizance 
and  decision  of  all  claims  arising  from  the  said  suspension  shall  pertain 
to  the  courts. 

Art.  97.  Neither  the  provincial  councilmen,  nor  an}'  section  of,  or 
commission  from  among  their  members,  or  of  other  persons  designated 
by  them,  shall  have  any  intervention  in  election  matters  pertaining  to 
any  election  whatsoever. 

Art.  98.  The  provincial  councilmen  shall  be  personally  responsible 
before  the  courts  in  the  manner  prescribed  by  law  for  all  acts  whatsoever 
which  they  may  perform  in  the  exercise  of  their  duties. 

Section  Third. — Gftvwttorx  of  Promnrrx  mul  tlwir  jtowerx. 

Art.  99.  The  governors  of  Provinces  shall  have  power  to — 

First.  Comply  with  and  enforce,  in  all  matters  within  their  juris- 
diction, the  laws,  decrees,  and  general  regulations  of  the  nation. 

Second.  Publish  the  resolutions  of  the  provincial  councils  that  may 
be  enforceable,  executing  the  same  and  causing  them  to  be  executed. 

Third.  Issue  orders,  as  well  as  the  necessary  instructions  and  regu- 
lations for  the  better  execution  of  the  resolutions  of  the  provincial 
councils,  when  the  latter  should  not  have  done  so. 

Fourtn.  Call  together  the  provincial  councils  in  special  session,  when- 
ever in  their  judgment  it  may  be  necessary,  stating  in  the  order  con- 
vening the  session  the  object  thereof. 

Fifth.  Suspend  the  resolutions  of  the  provincial  and  municipal  coun- 
cils in  the  cases  determined  by  this  Constitution. 

Sixth.  Order  the  suspension  of  alcaldes  from  office  in  cases  where 
they  exceed  their  powers,  violate  the  Constitution  or  the  laws,  infringe 
the  resolutions  of  provincial  councils,  or  fail  to  comply  with  their 
duties;  reporting  such  action  to  the  provincial  council  in  such  manner 
a&may  be  provided  for  by  law. 

Seventh.  Appoint  and  remove  the  employees  of  his  office  in  such 
manner  as  may  be  provided  for  by  law. 

Art.  100.  The  governor  shall  be  responsible  to  the  Senate,  as  speci- 
fied in  this  Constitution,  and  to  the  courts  of  justice,  in  all  other  cases 
of  crime  in  such  manner  as  may  be  provided  for  by  law. 

Art.  101.  The  governor  shall  receive  from  the  provincial  treasury  a 
salary,  which  may  be  changed  at  any  time,  but  the  change  shall  not  take 
effect  until  after  the  election  of  a  new  governor. 

Art.  102.  In  case  of  absence,  either  temporary  or  permanent,  of  the 
governor  of  the  province,  he  shall  be  substituted  in  the  discharge  of 
his  official  duties  by  the  president  of  the  provincial  council.  Should 
such  absence  be  permanent  such  substitution  shall  continue  until  the 
end  of  the  term  for  which  the  governor  may  have  been  elected. 


118  REPORT   OF   THE   SECRETARY   OF   WAR. 

TITLE  XII. 
MUNICIPAL   GOVERNMENT. 

Section  First. — General  rules. 

Art.  103.  The  municipal  district  shall  be  governed  by  municipal 
councils  composed  of  the  number  of  councilnien,  elected  by  direct 
vote,  as  may  be  provided  for  by  law. 

Art.  104.  In  each  municipal  district  there  shall  be  an  alcalde  elected 
by  direct  vote,  as  may  be  provided  for  by  law. 

Section  Second. — Municipal  councils  and  their  jxnvers. 

Art.  105.  The  municipal  councils  shall  have  power  to — 

First.  Decide  all  matters  that  relate  exclusively  to  municipal  dis- 
tricts. 

Second.  Prepare  the  budgets,  providing  the  necessary  revenues  to 
meet  them,  without  further  limitations  than  making  them  compatible 
with  the  tax  system  of  the  State. 

Third.  Contract  loans,  but  at  the  same  time  voting  the  permanent 
revenues  necessary  for  the  payment  of  interest  and  redemption  of 
same. 

In  order  that  said  loans  may  be  negotiated,  they  must  be  approved 
by  two-thirds  of  the  voters  of  the  municipal  districts. 

Fourth.  To  appoint  and  remove  from  office  municipal  employees,  as 
may  be  provided  for  by  law. 

Art.  106.  The  municipal  council  shall  not  reduce  or  suppress  any 
revenues  of  a  permanent  nature  without  providing  others  at  the  same 
time  in  substitution  thereof,  except  when  the  reduction  or  suppression 
arises  from  the  reduction  or  suppression  of  equivalent  permanent 
expenditures. 

Art.  1()7.  The  resolutions  of  municipal  councils  shall  be  presented 
to  the  alcalde.  If  the  latter  should  approve  them  he  will  attach  his 
signature  thereto;  otherwise  he  will  return  them,  with  his  objections, 
to  the  municipal  council,  where  they  will  again  be  discussed.  And  if, 
upon  this  second  discussion,  two-thirds  of  the  total  number  of  coun- 
cilmen  should  vote  in  favor  of  anv  resolution  it  shall  be  executed. 

Whenever  the  alcalde  should  not  return  any  resolution  within  ten 
days  after  it  has  been  presented  to  him,  it  shall  be  considered  approved 
and  shall  also  be  executed. 

Art.  108.  The  resolutions  of  municipal  councils  may  be  suspended 
by  the  alcalde,  by  the  governor  of  the  Province,  or  by  the  President 
of  the  Republic,  whenever,  in  their  judgment,  such  resolutions  are 
contrary  to  the  Constitution,  to  treaties,  to  the  laws,  or  to  the  reso- 
lutions adopted  by  the  provincial  council  by  virtue  of  its  inherent 
rights,  but  the  courts  of  justice  shall  take  cognizance  of  and  decide  all 
claims  arising  therefrom. 

Art.  109.  Councilnien  shall  be  personally  responsible  before  the 
courts  of  justice,  as  may  be  provided  for  by  law,  for  all  acts  performed 
by  them  in  the  exercise  of  their  duties. 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  8ECBETABY   OF  WAB.  119 

Section  Third. — Alcaldes;  tlieir  powers  and  duties. 

Abt.  110.  Alcaldes  shall  be  required  to — 

First.  Publish  the  resolutions  of  municipal  councils  that  may  be 
binding,  execute  and  cause  the  same  to  be  executed. 

Second.  To  take  charge  of  the  administration  of  municipal  affairs, 
issuing  orders  for  the  purpose,  as  well  as  instructions  and  regulations 
for  the  better  execution  of  the  resolutions  of  municipal  councils,  when- 
ever the  latter  may  fail  to  do  so. 

Third.  Appoint  and  remove  the  employees  of  his  office  as  may  be 
provided  for  by  law. 

Art.  111.  The  alcalde  shall  be  personally  responsible  before  the 
courts  of  justice,  as  may  be  prescribed  by  law,  for  all  acts  performed 
in  the  discharge  of  his  official  duties. 

Art.  1 12.  The  alcalde  shall  receive  a  salary,  to  be  paid  by  the  munic- 
ipal treasury,  which  mav  be  changed  at  any  time;  but  such  change 
snail  not  tafee  effect  until  after  a  new  election  has  been  held. 

Art.  113.  In  case  of  either  temporary  or  permanent  absence  of  the 
alcalde,  his  official  duties  shall  be  discharged  by  the  president  of  the 
municipal  council. 

Should  such  absence  be  permanent,  such  substitution  shall  continue 
for  the  term  for  which  the  alcalde  may  have  been  elected. 

TITLE  XIII. 
THE   NATIONAL  TREASURE. 

Art.  114.  AH  property  existing  within  the  territory  of  the  Republic 
not  belonging  to  provinces  or  municipalities  or  to  individuals,  sepa- 
rately or  collectively,  is  the  property  of  the  State. 

TITLE  XIV. 
AMENDMENTS  TO  THE   CONSTITUTION. 

Art.  115.  The  Constitution  shall  not  be  amended,  in  whole  or  in 
part,  except  bv  a  resolution  adopted  by  two-thirds  of  the  total  number 
of  members  of  each  colegislative  body. 

Six  months  after  an  amendment  has  been  agreed  upon  a  Constitu- 
tional Convention  shall  be  convened,  the  duties  whereof  shall  be  limited 
to  either  approving  or  rejecting  the  amendment  voted  by  the  colegis- 
lative bodies,  which  latter  shall  continue  in  the  performance  of  their 
duties  with  absolute  independence  of  the  convention. 

Delegates  to  the  said  convention  shall  be  elected  by  each  province 
in  the  proportion  of  one  for  every  fifty  thousand  inhabitants  and  in 
the  manner  that  may  be  provided  by  law. 

TRANSITORY  RULES. 

First.  The  Republic  of  Cuba  does  not  recognize  any  other  debts  and 
obligations  than  those  legitimately  contracted  in  behalf  of  the  revolu- 
tion by  the  corps  commanders  of  the  Liberating  Army  subsequent  to 
the  twenty-fourth  day  of  February,  1895,  and  prior  to  the  nineteenth 
day  of  September  of  the  same  year,  the  date  on  which  the  Jimaguay  6 


120         REPORT  OF  THE  8ECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

Constitution  was  promulgated,  and  such  debts  and  obligations  as  the 
revolutionary  government  may  have  contracted  subsequently,  either 
by  itself  or  through  its  legitimate  representatives  in  foreign  countries. 
Congress  shall  classify  said  debts  ana  obligations  and  decide  as  to  the 
payment  of  those  that  may  be  legitimate. 

Second.  Persons  born  in  Cuba,  or  children  of  native-born  Cubans, 
who,  at  the  time  of  the  promulgation  of  this  Constitution,  might  be 
citizens  of  any  foreign  nation  shall  not  enjoy  the  rights  of  Cuban 
nationality  without  first  and  expressly  renouncing  their  said  foreign 
citizenship. 

Third.  The  period  of  time  which  foreigners  may  have  served  in  the 
wars  of  independence  of  Cuba  shall  be  computed  as  within  that 
required  for  the  naturalization  and  residence  necessary  to  acquire  the 
right  granted  to  naturalized  pitizens  in  article  49. 

Fourth.  The  basis  of  population  which  is  established  in  relation  to 
the  election  of  Representatives  and  Delegates  to  the  Constitutional 
Convention  in  articles  48  and  115  may  be  changed  by  law  whenever, 
in  the  judgment  of  Congress,  it  should  become  necessary  through  the 
increase  of  the  number  of  inhabitants,  as  may  be  shown  by  the  census 
which  may  be  periodically  taken. 

Fifth.  Senators,  at  the  time  of  the  first  organization  of  the  Senate, 
shall  divide  into  two  groups  for  the  purpose  of  determining  their 
respective  tenures  of  office. 

Those  comprising  the  first  group  shall  cease  in  their  duties  at  the 
expiration  of  the  fourth  year,  and  those  comprising  the  second  group 
at  the  expiration  of  the  eighth  year.  It  shall  be  decided  by  lot  whicn 
of  the  two  Senators  from  each  province  shall  belong  to  either  group. 

The  law  will  provide  the  procedure  for  the  formation  of  the  two 
groups  into  which  the  House  of  Representatives  shall  be  divided  for 
the  purpose  of  its  partial  renewal. 

Sixth.  Ninety  clays  after  the  promulgation  of  the  electoral  law,  which 
shall  be  prepared  and  adopted  by  the  Constitutional  Convention,  the 
election  of  public  officers  provided  for  by  the  Constitution  shall  be 
proceeded  with,  for  the  transfer  of  the  Government  of  Cuba  to  those 
elected,  in  conformity  with  the  provisions  of  Order  No.  301  of  Head- 
quarters Division  of  Cuba,  dated  July  25,  1900. 

Seventh.  All  laws,  decrees,  regulations,  orders,  and  other  rulings 
which  may  be  in  force  at  the  time  of  the  promulgation  of  this  Consti- 
tution shall  continue  to  be  observed,  in  so  far  as  they  do  not  conflict 
with  the  said  Constitution,  until  such  time  as  they  may  be  legally 
revoked  or  amended. 

Appendix. 

Article  I.  The  Government  of  Cuba  shall  never  enter  into  any 
treaty  or  other  compact  with  any  foreign  power  or  powers  which  will 
impair  or  tend  to  impair  the  independence  of  Cuba,  nor  in  any  way 
authorize  or  permit  any  foreign  power  or  powers  to  obtain  by  coloni- 
zation or  for  naval  or  military  purposes,  or  otherwise,  lodgment  or 
control  over  any  portion  of  said  island. 

Art.  II.  That  said  Government  shall  not  assume  or  contract  any 
public  debt  to  pay  the  interest  upon  which,  and  to  make  reasonable 
sinking-fund  provision  for  the  ultimate  discharge  of  which  the  ordi- 
nary revenues  of  the  Island  of  Cuba,  after  defraying  the  current 
expenses  of  the  Government,  shall  be  inadequate. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  121 

Art.  III.  That  the  Government  of  Cuba  consents  that  the  United 
States  may  exercise  the  right  to  intervene  for  the  preservation  of 
Cuban  independence,  the  maintenance  of  a  government  adequate  for 
the  protection  of  life,  property,  and  individual  liberty,  and  for  dis- 
charging the  obligations  with  respect  to  Cuba  imposed  by  the  Treaty 
of  Paris  on  the  United  States,  now  to  be  assumed  and  undertaken  by 
the  Government  of  Cuba. 

Art.  IV.  That  all  the  acts  of  the  United  States  in  Cuba  during  the 
military  occupancy  of  said  island  shall  be  ratified  and  held  as  valid, 
and  all  rights  legally  acquired  by  virtue  of  said  acts  shall  bo  maintained 
and  protected. 

Art.  V.  That  the  Government  of  Cuba  will  execute,  and,  as  far  as 
necessary,  extend  the  plans  already  devised,  or  other  plans  to  be  mutu- 
ally agreed  upon,  for  the  sanitation  of  the  cities  of  the  island,  to  the 
end  that  a  recurrence  of  epidemic  and  infectious  diseases  may  be  pre- 
vented, thereby  assuring  protection  to  the  people  and  commerce  of 
Cuba,  as  well  as  to  the  commerce  of  the  Southern  ports  of  the  United 
States  and  the  people  residing  therein. 

Art.  VI.  The  island  of  Pines  shall  be  omitted  from  the  boundaries 
of  Cuba  specified  in  the  Constitution,  the  title  of  ownership  thereof 
being  left  to  future  adjustment  by  treaty. 

Art.  VII.  To  enable  the  United  States  to  maintain  the  independence 
of  Cuba,  and  to  protect  the  people  thereof,  as  well  as  for  its  own 
defence,  the  Cuban  Government  will  sell  or  lease  to  the  United  States 
the  lands  necessary  for  coaling  or  naval  stations,  at  certain  specified 
points,  to  be  agreed  upon  with  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

Art.  VIII.  The  Government  of  Cuba  will  embody  the  foregoing 
provisions  in  a  permanent  treaty  with  the  United  States. 

Leonard  Wood, 
Military  0%/nrnor  of  Cuba. 


Headquarters  Military  Governor  Island  of  Cuba, 

I  la  rami  ^  May  20,  1902. 

To  the  President  and  Cong  rex*  of  the  Republic  of  Cuba. 

Sirs:  Under  the  direction  of  the  President  of  the  United  States,  I 
now  transfer  to  you  as  the  duly  elected  representatives  of  the  people 
of  Cuba  the  government  and  control  of  the  island,  to  be  held  and  exer- 
cised by  you,  under  the  provisions  of  the  constitution  of  the  Republic 
of  Cuba,  heretofore  adopted  by  the  constitutional  convention  and  this 
day  promulgated;  and  I  hereby  declare  the  occupation  of  Cuba  by  the 
United  States  and  the  military  government  of  the  island  to  be  ended. 

This  transfer  of  government  and  control  is  upon  the  express  condi- 
tion, and  the  Government  of  the  United  States  will  understand,  that  by 
the  acceptance  thereof  you  do  now,  pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  the 
said  constitution,  assume  and  undertake  all  and  several  the  obliga- 
tions assumed  by  the  United  States  with  respect  to  Cuba  by  the  treaty 
between  the  United  States  of  America  and  her  Majesty  the  Queen 
Regent  of  Spain,  signed  at  Paris  on  the  10th  day  of  December,  1898. 

All  money  obligations  of  the  military  government  down  to  this  date 
have  been  paid  as  far  as  practicable.  The  public  civil  funds  derived 
from  the  revenues  of  Cuba  transferred  to  you  this  date,  amounting  to 


122  REPORT.  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

$689,191.02  are  transferred  subject  to  such  claims  and  obligations 
properly  payable  out  of  the  revenues  of  the  island  as  may  remain. 
The  sum  of  $100,000  has  been  reserved  from  the  transfer  of  funds,  to 
defray  anticipated  expenses  of  accounting,  reporting  and  winding  up 
the  affairs  of  the  military  government,  after  which  any  unexpended 
balance  of  said  sum  will  be  paid  into  the  treasury  of  the  island. 

The  plans  already  devised  for  the  sanitation  of  the  cities  of  the  island 
and  to  prevent  a  recurrence  of  epidemic  and  infectious  diseases,  to 
which  tne  Government  of  the  United  States  understands  that  the  pro- 
vision of  the  constitution  contained  in  the  fifth  article  of  the  appendix 
applies,  are  as  follows: 

( 1 )  A  plan  for  the  sewering  and  paving  of  the  city  of  Havana,  for  which  a  contract 
has  been  awarded  by  the  municipality  of  that  city  to  McGivney,  Rokeby  and  Com- 
pany. 

(2)  A  plan  for  waterworks  to  supply  the  city  of  Santiago  de  Cuba,  prepared  by 
Captain  S.  D.  Rockenbach,  in  charge  of  the  district  of  Santiago,  and  approved  by 
the  military  governor,  providing  for  taking  water  from  the  wells  of  San  Juan  Canyon, 
and  pumping  the  same  to  reservoirs  located  on  the  heights  to  the  east  of  the  city. 

(3)  A  plan  for  the  sewering  of  the  city  of  Santiago  de  Cuba,  a  contract  for  which 
was  awarded  to  Michael  J.  l)ady  and  Company,  by  the  military  governor  of  Cuba 
and  now  under  construction. 

(4)  The  rules  and  regulations  established  by  the  President  of  the  United  States  on 
the  seventeenth  of  January,  1899,  for  the  maintenance  of  quarantine  against  epidemic 
diseases  at  the  ports  of  Habana,  Matanzaa,  Cienfuegos  and  Santiago  de  Cuba,  and 
thereafter  at  the  other  porta  of  the  island,  as  extended  and  amended  and  made 
applicable  to  future  conditions,  by  the  order  of  the  military  governor  dated  April 
twenty-ninth,  1902,  published  in  the  Official  Gazette  of  Havana  on  the  twenty-ninth 
day  of  April,  1902. 

(5)  The  sanitary  rules  and  regulations  in  force  in  the  city  of  Havana. 

It  is  understood  by  the  United  States  that  the  present  government 
of  the  Isle  of  Pines  will  continue  as  a  de  facto  government  pending 
the  settlement  of  the  title  to  the  said  island  by  treaty  pursuant  to  the 
Cuban  constitution  and  the  act  of  Congress  of  the  United  States 
approved  March  2,  1901. 

1  am  further  charged  by  the  President  of  the  United  States  to  deliver 
to  you  the  letter  which  1  now  hand  you. 

[seal.]  Leonard  Wood, 

Militainj  Governor  of  Cuba. 


Letter  from  the  President  of  tlw  United  States  referred  to  above. 

White  House, 
Washington,  D.  C ,  May  10,'  1902. 

To  the  President  and  Congress  of  the  Republic  of  Cuba. 

Sirs:  On  the  20th  of  this  month  the  military  governor  of  Cuba  will, 
by  my  direction,  transfer  to  you  the  control  and  government  of  the 
island  of  Cuba,  to  be  thenceforth  exercised  under  the  provisions  of  the 
constitution  adopted  by  your  constitutional  convention  as  on  that  day 

Eromulgatcd;  and  he  will  thereupon  declare  the  occupation  of  Cuba 
y  the  United  States  to  be  at  an  end. 

At  the  same  time  I  desire  to  express  to  you  the  sincere  friendship 
and  good  wishes  of  the  United  States,  and  our  most  earnest  hopes  for 
the  stability  and  success  of  your  Government,  for  the  blessings  of 
peace,*  justice,  prosperity  and  ordered  freedom  among  your  people, 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  123 

and  for  enduring  friendship  between  the  Republic  of  the  United  States 
and  the  Republic  of  Cuba. 
[seal.]  Theodore  Roosevelt, 

President  of  the  United  States. 


Letter  from.  Hon.  Estrada  Pal-ma  in  rrplu  to  Gmrral  WooaVs  hitter  of 

May  20,  1903. 

Hakana,  30  df  Maya  di>  1,903. 
Honorable  General  Leonardo  Wood. 

Senor:  Como  President*'  de  la  Repiiblica  de  Cuba,  recibo  en  este 
acto  el  Gobierno  de  la  Isla  de  Cuba  que  Vd.  me  transfierc,  en  cunipli- 
miento  de  las  ordenes  comunicadas  a  Vd.  por  el  President!4  de  los 
£stados  Unidos,  y  tomo  nota  de  que  en  este  acto  cesa  la  ocupacion 
militar  de  la  Isla. 

Al  aceptar  ese  traspaso,  deelaro  que  el  Gobierno  de,  la  Repiiblica 
asume,  de  acuerdo  con  lo  preceptuado  en  la  Constitucion,  todas  y  cada 
una  de  las  obligaciones  que  se  impuso  respecto  de  Cuba  el  Gobierno  de 
los  Estados  Unidos  }K>r  virtud  del  T  rat  ado  linnado  en  diez  de  Diciem- 
bre  de  mil ochocientos  noventa  v  ocho  entre  los  Estados  Unidos  v  S.  M. 
la  Reina  Regente  de  Espana. 

Quedo  enterado  de  estar  pagadas,  en  cuanto  ha  sido  posible,  todas 
las  responsibilidades  pecunianas  contraidas  por  d  Gobierno  Militar 
hasta  esta  fecha:  de  que  se  han  destinado  cien  mil  pesos  para  atender 
en  cuanto  fucre  necesario,  a  los  gastos  <jue  pueda  ocasionar  la  liquida- 
ci6n  y  finiquito  de  obligaciones  contraidas  por  dicho  Gobierno  y  de 
haberse  tmnsferido  al  Gobierno  de  la  Repiiblica  la  suina  de  seiscientos 
ochenta  y  nueve  mil  ciento  noventa  y  un  pesos  y  dos  centavos,  ([lie  con- 
stituyen  el  saldo  en  efectivo  existente  hoy  a  favor  del  Estado. 

En  el  concepto  de  que  les  sea  aplicable  el  articulo  quinto  del  Apen- 
dice  Constitucional,  el  Gobierno  cuidani  de  facilitar  la  cjecucion  de  las 
obras  de  saneamiento  provectadas  por  el  Gobierno  Militar;  procurara, 
ademas,  en  cuanto  dependa  de  el  y  responda  en  el  orden  sanitario  a  las 
necesidades  de  am  bos  paises,  la  observacion  del  regimen  implantadopor 
el  Gobierno  Militar  de  Cuba. 

Queda  entendido  que  la  Isla  de  Pinos  continua  de  facto  bajo  la  juris- 
dicci6n  del  Gobierno  de  la  Repiiblica,  a  reserva  de  lo  que  en  su  oportu- 
nidad  convengan  el  Gobierno  de  los  Estados  Unidos  y  el  de  la  Repiib- 
lica Cubana,  de  acuerdo  con  lo  preceptuado  en  la  Constitucion  Cubana 
y  en  la  Ley  votada  por  el  Congreso  de  los  Estados  Unidos,  aprobada 
en  Marzo  aos  de  mil  novecientos  uno. 

Recibo  con  verdadera  satisfaction  la  carta  que  al  Congreso  de  la 
Repiiblica  de  Cuba  y  &  mi,  dirije  el  Presidente  Roosevelt  por  los  sen- 
timientos  de  amistad  hacia  el  pueblo  de  Cuba,  que  las  inspiran. 

Y  aprovecho  esta  ocasion  solemne  en  que  resulta  cumplidu  la  hon- 
rada  promesa  del  Gobierno  y  pueblo  de  los  Estados  Unidos  respecto 
de  la  Isla  de  Cuba  y  consagrada  la  personalidad  de  nuestra  patria 
como  Naci6n  Soberana,  para  expresar  a  Vd.  digno  represante  de  aquel 
gran  pueblo,  la  inmensa  gratitud  que  siente  el  de  Cuba  hacia  la  Nacion 
Americana,  nacia  su  ilustre  Presidente  Theodore  Roosevelt  y  hacia 
Vd.,  por  los  esfuerzos  que  para  el  logro  de  tan  acariciado  ideal  han 
realizado. 

T.  Estrada  Palma. 


124  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

[Translation.] 

Havana,  May  20,  1902. 
Honorable  General  Leonard  Wood. 

Sir:  As  President  of  the  Republic  of  Cuba,  I  hereby  receive  the 
government  of  the  island  of  Cuba  which  you  transfer  to  me  in  com- 

Bliance  with  orders  communicated  to  you  by  the  President  of  the 
United  States,  and  take  note  that  by  this  act  the  military  occupation  of 
Cuba  ceases. 

Upon  accepting  this  transfer  I  declare  that  the  Government  of  the 
Republic  assumes,  as  provided  for  in  the  constitution,  each  and  every 
one  of  the  obligations  concerning  Cuba  imposed  upon  the  United 
States  by  virtue  of  the  treaty  entered  into  on  the  10th  of  December, 
1898,  between  the  United  States  and  Her  Majesty  the  Queen  Regent  of 
Spain. 

I  understand  that,  as  far  as  possible,  all  pecuniary  responsibilities 
contracted  by  the  military  government  up  to  this  date  have  been  paid; 
that  $100,000,  or  such  portion  thereof  as  may  be  necessary,  have  been 
set  aside  to  cover  the  expenses  that  may  be  occasioned  by  the  liquida- 
tion and  finishing  up  the  obligations  contracted  by  said  government; 
and  that  there  has  been  transferred  to  the  Government  of  the  Repub- 
lic the  sum  of  $689,191.02,  which  constitutes  the  cash  balance  existing 
to-day  in  favor  of  the  State. 

In  the  belief  that  article  5  of  the  amendment  to  the  constitution 
is  applicable  to  the  matter,  the  Government  will  take  pains  to  facili- 
tate the  execution  of  the  works  of  sanitation  projected  by  the  military 
government;  furthermore,  it  will  procure,  in  so  far  as  depends  upon 
the  same  and  corresponds  thereto  in  the  sanitary  measures  for  the 
necessities  of  both  countries,  the  observance  of  the  system  implanted 
by  the  military  government  of  Cuba. 

It  is  understood  that  the  Isle  of  Pines  is  to  continue  de  facto  under 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  Government  of  the  Republic  of  Cuba,  subject 
to  such  treaty  as  may  be  entered  into  between  the  Government  of  the 
United  States  and  that  of  the  Cuban  Republic,  as  provided  for  in  the 
Cuban  constitution  and  in  the  act  passed  by  the  Congress  of  the  United 
States  and  approved  on  the  2d  of  March,  1901. 

I  receive  with  sincere  gratification  the  letters  which  President  Roose- 
velt addresses  to  the  Congress  of  the  Republic  of  Cuba  and  to  me,  for 
the  sentiments  of  friendship  for  the  people  of  Cuba  which  inspire  them. 

I  take  this  solemn  occasion,  which  marks  the  fulfillment  of  the  hon- 
ored promise  of  the  Government  and  people  of  the  United  States  in 
regard  to  the  island  of  Cuba,  and  in  which  our  country  is  made  a  ruling 
nation,  to  express  to  you,  the  worthy  representative  of  that  grand 
people,  the  immense  gratitude  which  the  people  of  Cuba  feel  toward 
the  American  nation,  toward  its  illustrious  President,  Theodore  Roose- 
velt, and  toward  you  for  the  efforts  you  have  put  forth  for  the  suc- 
cessful accomplishment  of  such  a  precious  ideal. 

T.  Estrada  Palma. 


Havana,  May  20,  1902. 
Theodore  Roosevelt, 

President,  Washington  : 

The  Government  of  the  island  having  been  just  transferred,  I,  as 
Chief  Magistrate  of  the  Republic,  faithfull}r  interpreting  the  sentiments 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  125 

of  the  whole  people  of  Cuba,  have  the  honor  to  send  you  and  the 
American  people  testimony  of  our  profound  gratitude  and  the  assur- 
ance of  an  enduring  friendship,  with  wishes  and  prayers  to  the 
Almighty  for  the  welfare  and  prosperity  of  the  United  States. 

T.  Estrada  Palma. 


Washington,  May  20,  1002. 

President  of  the  Republic  of  Cuba: 

Believe  in  my  heartfelt  congratulations  upon  the  inauguration  of  the 
Republic  which  the  people  of  Cuba  and  the  people  of  the,  United  States 
have  fought  and  labored  together  to  establish.  With  confidence  in 
your  unselfish  patriotism  ana  courage  and  in  the  substantial  civic  vir- 
tues of  your  people,  I  bid  you  Godspeed,  and  on  this  happy  day  wish 
for  Cuba  for  all  time  liberty  and  order,  peace  and  prosperity. 

Elihu  Root, 

Secretary  of   War. 

Havana,  May  21,  1902. 
Elihu  Root, 

Secretary  of  War,   Washington: 

I  am  deeply  moved  by  your  heartfelt  message  of  congratulation  on 
the  inauguration  of  the  Republic  of  Cuba,  to  the  birth  of  which  the 
people  and  the  Government  of  the  United  States  have  contributed 
witn  their  blood  and  treasure.  Rest  assured  that  the  Cuban  people 
can  never  forget  the  debt  of  gratitude  they  owe  to  the  great  Republic 
with  which  we  will  always  cultivate  the  closest  relations  of  friendship 
and  for  the  prosperity  of  which  we  pray  to  the  Almighty. 

T.  Estrada  Palma. 


Washington,  P.  C  Jam;  10, 1002. 
The  Adjutant-General  U.  S.  Army, 

Washington,  1).  C. 

Sir:  1  have  the  honor  to  inform  you  that  the  Republic  of  Cuba  was 
established  at  12  o'clock  noon,  May  2<>,  1JI02.  The  transfer  was  made 
upon  the  lines  indicated  in  the  instructions  of  the  honorable,  the  Secre- 
tary of  War,  and  the  autograph  letter  of  the  President  read  to  Presi- 
dent Palma  and  presented  to  him.  President  Palma  responded,  express- 
ing his  sincere  appreciation  of  the  work  done  by  the  United  States  in 
Cuba  and  the  lasting  gratitude  of  himself  and  the  people  of  Cuba. 

The  transfer  was  made  in  the  main  reception  hall  of  the  palace  of 
the  military  governor.  There  were  present  the  President-elect  and 
his  cabinet:  the  military  governor  and  the  oilicers  of  his  staff;  civil  and 
military;  the  Cuban  Congress;  the  judiciary:  officers  of  the  British 
and  Italian  navies;  the  captain  and  staff  of  the  U.  S.  S.  Brooklyn;  and 
the  consular  representatives  of  foreign  countries. 

The  document  of  transfer  was  read  at  exactly  12  o'clock.  President 
Palma  at  once  read  his  reply.  During  the  reading  of  the  document  of 
transfer  and  the  reply  or  President  Palma  a  salute  of  45  guns  to  our 
flag  was  being  fired.    Upon  the  conclusion  of  this  salute  the  troops  of 


126  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

the  Seventh  U.  S.  Cavalry,  which  had  been  formed  in  the  Plaza  de 
Armas  in  front  of  the  palace,  presented  arms,  the  band  played  the 
national  air,  and  the  American  flag  was  lowered  by  a  special  detail 
designated  for  this  purpose  and  received  by  an  officer  of  my  staff. 
The  Cuban  flag  was  then  hoisted  and  saluted  with  a  national  salute  of 
21  guns  both  by  the  fortress  of  Cabana  and  by  the  U.  S.  S.  Brooklyn. 
The  Cuban  national  air  was  played  and  our  troops  saluted  the  flag. 
This  ceremoliy  completed,  the  troops  immediately  embarked,  and  were 
not  allowed,  either  officers  or  men,  to  set  foot  again  on  shore. 

1  left  the  palace  at  25  minutes  past  12  o'clock,  accompanied  by  the 
officers  of  my  personal  and  department  staif.  We  were  accompanied 
to  the  capitania  del  puerto  by  President  Palma  with  his  cabinet,  the 
Cuban  Congress  and  all  others  who  had  been  present  at  the  cere- 
monies. President  Palma  bade  us  farewell  at  tne  wharf  after  again 
expressing  his  most  sincere  and  lasting  good- will  and  appreciation. 

Accompanied  by  my  personal  staff  I  immediately  embarked  upon 
the  U.  S.  S.  Brooklyn.  The  officers  of  the  department  staff  embarked 
on  the  S.  S.  Morro  Castle,  which  sailed  at  a  quarter  past  3.  The 
U.  S.  S.  Brooklyn  sailed  at  about  3.45. 

There  was  immense  interest  and  enthusiasm  displayed  in  the  trans- 
fer, and  it  would  have  been  impossible  for  any  people  to  have  shown 
more  friendship  and  cordiality  to  the  representatives  of  another  nation 
than  was  shown  by  the  people  of  Havana  of  all  classes  to  the  repre- 
sentatives of  the  late  military  government  of  the  United  States  in 
Cuba.  Jt  is  safe  to  say  that  at  least  100,000,  probably  150,000,  people 
were  assembled  along  the  water  front  within  the  harbor  limits  at  the 

Sunta  and  along  the  sea  front  to  see  the  troops  off.     Both  the  S.  S. 
forro  Castle  and  the  U.  S.  S.   Brooklyn  were  escorted  to  sea  by  a 
large  number  of  tugs  and  launches  packed  with  people. 

l  proceeded  on  the  U.  S.  S.  Brooklyn  directly  to  the  mouth  of  the 
St.  Johns  River,  below  Jacksonville,  and  there  transferred  to  the 
U.  S.  A.  T.  Kanawha  with  the  officers  of  my  personal  staff,  Captain 
H.  L.  Scott,  adjutant-general,  and  Lieutenants  M.  E.  Hanna,  Frank  R. 
McCoy,  and  Edward  Carpenter,  aids-de-camp. 

From  Jacksonville  I  proceeded  directly  to  Washington,  stopping  at 
Charleston  to  coal;  a  few  hours  at  Norfolk  for  supplies,  and  at  Fortress 
Monroe  to  visit  the  works,  arriving  at  Washington  Wednesday  morn- 
ing, Mav  28. 

Very  respectfully,  Leonard  Wood, 

Brigadier- General,  U.  S.  Army. 


APPENDIX  B. 


CONSOLIDATED  STATEMENT  OF  THE  FISCAL  AFFAIRS  OF  CUBA  DURING  AMEB- 
IC AH  OCCUPATION  FROM  JULY  18,  1898,  TO  MAT  19,  1902. 

CONTENTS. 

Customs  revenues  by  ports. 
Customs  revenues  by  items. 
Postal  revenues. 

Internal  revenues  by  fiscal  zones. 
Internal  revenues  by  items. 
Miscellaneous  revenues  fiscal  year  1899. 
Miscellaneous  revenues  fiscal  year  1900. 
Miscellaneous  revenues  fiscal  year  1901. 
Miscellaneous  revenues  fiscal  year  1902. 
Expenditures  fiscal  year  1899. 
Expenditures  fiscal  year  1900. 
Expenditures  fiscal  year  1901. 
Expenditures  fiscal  year  1902. 
Expenditures  summary. 
Excess  of  revenues  over  expenditures. 
Statement — balance  sheet. 

Summary,  by  ports,  of  customs  revenues  collected  in  Cuba  during  American  administration, 
July  18,  1898,  to  May  19,  1902,  as  certified  by  the  auditor  for  Cuba. 


Julyl8, 1898,  to 
June  30,  1899. 

Fiscal  year 
1900. 

Fiscal  year 
1901. 

July  1,  1901,  to 
May  19, 1902. 

Total  during 
American  ad- 
ministration. 

Baracoa 

$19, 184. 93 

1,481.97 

554,111.07 

144,015.11 

65,165.04 

49,111.76 

64,915.57 

5,102,762.85 

$33,597.55 

2, 784. 89 

1,126,268.30 

312,409.70 

191,972.69 

123,536.55 

184,946.45 

12,062,124.89 

$24,274.45 

2,445.24 

1,287,614.93 

281,477.24 

227,526.53 

146,959.38 

311,275.70 

11,516,922.09 

5,993.51 

231,365.75 

469,869.48 

185,794.86 

.   189,527.24 

5,969.56 

1,031,875.93 

15,471.85 

16, 163. 17 

$19,290.76 

1,421.63 

1,135,058.61 

301,455.87 

182, 593. 64 

109,145.57 

256,997.02 

9,398,147.33 

71,126.96 

228,382.34 

434,599.75 

192,735.69 

118,627.12 

4,731.28 

921,362.30 

17,041.73 

10,299.55 

$96, 347. 69 

Batabano 

8, 133. 73 

Cienfuegos 

4, 103, 052. 91 

Cardenas 

1, 039, 387. 92 

Caibarien 

667,257.90 

Ouantanamo 

428, 753. 26 

Gibara 

Habana  

818,134.74 
38,079,957.16 

Jucaro 

77, 120. 47 

Manzanillo 

65,873.87 

197, 755. 30 

119,347.53 

74,703.23 

746.30 

754,452.76 

10,797.11 

4,006.20 

173, 361. 88 
462,800.40 
183,128.31 
182, 278. 15 

2,963.66 

995,532.48 

27,063.43 

3,266.57 

698,983.84 

Matanzas 

1, 565, 024. 93 

Nue  vitas 

681,006.39 

Sagua  la  Grande 

Santa  Cruz 

565,035.74 
14, 410. 80 

Santiago 

3,703,223.47 

Trinidad 

70, 874. 12 

Tunas  de  Zaza 

33,735.49 

Total 

7,228,460.60 

16,068,035.90 

15,950,526.91 

13,402,917.15 

52, 649, 940. 56 

127 


128 


REPORT   OF   THE   SECRETARY   OF   WAR. 


Summary,  by  items,  of  customs  revenues  collected  in  Cuba  during  American  administration, 
July  18,  1898,  to  May  19,  1902,  as  certified  by  the  auditor  for  Cuba. 


Import  duties 

Export  duties 

Tonnage  tax 

Harbor  improvement . 

Fines,  seizures,  etc 

Capitation  tax 

Storage  and  cartage . . . 

Consular  fees 

Overtime  work 

Cattle  inspection 

Live-stock  tax 

Certificate  fees 

Deposits  for  badges — 

Liquor  tax 

Pilotage 

Private  dock  inspec- 
tion  

Rent 

.Seized  and  unclaimed 
goods,  useless  mate- 
rial  

Sale  of  fishery  plots — 

Sanitary  tax 

Ship  measuring 

Signal  service 

Translation  and  inter- 
pretation   

Tramway  charges 

Wharfage 

Wreckage 

Repairs 

Clothing 

Revenue-Cutter  Serv- 
ice  


July  18,  1898, 

to  June  30, 

1899. 


Total 


96,473,668.28 

406,408.10 

227,691.41 

79,230.86 

2,317.76 

17,983.65 

3,766.93 

222.52 

4,357.74 

10,908.28 


1,525.89 


89.00 


64.93 


225.25 


Fiscal  year 
1900. 


814,592,683.04 

719,801.43 

343,007.51 

265,220.23 

14,963.46 

25,610.58 

24,087.06 

2,134.50 

16,485.66 

42,535.48 

40.67 

212.00 

131.65 


97.73 


10,442.87 

1,291.92 

170.00 

196.66 


7,228,460.60 


4,778.63 
"4,"i44.*82 


16,068,035.90 


Fiscal  year 
1901. 


$14,187,131.41 

a  988, 928. 39 

352,251.37 

256,362.49 

24,421.44 

24,218.14 

22,417.56 

1,956.50 

29,663.66 

34,673.73 

297.96 

1,438.00 

190.14 


608.72 

825.00 
220.00 


14,127.34 


July  1, 1901,  to 
May  19,  1902. 


$12,623,603.55 


60.51 
277.00 

6,319.00 
690.49 

2,906.12 
541.95 


15,950,526.91 


336,721.35 

255,680.49 

40,429.44 

18,880.94 

16,176.28 

1,660.72 

26,161.93 

31,383.73 

22.50 

1,140.10 

bft.69 


150.00 
80.00 


33,435.03 


1,060.00 

5,110.50 

3,643.22 

7,378.54 

150.00 

5.00 

37.65 

11.87 


13,402,917.15 


Total  during 
American  ad- 
ministration. 


$47,877,086.28 

2,115,137.92 

1,259,671.61 

856, 494. 07 

82, 132. 10 

86, 693. 31 

66,447.82 

5,974.24 

76,668.99 

119,501.22 

361.13 

2, 790. 10 

316. 10 

1,525.89 

608.72 

975.00 
486.73 


58,070.17 

1,291.92 

395.25 

257.17 

1,337.00 

16,208.13 

4,333.71 

14,429.48 

691.95 

5.00 

37.65 


11.87 


52,649,940.56 


a  All  export  duties  were  abolished  Apr.  1, 1901. 


b  Deduction  for  revenues  refunded. 


Summary  of  postal  revenues  collected  in  Cuba  during  American  administration  from 

January  1,  1899,  tfie  date  of  the  organization  of  the  postal  department,  to  May  19,  1902, 
as  certified  by  the  auditor  for  Cuba. 

Receipts  from  sales  of  postage  stamps,  stamped  paper,  box  rent,  etc. : 

January  1,  1899,  to  June  30,  1899 $148,692.70 

Fiscal  year  1900 237,692.70 

Fiscal  year  1901 354,806.59 

July  1,  1901,  to  May  19,  1902 324,226.74 

Total 1,065,418.73 

Fees  on  money  orders: 

January  1,  1899,  to  June  30, 1899 2,892.70 

Fiscal  year  1900 20,455.33 

Fiscal  year  1901 13,144.01 

July  1,  1901,  to  May  19,  1902 11,729.87 

Total 48,221.91 


»  » 


BEPOBT   OF   THE   SECRETABY   OF   WAR. 


129 


Summary,  by  fiscal  zones,  of  internal  revenues  collected  in  Cuba  during  American  adminis- 
tration from  January  1,  1899,  the  beginning  of  tfie  administration  of  the  internal  affairs 
under  direction  of  the  American  authorities,  to  May  19,  1902,  as  certified  by  the  auditor 
for  Cuba. 


Jan.  1, 1899,  to 
June  30, 1899. 

Fiscal  year 
1900. 

Fiscal  year 
1901. 

July  1, 1901.  to 
May  19, 1902. 

$429,998.58 
18,458.51 
10,282.01 
29,361.54 
30,645.27 
31,010.89 
42, 564. 40 
30,911.29 
16,977.68 
9.551.00 
38,820.50 

Total  during 
American  ad- 
ministration. 

Habana 

t247.510.94 
8,332.89 

$547,887.63 
24,946.66 

$447,211.39* 
15,583.84 

9,060.56 
27,268.94 
27,846.10 
34,911.56 
29,020.03 
20,628.61 
11,688.11 

9,266.63 
39,026.78 

$1,672,608.54 
67,321.90 
19, 342. 57 

Pinardel  Rio 

Guanajay 

Mntwn?afl ............. 

38,688.11 

136,113.05 

231,431.64 
58, 491. 37 

ftordenas 

Santa  Clara 

16,889.97 

99,144.53 

181, 956. 95 

Clenfuearoe 

71,584.43 

Holguin 

30,324.89 

26,546.26 

108,411.06 
28, 665. 79 

Manfanfllo ............ 

18, 817. 63 

Santiago 

5,685.99 

50, 146. 16 

133,677.53 

Total 

671,512.55 
12,926.63 

2,592,309.40 

Less  amount  refunded . 

12,926.63 

Net  total 

347,431.89 

884,783.29 

658,585.92 

688,581.67 

2, 579, 382. 77 

Summary,  by  Hems,  of  internal  revenues  collected  in  Cuba  during  American  administration, 
from  January  1,  1899,  the  beginning  of  the  administration  of  the  internal  affairs  under 
directum  of  the  American  authorities,  to  May  19, 1902,  as  certified  by  the  auditor  for 
Cuba. 


Conveyance  and  inheritance 
tax 

Industrial  and  commercial  tax. 

10  and  3  per  cent  on  passenger 
and  freight  rates 

Forest  proceeds 

Redemption  of  rent  charges  . . . 

Interest  of  rent  charges 

Interest  of  liabilities 

Rents  of  state  properties 

Sale  of  state  lands 

Sale  of  useless  material 

Eventual  proceeds 

Liquor  tax 


Total 

Less  amount  refunded 

Net  total 


Jan.  1,1899, 

to  June  30, 

1899. 


$163, 892. 80 
13,984.75 

"128,419.19 

120.00 

75. 77 

5,078.55 

251.03 

3,209.13 


637.93 

25,921.75 

5,840.99 


347,431.89 


Fiscal  year 
1900. 


$386,047.77 
96,843.51 

303,064.12 

739.40 

1,606.94 

20,977.75 

1,511.90 

5, 138. 54 

2,070.81 

1,355.92 

65,427.63 


884,783.29 


Fiscal  year 
1901. 


$374,714.25 
126, 162. 17 


1,055.40 

6,679.06 

26,184.92 

6,062.66 

6,001.46 

8,584.74 

626.38 

115,441.52 


671,512.55 
12,926.63 


658,585.92 


July  1,1901, 

to  May  19, 

1902. 


$357,325.40 
132, 639. 07 


297.60 

11,313.61 

34,497.00 

9,201.83 

7,417.71 

19,079.96 

1,474.68 

115,334.91 


688,581.67 


Total  during 
American  ad- 
ministration. 


$1,281,980.22 
369,629.50 

431,483.31 

2,212.30 

19,674.37 

86,738.22 

17,027.42 

21,766.84 

29,735.61 

4,094.91 

322,125.81 

5,840.99 


2,592,309.40 
12,926.63 


2,579,382.77 


a  This  tax  was  abolished  July  1,  1900,  by  headquarters  division  of  Cuba,  Order  No.  258. 


Summary  of  miscellaneous  revenues  collected  in  Cuba  during  American  administration, 
July  18,  1898,  to  May  19,  1902,  as  certified  by  the  auditor  for  Cuba. 

REVENUES  FROM  JULY  18,  1898,  TO  JUNE  30,  1899. 

Municipal  and  miscellaneous  revenues  collected  at  Santiago  in  1898 "U64, 486. 52 

Proceeds  from  teleg[raph-line  receipts 17, 370. 29 

Proceeds  from  earnings  of  Jucaro  and  San  Fernando  Railroad 11, 437. 80 

Proceeds  from  tax  collections 1, 971. 33 

Proceeds  from  municipal  tax 307. 88 

Proceeds  from  customs 37. 57 

Proceeds  from  cleaning  cesspools 172. 00 

Proceeds  from  dredging  work 1, 398. 14 

Proceeds  from  rent  of  pile  driver 200. 00 

Proceeds  from  rent  of  dredge,  Porto  Rico 60.00 

Proceeds  from  work  done  at  137  Obispo  street 4. 87 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  hardware 672. 57 

~      WAB  1902— vol  1 9 


130  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  scrap  iron .* $24. 37 

Contributions  to  the  Jucaro  and  San  Fernando  Railroad  by  Mr.  Carter.  1, 000. 00 
Amounts  taken  up  by  collectors  of  internal  revenue  for  overpayments 

and  credited  to  miscellaneous  revenues 7, 402. 98 

Miscellaneous  receipts  for  which  auditor  is  unable  to  furnish  itemized 

certificates 146. 50 

Amount  gained  in  exchange 17, 607. 12 

Residue  sum  unexpended  by  late  junta  de  obras  del  puerto 1, 323. 65 

Discount  payment,  employees  of  junta  de  obras  del  puerto 292. 57 

Lunatic  asylum '. 27.  78 

Cash  found  in  Habana  custom-house  vault 1, 614. 32 

Cash  found  in  Santiago  custom-house  vault 6, 788. 40 

Total 234,345.66 

REVENUES  FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEAR  ENDED  JUNE  30,  1900. 

Proceeds  from  telegraph-line  receipts $56, 950. 83 

Proceeds  from  earnings  of  Jucaro  and  San  Fernando  Railroad 29, 388. 39 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  ice 10, 924. 50 

Proceeds  from  cleaning  cesspools 3, 397.  84 

Proceeds  from  premium  on  sale  of  Spanish  money  and  billettes 4,  733.  84 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  old  iron 1, 971.  76 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  lumber 198. 50 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  flour 437. 00 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  clothing 3, 903.  84 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  horses  arid  mules 450.  00 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  old  drain  material 11.  40 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  garbage  cans 83.  20 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  condemned  insular  property 21.  00 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  street  sweepings  and  manure 602.  27 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  old  vehicles 90. 90 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  miscellaneous  articles 117.  32 

Proceeds  from  rental  of  canteen 1 82.  75 

Proceeds  from  rent  of  pile  driver 47. 50 

Proceeds  from  rent  of  steam  roller 26.  20 

Proceeds  from  miscellaneous  rents 607. 99 

Proceeds  from  subrental  of  telephone 50. 00 

Guaranty  for  dredging 31, 144. 23 

Harbor  improvements 200.  00 

Damage  to  wharves 50.  70 

Damage  to  vehicles 4. 40 

Received  from  administrator  of  Marianao  Railroad 351. 49 

Repairs  to  slaughterhouse 8, 894. 80 

Repairs  to  Las  Animas  hospital 380. 00 

Files  for  architect,  sanitary  office 8. 00 

File  cabinet  for  sanitary  office 21.  25 

Asphalt  pavements 1, 621. 00 

Excavation  work 322. 00 

Board  of  patients  and  hospital  treatment 679.  80 

Subscription 12. 00 

Repairs  to  buildings 2, 360. 63 

Deposits  on  account  of  borings 100. 00 

Deposits  on  account  of  work  for  the  municipality  of  Habana 4, 771. 19 

Care  of  prisoners 40. 62 

Checks  lost  and  uniforms  unaccounted  for 697. 33 

Disinfecting  warehouse 263.  70 

Refunds  of  overpayment  of  duties,  etc 370. 28 

Receipts  of  funds  not  classified 8, 817. 70 

Total : 175,308.15 

REVENUES  FOR  THE  FI8CAL  YEAR  ENDED  JUNK  30,  1901, 

Proceeds  from  telegraph-line  receipts $75, 805. 06 

Proceeds  from  earnings  of  the  Jucaro  and  San  Fernando  Railroad 13, 155. 02 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  ice 13, 476. 71 

Proceeds  from  auction  sales 2. 00 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAB.  131 

Proceeds  from  board  and  treatment  of  patients $541. 00 

Proceeds  from  cleaning  cesspools 2,013.50 

Proceeds  from  dredging  and  floating  dry  dock  at  Regla 25, 077. 60 

Proceeds  from  dredging. 1, 650. 00 

Proceeds  from  earnings  of  S.  S.  Valeda 600. 00 

Proceeds  from  installing  meters  and  water  service 11, 497. 32 

Proceeds  from  fees  for  examining  steam  engine 115. 00 

Proceeds  from  fees  for  registration  of  trade-marks 441. 50 

Proceeds  from  maintenance  of  immigrants 4, 665. 58 

Proceeds  from  miscellaneous  rente 1, 364. 82 

Proceeds  from  rent  of  pile  driver 195.00 

Proceeds  from  repairs,  extension,  and  improvement  of  streets  and  roads .  1, 700. 00 

Proceeds  from  repairs  to  launches,  tugs,  scows,  and  dredges 4, 986. 92 

Proceeds  from  repairs  to  batteries  and  arsenals 83. 15 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  condemned  and  unserviceable  material 2, 499. 97 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  sand  and  firewood 238. 80 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  clothing  to  employees 365. 85 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  rags 1, 231. 29 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  insular  property 209. 00 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  animals 2, 151.  75 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  rations ... 171. 25 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  street  sweepings 1, 191. 19 

Proceeds  from  cleaning  premises  and  sewers 5, 982. 42 

Proceeds  from  miscellaneous  sales 245. 02 

Proceeds  from  improvements  of  municipal  buildings  and  property 2, 216.  73 

Fines,  penalties,  and  forfeitures 1, 419. 12 

Deposits  on  contracts 563. 91 

Salvage  and  storage 17. 00 

Receipts  from  issuing  penalty  envelopes 1, 408. 40 

Sale  of  foreign  gold  and  currency 4, 536. 52 

Cash  found  in  safes 49. 13 

Repayments  of  services  and  labor  furnished 2, 135. 70 

Total 184,003.23 

REVENUES  FROM  JULY  1,  1901,  TO  MAY  19,  1902. 

Proceeds  from  telegraph-line  receipts $88, 192. 58 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  ice 13, 854. 94 

Proceeds  from  auction  sales 2, 744. 26 

Proceeds  from  board  and  treatment  of  patients 1, 706. 67 

Proceeds  from  cleaning  cesspools 5, 824. 80 

Proceeds  from  damage  to  wharves  and  sea  walls 91. 34 

Proceeds  from  damage  to  Department  property 4. 00 

Proceeds  from  dredging  Matadero  Canal 700. 00 

Proceeds  from  earnings  S.  S.  Valeda 1, 626. 87 

Proceeds  from  establishing  water  supply 1, 155, 14 

Proceeds  from  fees  and  licenses 1, 681. 58 

Proceeds  from  maintenance  of  immigrants 10, 808. 38 

Proceeds  from  miscellaneous  rents 9, 284. 51 

Proceeds  from  printing  office 252. 00 

Proceeds  from  repairs  to  harbor  buoys 285. 76 

Proceeds  from  rent  of  steam  roller  and  pile  driver 753. 00 

Proceeds  from  repairing  mowing  machine 6. 50 

Proceeds  from  repairs,  extension,  and  improvement  of  streets 28, 398. 95 

Proceeds  from  repairs  to  launches,  tugs,  scows,  and  dredges 8, 570. 67 

Proceeds  from  repairs  to  batteries  and  arsenals 338. 91 

Proceeds  from  repairs  and  dredging  wharves 1,  739. 46 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  ordnance  stores 13, 566. 16 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  condemned  and  unserviceable  material 9, 008. 17 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  coal  and  sand 336. 28 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  clothing  to  employees 30. 50 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  rags  and  paper 7, 539. 78 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  insular  property 18, 407. 54 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  charts •. 10. 55 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  horses  and  mules 2, 514. 80 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  produce  and  rations 7, 984. 86 


132  BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

Contributions  to  schools  at  Santiago $20, 130. 81 

Conveyance  and  inheritance  tax 54. 44 

Fees  for  examining  locomotive  engineers 1,  718.  72 

Fines,  penalties,  and  forfeitures 3, 205. 02 

Judicial  fines 147. 99 

Expense  of  erecting  and  removing  reviewing  stand 151.  72 

Received  from  National  Conference  of  Charities 163. 20 

Receipts  from  issuing  penalty  envelopes 869. 89 

Tunas  and  Sancti  Spintus  Railroad 213. 00 

Loss  on  sales  of  foreign  money «3, 553. 96 

Total 260,519.79 

EXPENDITURES  FROM  JULY  18,  1898,  TO  JUNE  30,  1899. 

Barracks  and  quarters $447, 415. 90 

Sanitation 1,066,075.28 

Rural  guard  and  administration 408, 079. 34 

Public  works,  ports,  and  harbors 170, 365. 41 

Charities  and  hospitals 176,256.79 

Miscellaneous 625,700.22 

Aid  to  destitute 131,705.36 

Quarantine 22,707.70 

Jucaro  and  San  Fernando  Railroad 10, 908. 50 

Expenditures  by  collectors  of  customs 130, 435. 26 

Other  customs  expenditures 242, 297. 31 

State  and  Government 188,628.78 

Justice  and  public  instruction 266, 498. 96 

Finance 147,557.37 

Agriculture,  industry,  commerce,  and  public  works 101, 354. 62 

Municipalities 1,358,162.29 

Extraordinary  payments  ordered  bv  the  general  commanding  at  San- 
tiago in  1898 ' 64,346.71 

Postal  expenditures 223,492.75 

Loss  in  exchange 2, 630. 18 

Revenues  refunded 3, 725. 16 


Total 5,788,343.89 

EX  FEND  ITU  RES  DURING  FISCAL  YEAR  1900. 

Barracks  and  quarters $1, 349, 671. 96 

Sanitation 3,480,277.48 

Rural  guard  and  administration 1, 702, 450. 33 

Public  works,  ports,  and  harbors 881, 963. 38 

Charities  and  hospitals 814, 132. 26 

Miscellaneous 208,735.74 

Aid  to  destitute 92,623.17 

Quarantine 224,332.91 

Jucaro  and  San  Fernando  Railroad 27, 457. 00 

Expenditures  by  collectors  of  customs 689, 059. 62 

Other  customs  expenditures 152, 316. 97 

Treasurer's  office 113,632.67 

Auditor's  office 77,200.10 

Headquarters  division  of  Cuba 80, 617. 78 

State  and  Government 924,958.41 

Justice  and  public  instruction 1, 308, 090. 07 

Finance 244,050.74 

Agriculture,  industrv,  commerce,  and  public  works 511, 177. 79 

Municipalities ." 1,960,059.90 

Census 299,239.70 

Postal  expenditures 494, 539. 09 

Paris  exposition 24, 798. 40 

Total ! 15,661,385.47 

<*  Deduction. 


REPOBT  OF  THE  SECBETABY  OF  WAR.  133 

EXPENDITURES  DURING  FISCAL  YEAR  1901. 

State  and  Government: 

Central  office $236,471.12 

Civil  government 160,846.47 

Rural  Guard 124,433.91 

Census 80,286.24 

Hospitals  and  charities 512, 839.  71 

Jails 389,088.08 

Public  buildings 210,943.69 

Electrons 42,256.46 

•Justice* 

Central  office 70,201.93 

Supreme  court  aud  audiencia 431, 989. 36 

Courts  of  province .• :  188,820.31 

Lower  courts 166,022.54 

Public  buildings 15,583.72 

Public  instruction: 

Central  office 137,555.77 

Universities  and  State  schools 558, 379. 31 

•  Public  buildings 38,400.70 

Finance: 

Central  office 103,104.60 

Offices  of  the  zones 161,272.92 

Expenditures  by  collectors  of  customs 714, 326. 60 

Other  customs-service  expenditures 196, 667. 06 

Postal  sendee 524,198.85 

Auditor's  office 107,823.38 

Treasurer, s  office 276, 855. 40 

Quarantine 255,039.20 

Public  building 768.03 

Tariff  commission 7,841.23 

Aid  to  destitute 70.45 

Miscellaneous 512. 91 

Agriculture,  industry,  and  commerce: 

Central  office 64,417.59 

Province 48,326.21 

Paris  and  Pan-American  expositions 13, 470. 93 

Purchase  of  brood  horses  and  cattle 100, 344. 04 

Public  works: 

Central  office 60,113.68 

Province 45,694.46 

Expenditures  by  Captains  of  ports 75, 943. 96 

Public  works 383,710.77 

Construction  and  repairs 1, 010, 046. 67 

Light-houses 141, 362. 59 

Public  buildings 1,070.52 

Jucaro  and  San  Fernando  Railroad 18, 973. 01 

Municipalities: 

Administration 26, 040. 78 

Instruction 3, 413, 184. 53 

Sanitation " 2,856,912.48 

Police 765,407.50 

Hospitals  and  asylums 1, 042, 536.  71 

Jails 1,266.46 

Public  buildings 19, 282. 60 

Elections 12,722.03 

Miscellaneous 99,122.75 

Military  department: 

Barracks  and  quarters 455, 652. 60 

Administration 193,530.80 

Administration  and  Rural  Guard 1, 071, 373. 22 

Miscellaneous 12,462.67 

Total 17,645,568.51 


134 


REPOBT   OF   THE   SECRETARY   OF   WAR. 


EXPENDITURES  FROM  JULY  1,  1901,  TO  MAY  19,  1902. 

State  and  Government: 

Central  office $159 

Hospitals  and  charities 580 

jgllg __                     439 

labile  buildings! !!!!!!!! ZIZZZZZZZZZZZIZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ ZZ!Z  i,063 

Secret  service  and  secret  police 

Civil  government 121 

Census 

Elections 118 

Rural  guard 863 

Artillery  corps 25 

Justice: 

Central  office „ 58 

Supreme  court 137 

Courts  of  province 675 

Public  buildings 1 

Public  instruction: 

Central  office 258 

Universities  and  State  schools 510 

Public  buildings 112 

Finance: 

Central  office 174 

Province 123 

Postal  service 383 

Expenditures  by  collectors  of  customs 642 

Other  customs  expenditures 144 

Quarantine 191 

Public  buildings 26 

Tariff  commission 1 

Consular  funds 

Treasurer's  office 191 

Auditor's  office 127 

Agriculture,  industry,  and  commerce: 

Central  office 124 

Province 36 

Expositions 92 

Brood  horses  and  cattle 4 

Public  works: 

Central  office 63 

Province 185 

Public  works 2 

Construction  and  repairs 1, 311 

Light-houses 160 

Ports 2 

Expenditures  by  captains  of  ports 62 

Miscellaneous 

Municipalities: 

Administration 61 

Police 99 

Instruction 2, 760 

Sanitation 2, 302 


Hospitals  and  charities 

Elections 

Public  buildiugs 

Miscellaneous 

Military  department: 

Barracks  and  quarters 

Administration 

Administration  and  rural  guard 
Miscellaneous 


774 
33 
29 
11 

272 

782 
1 
1 


041.78 
369.64 
137. 41 
747.  72 
547.  77 
480.  21 

867. 50 
325.  67 
831.00 
061.44 

012.96 
489. 19 
681.79 
125.58 

647.90 
029.23 
050.76 

250.75 
180.34 
531.34 
522.  87 
700.37 
945.00 
962. 38 
067.50 
17.94 
212. 03 
734.  94 

881.67 
743.  95 
016. 19 
167.89 

171.80 
353.50 
421 .  36 
596.70 
747.20 
839.  41 
512.08 
3.00 

990.50 
573.40 
422.85 
992.96 

452. 51 
136.  39 
229.97 
182.  95 

743.  32 
389.86 
476.90 
114.04 


Total 16,309,733.41 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  135 

EXPENDITURES  DURING  ENTIRE  PERIOD  OF  AMERICAN  ADMINISTRATION. 

State  and  Government $2,780,781.16 

Justice  and  public  instruction 11, 108, 187. 46 

Finance ^ 990, 586. 7 1 

Customs  service 2,912,326.06 

Postal  service 1,625,762.03 

Quarantine 694,024.81 

Census 380,393.44 

Auditor 312,758.42 

Treasurer •. 581,700.10 

Rural  guard  and  administration t 5, 253, 244. 58 

Agriculture,  industry,  and  commerce  « 1, 121, 699. 28 

Public  buildings,  works,  ports,  and  harbors 5, 833, 607. 90 

Jucaro  and  San  Fernando  Railroad 57, 338. 51 

Barracks  and  quarters 2, 525, 483. 78 

Charities  and  hospitals 4, 1 24, 986. 60 

Sanitation 9, 706, 258. 20 

Municipalities  (other  than  charities  and  hospitals  and  sanitation) 4, 477, 177. 52 

Miscellaneous 918, 714.  72 

Total 55,405,031.28 

Summary  of  revenues  and  expenditures  in  Cuba  during  American  administration,  from 
July  18,  1898,  to  May  19,  1902,  as  certified  by  the  Auditor  for  Cuba. 

REVENUES. 

July  18,  1898,  to  June  30,  1899: 

Customs $7,228,460.60 

Postal 151,585.40 

Internal 347, 431. 89 

Miscellaneous 234, 345. 66 

$7, 961, 823. 55 

Fiscal  year  1900: 

Customs 16,068,035.90 

Postal 258,148.03 

Internal 884,783,29 

Miscellaneous 175, 308. 15 

17,386,275.37 

Fiscal  year  1901 : 

Customs 15,950,526.91 

Postal 367,950.60 

Internal 658,585.92 

Miscellaneous 1 84, 003. 23 

17,161,066.66 

July  1,  1901,  to  May  19,  1902: 

Customs 13,402,917.15 

Postal 335,956.61 

Internal 688, 58 1 .  67 

Miscellaneous 260, 519.  79 

14, 687, 975.  22 

$57, 197, 140.  80 

EXPENDITURES. 

July  18,  1898,  to  June  30,  1899: 

Customs 372,  732. 57 

Postal 223,492.75 

Other 5,192,118.57 

5,788,343.89 

Fiscal  year  1900: 

Customs 841 ,  376. 59 

Postal 494,539.09 

Other 14,325,469.79 

15, 661, 385. 47 


« Includes  expenditures  for  public  works  to  June  30,  1900. 


136  REPORT   OF   THE    SECRETARY    OF   WAR. 

Fiscal  year  1901 : 

Customs $910,993.66 

Postal 524,198.85 

Other 16,210,376.00 

f  17, 645, 568. 51 

July  1,  1901,  to  May  19,  1902: 

Customs ~ 787,223.24 

Postal 383,531.34 

Other 15,138,978.83 

16,309,733.41 

$55, 405, 031.  28 


Excess  of  revenues  over  expenditures 1, 792, 109. 52 

STATEMENT. 

In  the  summary  of  revenues  and  expenditures  in  Cuba  during 
American  occupation  the  following  figures  appear,  namely: 

Revenues $57,197,140.80 

Expenditures 55, 405, 031 .  28 

Excess  of  revenues  over  expenditures 1 ,  792, 109. 52 

In  order  to  analyze  the  balance  in  favor  of  the  Government  of  Cuba 
at  the  close  of  American  administration  in  account  with  collectors, 
disbursing  officers,  and  others,  it  is  necessary  to  state  an  account  includ. 
ing  all  fiscal  transactions. 

The  consolidated  balance  sheet  is  as  follows: 

Debtor. 

For  excels  of  revenues  over  expenditures $1,  792, 109. 52 

J^ost  property  charged  to  officers 278. 88 

Funds  deposited  with  the  treasurer  in  excess  of  amount  certified  for 

credit  to  depositors 21, 869. 96 

Mines  deposits 5, 841. 70 

Trust  funds: 

Money-order  funds $80, 900. 14 

Charity  funds 2,  786. 43 

Sinking  fund  for  Normal  school  purposes 3, 508. 30 

Outstanding  disbursing  officers'  checks 3, 338.  24 

90,533.11 


Total 1,910,633.17 

Creditor. 

By  amount  credited  to  officers  for  transfer  of  funds  in  excess  of  amount 
charged 50,757.39 

Amount  of  indebtedness  canceled  by  authority  of  military  governor 
under  provision  of  rule  34 498. 59 

Suspense  items 677. 16 

In  hands  of  treasurer 635, 170. 29 

Balance  outstanding  in  Santiago  de  Cuba  from  transactions  in  calendar 
year  1898 6,917.67 

Amount  due  by  United  States  Government  for  overpayment  by  Gen- 
eral Humphrey  (since  paid  to  the  Republic  of  Cuba) 29, 836. 22 

Net  balance  in  the  hands  of  collectors  and  disbursing  officers 1, 186, 775. 85 

Total 1,910,633.17 

The  foregoing  balance  sheet  represents  the  condition  of  the  general 
account  as  far  as  audited  to  the  close  of  business  on  May  19th.  Such 
items  as  remained  unsettled  at  that  time,  as  well  as  the  accounts  with 
one  or  two  officers  remaining  open  to  be  thereafter  disposed  of,  will 
be  reported  in  a  supplementary  statement. 


APPENDIX  G. 


BY  THE  PRESIDENT  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES. 
A  PROCLAMATION. 

Whereas,  Many  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  Philippine  Archipelago 
were  in  insurrection  against  the  authority  and  sovereignty  of  the  King- 
dom of  Spain  at  divers  times  from  August,  eighteen  hundred  and 
ninety-six,  until  the  cession  of  the  archipelago  hy  that  Kingdom  to  the 
United  States  of  America,  and  since  such  cession  many  of  the  persons 
so  engaged  in  insurrection  have  until  recently  resisted  the  authority 
and  sovereignty  of  the  United  States;  and 

Whereas,  The  insurrection  against  the  authority  and  sovereignty  of 
the  United  States  is  now  at  an  end,  and  peace  has  been  established  in 
all  parts  of  the  archipelago  except  in  the  country  inhabited  by  the 
Moro  tribes,  to  which  this  proclamation  does  not  apply;  and 

Whereas,  During  the  course  of  the  insurrection  against  the  King- 
dom of  Spain  and  against  the  Government  of  the  United  States,  per- 
sons engaged  therein,  or  those  in  sympathy  with  and  abetting  them, 
committed  many  acts  in  violation  of  the  laws  of  civilized  warfare;  but 
it  is  believed  that  such  acts  were  generally  committed  in  ignorance  of 
those  laws,  and  under  orders  issued  by  the  civil  or  insurrectionary 
leaders;  and 

Whereas,  It  is  deemed  to  be  wise  and  humane,  in  accordance  with 
the  beneficent  purposes  of  the  Government  of  the  United  States  towards 
the  Filipino  people,  and  conducive  to  peace,  order,  and  loyalty  among 
them,  that  the  doers  of  such  acts  who  have  not  already  suffered  pun- 
ishment shall  not  be  held  criminally  responsible,  but  shall  be  relieved 
from  punishment  for  participation  in  these  insurrections  and  for 
unlawful  acts  committed  during  the  course  thereof  by  a  general 
amnesty  and  pardon: 

Now,  therefore,  be  it  known  that  I,  Theodore  Roosevelt,  President 
of  the  United  States  of  America,  by  virtue  of  the  power  and  authority 
vested  in  me  by  the  Constitution,  do  hereby  proclaim  and  declare 
without  reservation  or  condition,  except  as  hereinafter  provided,  a 
full  and  complete  pardon  and  amnesty  to  all  persons  in  the  Philippine 
Archipelago  who  have  participated  in  the  insurrections  aforesaid  or 
who  have  given  aid  and  comfort  to  persons  participating  in  said  insur- 

137 


138  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

rections  for  the  offenses  of  treason  or  sedition  and  for  all  offenses 
political  in  their  character  committed  in  the  course  of  such  insurrec- 
tions pursuant  to  orders  issued  by  the  civil  or  military  insurrectionary 
authorities,  or  which  grew  out  of  internal  political  feuds  or  dissen- 
sions, between  Filipinos  and  Spaniards,  or  the  Spanish  authorities,  or 
which  resulted  from  internal  political  feuds  or  dissensions  among  the 
Filipinos  themselves  during  either  of  said  insurrections; 

Provided,  luywever.  That  the  pardon  and  amnesty  hereby  granted 
shall  not  include  such  persons  committing  crimes  since  May  first,  nine- 
teen hundred  and  two,  in  any  province  of  the  archipelago  in  which  at 
the  time  civil  government  was  established,  nor  shall  it  include  such 
persons  as  have  been  heretofore  finally  convicted  of  the  crimes  of 
murder,  rape,  arson,  or  robbery  by  any  military  or  civil  tribunal 
organized  under  the  authority  of  Spain,  or  of  the  United  States  of 
America,  but  special  application  may  be  made  to  the  proper  authority 
for  pardon  by  any  person  belonging  to  the  exempted  classes  and  such 
clemency  as  is  consistent  with  humanity  and  justice  will  be  liberally 
extended;  and 

Further  provided^  That  this  amnesty  and  pardon  shall  not  affect  the 
title  or  right  of  the  Government  of  the  United  States  or  that  of  the 
Philippine  Islands  to  any  property  or  property  rights  heretofore  used 
or  appropriated  by  the  military  or  civil  authorities  of  the  Government 
of  the  United  States,  or  that  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  organized  under 
authority  of  the  United  States  by  way  of  confiscation  or  otherwise; 
and 

Provided  furtlier,  That  every  person  who  shall  seek  to  avail  himself 
of  this  proclamation  shall  take  and  subscribe  the  following  oath  before 
any  authority  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago  authorized  to  administer 
oaths,  namely: 

I, ,  solemnly  swear  (or  affirm)  that  I  recognize  and  accept  the  supreme 

authority  of  the  United  States  of  America  in  the  Philippine  Islands  and  will  main- 
tain true  faith  and  allegiance  thereto;  that  I  impose  upon  myself  this  obligation  vol- 
untarily without  mental  reservation  or  purpose  of  evasion.     So  help  me  God. 

Given  under  my  hand  at  the  city  of  Washington  this  fourth  day  of 
July,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  nine  hundred  and  two,  and 
in  the  one  hundred  and  twenty -seventh  year  of  the  Independence  of 
the  United  States. 

Theodore  Roosevelt. 
By  the  President: 
Elihu  Root, 

Secretary  of  War. 


APPENDIX  D. 


memorandum  fob  the  secretary  of  war. 

Headquarters  of  the  Army, 
Office  of  the  Chief  of  Artillery, 

Washington,  November  15,  1902. 
The  individual  reports  of  officers  present  during  the  operations 
cover  in  detail  all  technical  features  of  the  maneuvers. 

Upon  receipt  of  a  communication  from  the  Chief  of  Artillery,  dated 
January  2,  1902,  in  which  the  opinion  was  expressed  that  combined 
maneuvers  between  the  Navy  and  coast  artillery  would  prove  a  most 
effective  means  of  preparing  the  latter  in  time  of  peace  for  war,  the 
Secretary  of  War,  on  January  9,  extended  an  invitation  to  the  Secre- 
tary of  the  Navy  to  participate  during  the  coming  summer  in  such 
maneuvers.  This  invitation  was  accepted  by  the  latter  on  January  12, 
and  the  following  problem  was  drafted  by  the  Chief  of  Artillery: 

GENERAL    IDEA. 

Anticipating  the  declaration  of  hostilities,  a  strong  Red  fleet  (without  torpedo 
boats)  determines  to  make  a  sudden  dash  upon  Newport,  or  the  eastern  entrance 
of  Long  Island  Sound  to  secure  a  naval  base,  taking  advantage  of  the  absence  of  a 
declaration  of  war  to  find  the  Blue  land  forces  somewhat  unprepared. 

SPECIAL   IDEA. 

In  undertaking  these  operations  the  controlling  idea  should  be  to  test  the  training 
of  the  personnel  and  the  efficiency  of  the  material,  and  it  is  of  paramount  importance 
that  this  idea  should  not  be  lost  sight  of. 

1.  All  the  forte  in  the  artillery  district  of  Narragansett  (Fort  Rodman,  Fort  Adams, 
Fort  Wetherill,  and  Fort  Greble),  and  in  the  artillery  district  of  New  London  (Fort 
Mansfield,  Fort  Wright,  Fort  Michie,  and  Fort  Terry),  will  be  mobilized  on  a  war 
basis,  allowing  two  reliefs  of  artillerymen. 

2.  The  period  of  maneuvers  should  last  eight  days  and  be  divided  into  two  distinct 
phases: 

(a)  Period  of  preparation — two  days  and  two  nights. 

(b)  Period  of  hostility — six  days  and  six  nights. 

3.  It  is  desirable  that  the  attack  or  feints  should  be  made  all  along  the  line. so  as 
to  test  the  efficiency  of  each  part  of  the  line,  rather  than  to  have  one  main  attack 
upon  some  prominent  point,  thereby  allowing  the  enthusiasm  and  interest  at  other 
places  to  wane  by  a  feeling  of  fancied  security. 

4.  The  attacks  by  the  fleet  should  embrace  a  day  attack  and  a  night  attack,  and,  if 
possible,  a  bombardment  and  forcing  of  a  passage. 

5.  This  coup  being  made  before  a  declaration  of  war,  the  Red  Fleet  should  be  jus- 
tified in  assuming  that  all  passages  are  not  mined. 

6.  In  the  report  of  the  Endicott  Board  on  the  System  of  Coast  Defenses  considera- 
tion has  been  given  to  the  defenses  of  the  various  ports  of  the  United  States  by  means 

139 


140         REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

of  the  cooperation  of  divisions  of  torpedo  boats.  This  board  allotted  to  Narragansett 
Bay  6  and  to  New  London  13  torpedo  boats.  No  system  of  defense  combining  these 
has  ever  been  attempted,  so  far  as  known. 

A  certain  number  of  torpedo  boats  should  act  in  conjunction  with  the  fixed  defenses, 
and,  if  possible,  the  Holland,  and  any  other  submarines  available,  would  be  particu- 
larly desirable. 

7.  During  the  period  of  hostilities  the  conditions  are  to  approach  those  of  war  as 
closely  as  possible. 

The  artillery,  having  had  little  or  no  opportunity  to  become  familiar 
with  naval  tactics,  labored  under  great  disadvantages.  A  number  of 
fortifications  had  never  before  been  manned,  and  at  several  points  the 
Ordnance  Department  found  it  necessary  to  continue  work  on  guns 
and  carriages  until  the  beginning  of  operations.  The  Navy  may  be 
said  to  be  always  on  a  war  footing  so  far  as  its  available  ships  are  con- 
cerned. Its  officers  are  familiar  with  our  coast  and  fortifications,  and 
at  its  war  college  at  Newport,  R.  L,  had  fully  discussed  all  the  ques- 
tions involved  in  the  maneuvers,  and  had  made  a  thorough  study  of 
the  situation. 

The  Coast  Artillery  should  be  equally  well  prepared;  for  when  the 
critical  time  conies,  it  must  act  on  very  short  notice.  The  naval  forces, 
having  had  the  benefit  of  the  practical  experience  resulting  from  the 
war  with  Spain,  were  in  a  great  measure  prepared  for  the  work 
required  of  them;  the  Artillery  during  this  war  had  only  the  expe- 
rience of  preparing  as  far  as  practicable  for  an  attack  which  never 
occurred. 

The  theater  of  the  operations  was  confined  to  the  artillery  districts 
of  Narragansett  and  New  London,  and,  in  addition  to  the  regular 
companies  of  Coast  Artillery  stationed  permanently  or  temporarily  in 
these  districts  (practically  sufficient  for  two  reliefs  for  each  gun),  the 
First  Massachusetts  Heavy  Artillery,  two  companies  of  Connecticut 
Heavy  Artillery,  the  Naval  Reserve  of  New  York,  Connecticut,  Rhode 
Island,  and  Massachusetts  also  took  part  in  the  maneuvers.  It  is 
greatly  regretted  that  the  Thirteenth  Regiment,  Heavy  Artillery, 
National  Guard  of  New  York,  owing  to  lack  of  State  appropriations, 
was  unable  to  participate. 

The  many  obstacles  encountered  by  the  various  officers  of  the  line 
and  staff  were  surmounted  by  cordial  cooperation  and  earnestness  of 
purpose,  and  it  is  the  opinion  of  all  officers  who  participated  in  the 
maneuvers  that  the  benefit  derived  from  them  can  not  be  overesti- 
mated, and  that  the  practical  experience  gained  will  exert  its  influence 
for  years  to  come.  The  maneuvers  were  in  the  nature  of  a  school  of 
instruction  for  about  one-fourth  of  the  total  strength  of  the  Artillery 
Corps.  No  better  method  of  imparting  technical  instruction  could 
possibly  be  devised.  It  afforded  the  recent  volunteer  appointees  a 
practical  illustration  of  the  requirements  of  modern  artillery,  and 
many  rules  of  discipline,  command,  and  administration,  which  before 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  141 

had  appeared  vague  and  unsatisfactory,  were  practically  exemplified. 
The  artillery  was  given  an  opportunity  to  test  not  only  its  own  sys- 
tem, methods,  and  theories  of  fire  direction  and  control,  but  also  the 
material  furnished  by  the  various  supply  departments,  such  as  search- 
lights, cables  for  telegraph,  telephones,  and  searchlights,  installed  by 
the  Engineer  Department;  ammunition  and  electrical  tiring  gear  for 
the  large-caliber  guns  and  mortars,  supplied  by  the  Ordnance  Depart- 
ment, and  telephones,  telautographs,  and  other  communications 
installed  by  the  Signal  Corps,  which  laid  and  maintained  line*  for  impro- 
vised horizontal  base  systems  of  range  finding,  and  had  charge  of  the 
service  of  security  and  information  beyond  the  limits  of  the  military 
reservation,  involving  the  use  of  telegraph  stations  on  patrol  boats 
and  on  shore,  balloons,  rockets,  etc. 

The  tests  of  personnel  and  materiel  were  perhaps  even  more  severe 
than  would  result  from  actual  war,  and  it  is  probable  that  the  officers 
and  men  on  dutv  in  the  two  districts  concerned  saw  more  active  serv- 
ice  "during  the  maneuvers  than  they  would  have  done  under  actual 
conditions  of  war,  as  attacks  would  probably  be  made  at  a  few  prede- 
termined points  along  our  coast,  and  the  commands  at  the  majority  of 
the  posts  would  have,  no  opportunity  to  oppose  a  hostile  fleet.  While, 
in  time  of  war  a  particular  fortification  might  come  into  action  for  a 
brief  period  only,  it  must  be  remembered  that  the  enemy's  fleet  has 
the  choice  of  objective,  and  in  order  that  the  artillery  may  be  ready 
at  the  critical  moment  to  defend  any  part  of  the  coast  which  may  be 
attacked,  it  is  essential  that  it  should  be  fully  equipped  at  all  points  in 
materiel,  men,  organization,  training,  and  practical  experience. 

To  bring  about  such  a  condition  years  of  earnest  and  unremitting 
effort  will  be  required.  It  is  a  dangerous  theory  that  the  expenditure 
of  an  unlimited  amount  of  money,  when  an  emergency  arises,  will  be 
effective  in  the  prevention  of  war.  It  will  require  regular  and  ample 
appropriations  to  keep  the  Coast  Artillery  prepared  to  subserve  the 
purpose  for  which  it  is  intended,  and  time  is  absolutely  essential  to 
perfect  its  organization  and  equipment. 

The  expense  incident  to  the  maneuvers  has  unquestionably  been 
justified  by  the  benefits  which  have  accrued  to  the  country  at  large, 
for  as  a  result  of  the  experience  gained  many  improvements  have  been 
and  are  still  being  made  in  the  training  of  the  personnel,  and  also  in 
much  of  the  material  which  is  furnished  by  the  several  staff  departments. 

Believing  that  the  Navy  and  artillery  will  derive  valuable  strategical, 
tactical,  and  technical  lessons  from  the  maneuvers,  it  is  recommended 
that  they  be  of  annual  occurrence,  a  different  locality  being  selected 
each  year. 

Wallace  F.  Randolph, 

Chief  of  Artillery. 


APPENDIX  £. 


Headquarters  Department  of  the  East, 

Gvvem/rrs  hiand,  New  York  City,  October  7, 1902. 

Sir:  In  conclusion  of  the  maneuvers  recently  held  in  this  depart- 
ment, in  which  the  Navy  and  Army  participated,  full  reports  are 
respectfully  inclosed  herewith,  in  which  will  be  found  the  views  of 
the  various  officers  charged  with  responsible  duties  in  the  premises, 
which  are  of  the  highest  professional  importance,  and  as  such  are 
most  earnestly  commended  to  the  very  careful  consideration  of  the 
Department.  As  much  of  the  material  contained  in  these  valuable 
reports  is  essentially  technical,  and  all  of  it  more  or  less  confidential, 
it  is  submitted  with  only  a  few  remarks  in  respect  of  such  matters  as 
seem  to  be  of  general  interest  and  properly  admit  of  public  discussion. 

A  memorandum  is  respectfully  attached  hereto,  in  which  is  embodied 
a  brief  reference  to  the  manner  in  which  the  maneuvers  originated,  the 
necessary  preliminary  action  at  these  headquarters  in  organizing  the 
same,  and  a  record  of  events  incidental  to  the  execution  thereof. 

One  of  the  most  notable  features  of  the  maneuvers  was  the  gravity, 
professional  zeal,  and  dignity  which  characterized  the  deportment  of 
all  concerned,  which  was  exceedingly  gratifying,  as  in  peace  training 
of  this  kind  it  frequently  happens  that  it  is  not  easy  to  warm  the  fancy 
or  hold  the  serious  attention  of  the  participating  parties,  because  of 
the  difficulties  attending  any  attempt  to  present  by  simulation  a  truth- 
ful imitation  of  actual  war.  Although  it  was  apparent  that  reciprocal 
hostile  action,  which  molds  the  events  of  a  real  campaign,  was  absent, 
it  was  also  very  obvious  that  the  fresh  and  novel  situations  which  arose 
from  bringing  ships  against  forts  afforded  a  considerable  scope  for 
decision  and  ingenuity,  and  for  the  manifestation  of  intelligence,  vigor, 
judgment,  and  composure  in  very  much  the  same  manner  as  would 
have  occurred  in  regular  field  operations.  It  is  therefore  a  great 
pleasure  to  report  to  the  Department  the  complete  professional  suc- 
cess of  the  maneuvers,  together  with  a  suggestive  recommendation  in 
behalf  of  an  annual  repetition  thereof  until  the  entire  system  of  our 
coast  defense  has  been  subjected  to  a  similar  test. 

As  preliminary  to  the  general  discussion  it  may  be  said  that  the 
United  States  in  all  warlike  emergencies  can  rely  with  absolute  cer- 
tainty upon  everything  possible  of  accomplishment,  by  reason  of  the 

143 


144  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

voluntary  efforts  of  a  practically  inexhaustible  number  of  courageous, 
self-respecting  men,  and  may  rely  also  upon  everything  that  can  be 
quickly  produced  by  the  employment  of  an  unlimited  supply  of 
money.  These  indispensable  elements  of  military  power  must  always 
be  a  matter  of  great  comfort  to  the  nation,  but  in  the  complacent  con- 
templation thereof  it  must  not  be  forgotten  that  the  enthusiasm  of  the 
whole  nation,  supplemented  by  billions  of  wealth,  can  not  create  on 
the  instant  anything  in  the  production  of  which  time  is  the  essential 
element. 

The  fortification  work  of  the  Engineer  Corps  and  the  Ordnance 
Department  embraced  within  the  limits  of  the  maneuver  districts  can 
not  be  too  highly  commended.  The  gun  emplacements,  both  in  loca- 
tion and  construction,  are  admirable,  and  the  guns,  mortars,  and  car- 
riages installed  therein  are  splendidly  adapted  to  the  purposes  of  an 
artillery  defense.  In  the  several  particulars  referred  to — that  is  to 
say,  forts,  guns,  mortars,  and  carriages — such  perfect  types  have  been 
evolved  as  to  justify  a  declaration  to  the  effect  that  construction  in 
these  instances  can  go  forward  without  any  consideration  of  the  pos- 
sibility of  either  becoming  obsolete  within  any  reasonable  time.  Minor 
defects  have  been  known  to  exist  for  some  time  in  the  great  plant 
involved,  more  small  defects  have  been  brought  to  light  by  these 
maneuvers,  further  experience  will  undoubtedly  reveal  others;  but 
speaking  in  broad  terms  of  this  great  national  question  of  coast  defense, 
it  may  be  said  that  everything  relating  to  emplacements  and  guns  has 
long  since  passed  the  experimental  stage,  in  the  light  of  which  fact, 
and  having  reference  to  the  preceding  formula  in  respect  of  time  as 
an  incident  of  constructive  work,  the  primary  conclusion  which  is  sug- 
gested by  the  maneuvers  is  to  the  effect  that  all  projected  coast-defense 
works  be  hurried  to  completion  as  quickly  as  possible. 

The  maneuver  field  embraced  only  the  Narragausett  and  New  Lon- 
don artillery  districts;  that  is  to  say,  nine  posts  on  the  Atlantic  coast 
of  the  United  States,  the  entire  defense  of  which  is  composed  of  forty- 
five  posts.  The  difficulties  attending  the  mobilizing  of  these  posts  in 
consequence  of  necessary  removal  thereto  from  other  districts  of  pretty 
nearly  all  the  portable  appurtenances  appertaining  to  our  entire  Atlan- 
tic coast  defense,  carry  an  impressive,  and,  if  properly  accepted,  one 
of  the  most  instructive,  lessons  of  the  maneuvers. 

Although  the  subject  is  one  of  great  concern,  it  is  not  regarded  as 
of  confidential  significance,  as  it  simply  means  inadequate  money  appro- 
priations and  not  any  inherent  weakness  in  the  nation  itself.  As  the 
only  possible  way  of  obtaining  amendment  of  the  military  policy, 
under  which  such  insufficient  results  are  reached,  lies  in  open  and 
intelligent  discussion,  it  is  desired  in  this  report  to  set  forth  the  vast 
public  interest  jeopardized,  in  the  hope  of  securing  something  like 
adequate  recognition  thereof. 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  8E0BETABY  OF  WAB.  145 

Referring  to  what  has  previously  been  said  in  respect  of  the  excel- 
lence of  emplacements  and  guns,  a  further  declaration  is  made  with 
great  emphasis  to  the  effect  that  when  all  projected  works  are  com- 
pleted and  armed  the  coast  line  of  the  United  States  will  be  practi- 
cally impregnable  against  any  hostile  attack,  provided  the  guns  can 
be  properly  manned  and  the  fire  action  thereof  can  be  developed  to 
the  full  limit  of  its  useful  effect. 

Considering  all  the  elements  that  enter  into  the  transaction,  even 
the  ordinary  practice  fire  of  a  high-power  gun  is  an  event  of  national 
importance.  In  war  there  is  absolutely  no  margin  for  a  high-power 
coast-defense  gun  missing.  To  be  effective  to  the  end  in  view  nearly 
every  shot  must  be  a  hit.  Such  a  condition  of  utility  does  not  at  pres- 
ent exist,  but  fortunately  it  is  a  scientific  possibility  which  can  readily 
be  made  an  actual  fact  by  the  simple  process  of  affording  necessary 
facilities  for  proper  artillery  training  and  providing  an  adequate 
instrumental  equipment,  together  with  a  qualified  personnel  to  manipu- 
late the  same. 

An  old  time  fort,  with  its  numerous  guns,  was  capable  of  almost 
continuous  fire,  such  as  it  was,  and  when  employed  against  sailing 
ships  had  a  considerable  chance  of  hitting,  because  of  the  numerous 
shots  fired  and  of  the  long  exposure  of  the  ships.  Instead  of  the 
broadside  effects  of  the  old  forts,  a  modern  work  has  only  a  few  high- 
power  guns,  in  which  are  concentrated  an  enormous  weight  of  metal, 
from  which  can  be  delivered  only  a  comparatively  few  projectiles  at 
ships  moving  at  full  speed  under  steam.  Although  the  accuracy,  as 
well  as  the  range,  of  guns  has  been  immensely  increased,  the  chance 
of  hitting,  by  reason  of  the  relatively  small  number  of  shots  that  can 
be  fired,  has  greatly  diminished,  unless  each  shot  can  be  delivered 
from  a  gun  laid  with  scientific  precision,  which  will  be  possible  only 
under  a  perfect  system  of  fire  control.  As  such  a  system  does  not 
exist,  and  its  creation  must  be  preceded  by  laborious  experimental 
investigation,  it  is  apparent  that  time  is  the  important  consideration 
in  working  out  the  problem.  In  other  words,  a  useful  system  of  artil- 
lery fire  control  is  one  of  the  elements  of  military  power  that  can  not 
be  extemporized,  and  should  accordingly  be  developed  and  perfected 
regardless  of  expense  in  advance  of  any  emergency;  and  in  this  con- 
nection it  is  asserted  with  all  confidence  that  the  accomplished  officers 
who  have  these  matters  in  charge  will  in  a  few  years  be  able  to 
announce  a  satisfactory  solution,  if  the  facilities  to  carry  on  the  prac- 
tical work  are  furnished. 

Secondary  conclusions  are  therefore  suggested  by  the  maneuvers 
to  the  following  effect: 

(1)  That  all  necessary  equipment  to  make  each  work  an  independent, 
autonomous  fighting  unit  be  installed  therein  at  once,  having  special 
reference  to  the  system  of  fire  control,  in  which  it  is  intended  to  include 

wab  1903— vol  1 10 


146  EEPOET  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAS. 

searchlights,  together  with  all  the  steam  and  electrical  power  essential 
thereto. 

(2)  The  ordinary  enlisted  personnel  of  an  artillery  company  is  in 
every  way  capable  of  performing  all  necessary  services  in  the  bat- 
teries, but  it  can  not  furnish  qualified  men  to  maintain  and  operate  the 
scientific  instruments  and  the  complex  electric  appliances  appertaining 
to  fire  control.  For  this  purpose  a  corps  of  artillery  experts  is  neces- 
sary, to  embrace  steam  engineers,  machinists,  and  electricians.  Such 
a  corps  could  readily  be  organized  by  expanding  the  detachment  of  post 
electrician  sergeants  to  400  men,  changing  the  name,  and  classifying 
the  men  in  three  grades,  the  highest  of  which  to  receive  not  less  than 
$75  per  month,  and  the  intermediate  grade  $50  per  month.  As  this 
corps  is  intended  absolutely  for  coast-artillery  work,  it  should  be 
made  an  integral  part  of  the  artillery  arm,  the  men  of  which  to  be 
assigned  as  directed  by  the  Secretary  of  War.  The  instruction  of 
these  men  could  be  accomplished  as  set  forth  in  the  discussion  under 
the  head  of  the  School  of  Submarine  Defense.  The  elaboration  of  this 
suggestion  is  not  attempted,  as  it  would  require  too  much  space.  The 
subject,  however,  is  regarded  as  of  the  very  highest  importance,  and  a 
further  memorandum  in  the  premises  will  gladly  be  submitted  if  the 
Department  regards  the  matter  of  sufficient  importance  to  continue 
investigation  further. 

(3)  For  the  purpose  of  experimental  investigation,  necessary  to  the 
evolution  of  a  satisfactory  fire  control  system,  the  supply  of  full- 
service  charges  of  ammunition  for  practice  firing  at  moving  targets  to 
be  quadrupled  for  five  years. 

The  artillery  arm  of  the  regular  establishment  is  numerically  strong 
enough  to  furnish  hardly  one-fifth  of  the  force  necessary  to  fully  man 
all  the  coast  defenses  on  a  war  footing.  An  emergency  call  for 
mobilization  would  undoubtedly  be  responded  to  by  a  large  number 
of  zealous  but  absolutely  untrained  men,  destitute  of  everything 
excepting  a  patriotic  desire  to  do  something  valuable  in  behalf  of  the 
Republic. 

The  formation  of  an  artillery  reserve,  therefore,  composed  of  men 
having  some  knowledge  of  the  coast  service,  is  a  problem  of  national 
concern.  As  time  is  one  of  the  essential  elements  thereof,  the  expe- 
diency is  suggested  of  stimulating  the  self-interest  of  States  in  which 
seacoast  defenses  are  located,  as  the  militia  thereof  would  make  the 
very  best  artillery  reserve  possible.  If  the  various  coast  States  could 
be  induced  to  regard  the  problem  somewhat  in  the  nature  of  a  local 
issue,  a  scheme  could  easily  be  worked  out  whereby  all  of  their  militia 
organizations  could  have  annual  training  in  the  batteries  at  compara- 
tively small  expense  to  either  the  States  or  the  nation.  In  several 
instances  State  organizations  have  been  designated  for  this  duty,  which 
only  emphasizes  the  fact  that  all  State  troops  contiguous  to  sea  forts 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  147 

should  receive  training  of  this  kind,  as  in  case  of  emergency  the  entire 
body  of  militia  contiguous  thereto  would  hardly  be  more  than  half 
enough  to  raise  the  garrisons  to  a  war  footing. 

The  foregoing  remarks  and  the  admirable  service  rendered  by  the 
Massachusetts  regiment  and  the  coast  artillery  companies  of  Connect- 
icut in  the  recent  maneuvers  suggest  a  third  important  conclusion  as 
the  result  thereof,  to  the  effect  that  the  States  of  interest  be  invited 
to  confer  with  the  War  Department  with  a  view  to  the  formulation  of 
practical  methods  whereby  this  important  training  may  be  imparted 
to  the  largest  number  of  men  possible. 

A  line  of  coast  defense  is  very  sensitive,  as  the  isolated  forts  are 
open  to  surprise  and  flank  attacks  by  means  of  landing  parties  from  a 
hostile  fleet.  To  overcome  these  dangers  such  a  line  must  be  strongly 
supported  by  mobile  land  forces.  This  important  work  in  the  United 
States  must  be  performed  almost  exclusively  by  volunteers,  an  unfail- 
ing reliance  beyond  all  question,  if  the  men  can  be  properly  armed  and 
equipped  as  rapidly  as  they  can  be  enlisted.  Under  the  impulse  of 
national  necessity  innumerable  thousands  of  men  can  be  brought 
together  in  a  few  hours,  but  to  make  arms  and  necessary  equipments 
for  them  is  the  work  of  time. 

Looking,  then,  to  the  tranquillity  and  self-respect  of  the  nation,  and 
considering  the  matter  in  the  light  of  our  own  experience,  the  true 
maxim  of  safety  and  of  wisdom  would  seem  to  suggest  keeping  in  store 
all  necessary  supplies  which,  when  the  nation  must  be  transferred  to 
a  war  footing,  can  not  be  readily  procured — that  is  to  say,  can  not  be 
produced  fast  enough  after  the  need  for  them  makes  itself  felt. 

A  fourth  and  most  important  conclusion  is  therefore  reached  as  the 
result  of  the  maneuvers,  to  the  effect  that  a  reserve  supply  of  small 
arms,  ammunition,  and  essential  equipments,  sufficient  to  insure  ade- 
quate land  support  for  the  coast-defense  line,  by  the  voluntary  organi- 
zation of  the  contiguous  populations,  be  placed  in  arsenals  of  supply, 
dedicated  exclusively  to  this  purpose,  and  this  purpose  only,  with  a 
view  to  a  minimum  organization  of  not  less  than  150,000  men. 

The  importance  of  submarine  devices  as  an  element  of  coast  defense 
was  emphasized  more  by  what  was  not  done  than  what  was  actually 
accomplished  thereby  during  the  maneuvers.  The  time  factor,  how- 
ever, in  producing  an  efficient  service  was  manifested  as  strongly  in 
this  instance  perhaps  as  any  other,  and  suggests  some  very  important 
generalizations  in  these  premises.  The  absence  of  mines  in  several 
places  greatly  weakened  the  artillery  defense,  and  permitted  very  bril- 
liant naval  action  which  would  have  been  impossible  in  mined  and 
obstructed  waters.  The  reason  mine  fields  were  not  employed  more 
extensively  was  simply  because  of  want  of  facilities  to  do  the  work 
quickly. 


148  REPOET  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

The  recent  transfer  of  submarine  defense  to  artillery  has  unified  and 
simplified,  and  thereby  immensely  strengthened,  our  system  of  coast 
defense;  and,  now  that  the  proper  principle  has  been  established,  all 
that  remains  to  be  done  is  to  carry  the  organization  forward  as  rapidly 
as  possible  to  a  fair  degree  of  perfection  through  the  building  up  and 
evolution  of  the  School  of  Submarine  Defense  at  Fort  Totten.  This 
institution  is  subserving  a  most  important  function,  and  can  not  be 
treated  with  too  much  generosity.  In  addition  to  the  general  scope 
of  the  school,  as  indicated  by  its  name,  most  important  instruction  is 
imparted  to  a  class  of  candidates  for  appointment  as  post  electrician 
sergeants;  and  it  is  the  expansion  of  this  submarine  school  of  elec- 
tricity for  enlisted  men  that  was  referred  to  in  suggesting  a  means  of 
training  the  corps  of  experts,  the  organization  of  which  was  recom- 
mended in  No.  2  of  "secondary  conclusions"  submitted  herewith. 

A  fifth  conclusion,  therefore,  arising  from  the  maneuvres  is  to  the 
effect  that  the  School  of  Submarine  Defense  at  Fort  Totten  be  magni- 
fied in  every  way  expedient,  and  the  reconstruction  of  the  post  to 
meet  all  the  demands  of  such  an  institution  be  expedited  as  rapidly  as 
possible. 

The  organization  of  the  service  of  information  was  exceedingly 
satisfactory  in  every  particular,  and  was  an  agreeable  indication  of 
what  may  be  expected  and  what  will  undoubtedly  be  accomplished 
in  actual  war  when  the  unlimited  resources  of  the  country  are  applied 
by  such  a  thoroughly  efficient  organization  as  the  Signal  Corps  of  the 
Army.  In  this  connection  especial  attention  is  invited  to  the  reports 
which  describe  the  experimental  employment  of  wireless  telegraphy, 
the  success  of  which  in  this  instance  suggests  the  expediency  of  further 
practical  investigation,  which,  perhaps,  would  be  more  readily  accom- 
plished by  the  Navy  than  by  the  Army,  as  the  most  favorable  field  for 
such  work  is  afloat  rather  than  on  shore. 

It  is  a  matter  of  regret  that  this  report  is  so  largely  devoted  to 
representations  in  behalf  of  increased  military  expenditures — a  policy 
especially  distasteful  to  a  self-governing  people  who  impose  their  own 
taxes.  In  support  of  the  contention,  however,  that  the  necessity  for 
such  a  policy  is  not  entirely  the  result  of  military  vagaries,  reference 
is  respectfully  made  to  the  views  of  an  eminent  philosophical  writer 
who  investigated  the  subject  of  national  defense  more  than  a  century 
ago,  and  who,  in  effect,  declared  that  in  ancient  times  the  opulent  and 
civilized  found  it  difficult  to  defend  themselves  against  the  poor,  and 
barbarous  nations;  whereas  in  modern  times,  by  reason  of  the  great 
expense  attending  military  organization,  the  poor  and  barbarous  find 
it  impossible  to  defend  themselves  against  the  opulent  and  civilized. 

By  free  interpretation  of  ideas  this  may  be  accepted  the  same  as  a 
declaration  to  the  effect  that  a  nation  that  has  money  and  won't  spend 
it  for  proper  purposes  of  national  defense  is  in  precisely  the  same 


BEPOET  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  149 

position  in  this  particular  as  though  it  did  not  have  it.  In  other 
words,  if  our  seacoast  defenses,  by  reason  of  inadequate  appropria- 
tions, are  not  organized,  manned,  and  equipped  so  as  to  insure 
abundant  protection,  it  may  happen  as  the  result  of  possibilities  well 
within  the  scope  of  the  near  future  that  we  shall,  as  a  nation,  have  to 
accept  all  the  consequences  that  would  naturally  arise  from  national 
poverty. 

Very  respectfully,  Arthur  MacArthur, 

Mayor- General,  Commanding. 
The  Adjutant-General,  U.  S.  Army, 

Wo8hi?igton,  D.  C. 


APPENDIX  P. 


General  Orders,  )  Headquarters  of  the  Army, 

>  Adjutant-General's  Office, 

No.  85.  )  Washington,  July  23,  1902. 

The  following  has  been  received  from  the  War  Department  and  is 
published  for  the  information  and  guidance  of  all  concerned: 

War  Department,  Washington,  July  22,  1902. 
To  the  Officers  of  the  Army: 

With  the  reduction  of  the  Philippine  force  and  the  withdrawal  from  Cuba  the 
Army  is  called  upon  to  resume  its  most  important  work  in  time  of  peace — the  work 
of  perfecting  itself  in  military  science  and  skill,  and  of  promoting  the  preparation  of 
the  United  States  against  future  wars.  I  wish  to  call  your  attention  to  the  conditions 
which  now  require  especial  effort  and  zeal  on  your  part  in  the  performance  of  this 
duty. 

Since  the  declaration  of  war  with  Spain  in  April,  1898,  there  have  been  appointed 
in  the  line  of  the  Army  1,542  lieutenants,  in  addition  to  276  appointed  from  the 
Military  Academy.  Of  these  616  were  appointed  from  officers  of  volunteers  under 
the  act  of  February  2,  1901,  414  were  appointed  from  the  enlisted  men  of  the  Regu- 
lar and  Volunteer  armies,  and  512  were  appointed  from  civil  life. 

The  abandonment  of  the  military  schools  for  commissioned  officers,  which  followed 

the  employment  of  the  entire  Army  in  active  military  operations,  has  left  these  1,542 

new  lieutenants  substantially  without  any  means  of  acquiring  a  systematic  military 

education.     While  many  of  the  former  officers  of  volunteers  have  acquired  the  most 

valuable  experience  by  active  service  in  the  field,  yet  it  is  of  great  importance  to 

them  as  well  as  to  the  untrained  appointees  from  civil  life  and  from  the  ranks  that 

they  shall  have  an  opportunity  for  broad  and  thorough  training,  both  practical  and 

theoretical,  under  the  competent  masters  in  the  art  of  war  whom  our  Army  is  able 

to  supply. 
Congress  has  now  with  wise  liberality  made  provision  for  the  reopening  of  the 

army  schools,  has  given  its  sanction  to  the  general  system  of  military  education 
embodied  in  the  General  Orders  of  November  27  last,  including  the  enlargement  and 
development  of  the  Fort  Leavenworth  school  into  a  General  Service  and  Staff  Col- 
lege, the  establishment  of  the  War  College  at  Washington,  with  suitable  buildings, 
and  the  rebuilding  of  the  Engineer  School,  and  has  made  ample  appropriation  for 
these  purposes. 

Every  effort  will  be  made  by  the  War  College  Board,  which  has  general  supervi- 
sion and  charge  of  the  whole  system,  to  bring  its  advantages  to  the  new  officers  of 
the  Army  as  speedily  as  possible  and  to  organize  officers'  schools  at  all  the  consider- 
able posts  without  delay.  I  ask  for  hearty  and  effective  cooperation  with  them  on 
the  part  of  every  officer  of  the  Army.  There  are  1,452  graduates  of  the  Military 
Academy  now  holding  commissions.  They  especially  have  an  opportunity  to  demon- 
strate their  loyalty  to  the  principles  of  that  institution  by  helping  to  diffuse  through- 
out the  service  the  benefits  which  have  come  to  them  from  their  four  years  of  hard 
study. 

161 


152  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

The  newly-appointed  officers  should  realize  that  there  is  much  to  be  learned,  ana 
that  the  way  to  qualify  themselves  for  the  high  and  independent  command  for  which 
they  should  all  hope  is  by  constant  intellectual  exercise  and  by  systematic  study  of 
the  reasons  of  military  action  and  the  materials  and  conditions  and  difficulties  with 
which  military  commanders  have  to  deal. 

Careful  attention  to  the  instruction  of  the  newly  appointed  officers  is  enjoined 
upon  all  regimental,  troop,  battery,  and  company  commanders.  They  should  be 
impressed  with  the  importance  of  the  faithful  performance  of  every  duty,  however 
unimportant  it  may  appear  to  them,  and  with  their  responsibility  for  such  conduct 
and  bearing  in  all  their  relations  as  shall  do  honor  to  the  service. 

Elihu  Root, 

Secretary  of  War. 

By  command  of  Lieutenant-General  Miles: 

H.  C.  Corbin, 
Adjutant- General,  Major- General,  U.  S.  Army. 


APPENDIX  G. 


regulations  and  programme  of  instruction  of  the  general  service 

and  staff  college,  fort  leavenworth,  kans. 

General  Orders,  )  Headquarters  of  the  Army, 

>  Adjutant-General's  Office, 

No-  89.  )  Washington,  August  1,  1902. 

The  accompanying  regulations  and  programme  of  instruction  for 
the  government  of  the  General  Service  and  Staff  College  at  Fort 
Leavenworth,  Kans.,  are  published  for  the  information  and  guidance 
of  all  concerned. 

By  command  of  Lieutenant-General  Miles: 

Wm.  H.  Carter, 
Brigadier-  General,  U.  S.  Army, 

Acting  Adjutant-  Genei%aL 


REGULATIONS  OF  THE  GENERAL  .SERVICE  AND  STAFF  COLLEGE. 
OFFICIAL   DESIGNATION, -ORGANIZATION,  AND   ADMINISTRATION. 

1.  The  college  is  officially  designated  the  General  Service  and  Staff 
College. 

2.  The  commanding  officer  of  the  post  of  Fort  Leavenworth,  Kans., 
shall  be  the  commandant  of  the  college. 

3.  The  senior  officer  on  duty  with  the  college,  pursuant  to  orders 
from  the  War  Department,  shall  be  the  assistant  commandant  of  the 
college. 

4.  The  staff  of  the  college  shall  consist  of  the  assistant  commandant 
and  the  instructors  in  charge  of  departments.  A  majority  thereof 
shall  constitute  a  quorum  for  business.  All  deliberations,  discussions, 
and  individual  votes  of  the  staff  are  to  be  regarded  as  confidential. 

5.  There  shall  be  a  secretary  of  the  college,  appointed  by  the  com- 
mandant. 

6.  The  instructors  shall  be  assisted  by  such  number  of  assistant 
instructors,  designated  by  the  commandant,  as  may  be  required. 

7.  When  practicable,  the  instructors  and  assistant  instructors  shall 
be  senior  in  rank  to  the  officers  of  the  student  class;  but  when  officers 
assigned  as  instructors  or  assistant  instructors  are  junior  in  rank  to 

163 


154         REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

officers  of  the  student  class,  they  shall,  in  the  execution  of  such  duty, 
be  respected  accordingly. 

8.  The  instructors  and  assistant  instructors  shall,  as  far  as  practi- 
cable in  the  judgment  of  the  commandant,  be  exempt  from  all  duties 
which  would  interfere  with  the  performance  of  duty  as  instructors  or 
assistant  instructors. 

9.  The  officers  and  the  enlisted  force  and  equipment  of  the  several 
organizations  on  duty  at  the  post  shall  be  available  for  the  practical 
instruction  of  officers  of  the  student  class  in  field  operations  and  drill 
regulations  at  such  times  as  may  be  determined  by  the  commandant. 

10.  The  officers  designated  as  members  of  the  student  class  shall  be 
detailed  in  orders  from  the  War  Department.  As  soon  as  a  list  of  the 
officers  so  selected  has  been  furnished  to  the  commandant  of  the  col- 
lege  he  shall  cause  the  programme  of  instruction  and  the  list  of  author- 
ized text-books  to  be  sent  to  them. 

DISCIPLINE. 

11.  The  college  shall  be  governed  by  the  rules  of  discipline  pre- 
scribed for  military  posts  and  by  the  regulations  of  the  college.  In 
matters  pertaining  to  the  college  and  the  course  of  instruction  it  shall 
be  exclusively  subject  to  the  control  of  the  War  College  Board. 

COMMANDANT  OF  THE   COLLEGE. 

12.  The  commandant  shall  from  time  to  time  apply  to  the  War 
Department  for  the  detail  of  officers  for  duty  at  the  college,  and  from 
them  he  shall  assign  the  assistant  commandant,  the  instructors,  the 
assistant  instructors,  and  the  secretary. 

13.  The  commandant  shall  make  application  to  the  War  Department 
for  such  articles  of  engineer,  ordnance,  and  signal  property  as  may  be 
necessary. 

14.  The  commandant  shall  make  annual  report  to  the  Adjutant- 
General  of  the  Army  of  the  progress  and  wants  of  the  college  after 
each  yearly  examination. 

15.  The  commandant  is  authorized  to  order  the  expenditure  of  such 
quantity  of  ammunition  for  field  guns,  machine  guns,  and  small  arms 
as  he  may  deem  necessary  for  proper  instruction. 

ASSISTANT  COMMANDANT  OF  THE  COLLEGE. 

16.  The  assistant  commandant  shall  preside  at  the  meetings  of  the 
staff  in  the  absence  of  the  commandant. 

17.  The  assistant  commandant  shall  inspect  the  methods  of  instruc- 
tion in  the  several  departments  and  shall  frequently  visit  the  section 
rooms  during  recitations  or  lectures.     He  shall  make  report-in  writing 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OP  WAR.  155 

to  the  secretary  of  the  college  from  time  to  time  for  the  information 
of  the  commandant.  If  occasion  should  arise,  he  will  make  immediate 
report. 

THE  SECRETARY  OF  THE  COLLEGE. 

18.  The  secretary  shall  be  the  custodian  of  the  records.  He  is 
responsible  for  the  college  fund  and  for  all  property  purchased 
therefrom. 

19.  All  official  correspondence  relating  to  the  college  from  mem- 
bers thereof  shall  be  addressed  to  the  secretary. 

DEPARTMENTS. 

20.  The  course  of  instruction  shall  be  embraced  in  four  departments, 
as  follows: 

First.  Department  of  tactics. 

Second.  Department  of  engineering. 

Third.  Department  of  law. 

Fourth.  Department  of  military  sanitation  and  hygiene. 

The  instructors  assigned  by  the  commandant  shall  have  charge  of 
these  departments  respectively.  The  chief  medical  officer  at  the  post 
shall  have  charge  of  the  department  of  military  sanitation  and 
hygiene. 

21.  The  departments  shall  include  the  courses  of  study  as  follows: 
Department  of  tactics:  The  courses  of  tactics  and  minor  tactics, 

organization  of  armies,  field  exercises  with  and  without  troops,  hip- 
pology,  equitation,  small-arms  tiring  regulations,  lectures  on  the  prin- 
ciples of  strategy,  and  drill  regulations  of  the  different  arms. 

Department  of  engineering:  The  courses  of  military  topography 
and  sketching,  field  fortification ,  and  field  engineering. 

Department  of  law:  The  courses  of  law  and  military  administration. 

Department  of  military  sanitation  and  hygiene:  The  course  of 
military  sanitation  and  hygiene. 

INSTRUCTION. 

22:  The  course  of  instruction  shall  be  as  provided  for  in  the  pro- 
gramme of  instruction,  covering  one  year  consisting  of  two  terms. 

23.  The  first  term's  course  shall  begin  on  the  1st  of  September, 
unless  that  date  fall  on  Saturday  or  Sunday,  in  which  case  the  course 
shall  begin  on  the  following  Monday.  It  shall  end  on  the  21st  of 
December,  concluding  with  the  semiannual  examinations. 

The  second  term's  course  shall  embrace  the  period  from  the  4th  day 
of  January  to  the  30th  day  of  June  following,  concluding  with  the 
final  examinations. 


156  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

24.  The  month  of  July  following  the  final  examinations  shall  be 
devoted  to  such  practical  exercises  in  the  field  as  may  be  ordered  by 
the  commandant. 

25.  Recitations,  including  exercises  in  application,  shall  be  held 
daily  excepting  Saturdays,  Sundays,  and  holidays.  The  period  from 
December  22  to  January  4,  both  dates  inclusive,  shall  also  be  excepted. 

At  stated  intervals,  to  be  determined  by  the  commandant,  during 
the  course  of  instruction  in  each  department,  theses  shall  be  prepared 
by  the  student  officers  in  addition  to  their  regular  class-room  work. 
The  subjects  shall  be  assigned  by  the  respective  instructors  with  the 
approval  of  the  commandant.  They  shall  be  germane  to  the  subject 
under  instruction  and  shall  be  such  as  will  not  involve  unreasonable 
labor  in  preparation.  In  determining  the  merit  of  such  work,  stress 
shall  be  laid,  not  merely  upon  soundness  of  conclusions,  but  also  upon 
combined  clearness  and  terseness  of  statement  and  of  reasoning.  The 
aim  shall  be  to  make  them  models  of  military  memoranda,  as  complete 
and  in  as  few  words  as  will  clearly  express  the  ideas. 

26.  All  student  officers  shall  be  embraced  in  one  class,  which  shall 
be  divided  into  sections  of  convenient  size  and  adaptation. 

27.  Record  shall  be  kept  of  all  recitations  and  exercises,  and  weekly 
report  of  the  same  shall  be  made  through  the  instructors  to  the 
commandant. 

28.  Recitations  shall  be  classified  as  "  satisfactory "  or  u  unsatis- 
factory." Each  unsatisfactory  recitation  shall  be  at  once  reported  to 
the  commandant,  who  will  require  an  explanation  in  writing  from  the 
officer  reported. 

29.  The  study  of  text-books  and  recitations  therefrom  shall  be 
supplemented  by  lectures  and  exercises  in  applications.  Recitations 
shall  not  as  a  rule  exceed  one  hour  for  each  section,  but  this  time 
limitation  shall  not  apply  to  practical  exercises. 

30.  The  allotment  of  time  for  instruction  in  each  department  shall 
be  fixed  upon  the  recommendation  of  the  staff,  approved  by  the  com- 
mandant. Each  instructor  shall  devote  to  practical  instruction  as 
much  as  possible  of  the  time  allotted  to  his  department. 

31.  Instructors  and  assistant  instructors  shall  report  in  writing,  on 
the  day  of  occurrence,  all  student  officers  late  or  absent  from  recita- 
tion or  exercise,  or  neglecting  to  make  proper  preparation  for  the  same. 

EXAMINATIONS. 

32.  Examinations  shall  be  held  in  the  months  of  December  and  June. 

33.  All  examinations  shall  be  written  and  shall  be  conducted  under 
the  supervision  of  the  staff. 

34.  When  any  subject  upon  which  a  student  is  to  be  graded  is 
weighted,  its  value  shall  be  announced  before  the  examination  work  is 
begun. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  157 

35.  The  instructor  and  his  assistants  in  any  one  department  shall 
assign  to  the  student  a  mark  on  his  examination  papers,  the  marking 
varying  between  "0,"  for  a  complete  failure,  and  "3,"  for  a  perfect 
paper.  The  average  of  the  marks  given  by  the  instructor  and  his 
assistants  shall  constitute  the  examination  mark  in  their  department. 
The  instructor  shall  then  submit  to  the  Commandant  lists  of  the 
students  under  his  instruction,  arranged  in  order  of  merit  by  marks 
received  (a)  in  examination  and  (b)  in  practical  exercises  which  have 
been  held  during  the  previous  .term. 

36.  In  determining  the  order  of  merit  in  any  subject,  due  credit 
shall  be  given  for  problems,  maps,  and  results  of  practical  work  per- 
taining to  such  subject  and  required  of  student  officers  during  the 
course  of  instruction. 

37.  All  members  of  the  class  shall  be  given  identical  questions  and 
required  to  draw  the  same  maps  and  diagrams  in  examination.  In  the 
case  of  an  officer  not  examined  with  his  class  owing  to  sickness  or 
other  cause,  he  shall  be  examined  as  soon  as  practicable  after  his  return 
to  duty.  For  this  examination  the  topics  and  questions  shall  be  similar 
to,  but  not  identical  with,  those  given  in  the  general  examination. 

38.  The  examination  papers,  maps,  problems,  etc.,  with  such  excep- 
tions as  the  staff  may  designate,  shall,  after  action  by  the  staff,  be 
tiled  with  the  records  of  the  college. 

39.  To  assist  in  fixing  the  relative  proficiency  of  officers,  the 
instructor  in  the  department  of  tactics  and  his  assistants,  shall  note 
the  manner  in  which  students  perform  their  duties  in  all  military  exer- 
cises. The  ability  to  impart  instruction,  to  command,  to  see  what  is 
required,  and  the  soldierly  bearing  of  an  officer — all  shall  bo  con- 
sidered in  marking,  according  to  the  rule  prescribed  for  examination. 

40.  The  maximum  values  assigned  to  the  different  departments  in 
ascertaining  the  figure  of  merit  shall  be  as  follows: 

Department  of  tactics  (350): 

Practical  work 175 

Theoretical  work 175 

Department  of  engineering  (300) : 

Practical  work 150 

Theoretical  work 150 

Department  of  law 100 

Department  of  military  sanitation  and  hygiene 50 

41.  For  record  at  the  college  and  at  the  War  Department,  the  class 
upon  graduation  shall  be  arranged  in  order  of  merit,  special  proficiency 
in  any  subject  to  be  noted;  but  publication  of  the  class  standing  shall 
be  limited  to  an  alphabetical  arrangement  in  two  grades,  viz: 

(1)  Distinguished. 

(2)  Proficient. 

In  determining  the  order  of  merit  the  marks  received  upon  original 
examination  shall  be  considered. 


158  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

42.  Relative  standing  in  the  theory  of  the  different  subjects  taught 
in  each  department  shall  be  based  solely  upon  the  examinations,  but 
all  practical-work  marks  shall  be  considered  in  determining  the  order 
of  merit  as  contemplated  in  paragraph  41,  as  well  as  in  deciding  upon 
the  proficiency  or  deficiency  of  an  officer  at  the  close  of  each  term. 

43.  An  officer  failing  to  pass  a  satisfactory  examination  in  any  sub- 
ject (by  which  shall  be  understood  the  attainment  of  70  per  cent  of  the 
maximum  in  the  examination,  as  well  as  70  per  cent  of  the  maximum 
in  the  practical  work  of  the  previous  half  year)  shall  be  reexamined 
either  in  theory,  in  practice,  or  in  both,  at  the  discretion  of  the  staff 
of  the  college  after  such  equitable  time  as  may  be  fixed  by  it,  and,  if 
then  declared  deficient,  he  shall  be  specially  reported  to  the  War 
Department,  with  a  statement  by  the  commandant  as  to  the  cause  of 
failure  as  determined  by  the  staff,  and  with  a  view  to  his  being  returned 
to  his  regiment:  Provided^  That  if  the  deficiency  occur  at  the  semi- 
annual examination  the  officer  may  be  conditioned  by  the  staff  until 
the  final  examination,  at  which  he  shall  be  examined  on  the  whole 
year's  course  of  that  subject  in  which  the  deficiency  occurred. 

44.  The  commandant  shall  forward  to  the  War  Department  a  report 
of  the  final  action  of  the  staff  at  each  examination. 

GRADUATION. 

45.  The  staff  shall  note  the  names  of  the  students  who  may  have 
shown  marked  proficiency  in  any  branch,  and  shall  state  the  profes- 
sional employments  for  which  any  of  them  appear  to  be  specially  qual- 
ified. The  staff  shall  also  note  the  names  of  officers  of  the  distinguished 
grade,  if  any,  not  to  exceed  five,  to  be  borne  upon  the  Army  Register 
as  '"  honor  graduates." 

46.  Officers  who  pass  successfully  through  the  entire  course  of 
instruction  shall  receive  a  diploma  setting  forth  their  proficiency. 
This  diploma  shall  be  signed  by  the  commandant,  the  assistant  com- 
mandant, and  the  staff. 

47.  When  an  officer  has  graduated  in  the  distinguished  class,  that 
fact,  with  a  transcript  from  the  records  of  the  college,  setting  forth 
the  branches  in  which  he  has  been  especially  distinguished  and  the 
recommendations  given  in  his  case  by  the  staff  of  the  college,  shall  be 
communicated  to  the  colonel  of  his  regiment,  who  shall  publish  the 
same  in  a  regimental  order. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

48.  Disbursements  of  the  funds  shall  be  made  only  upon  the  written 
order  of  the  commandant,  and  vouchers  shall  be  taken  for  all  expendi- 
tures, one  copy  of  which  shall  be  filed  with  the  college  records. 

49.  The  college  library,  consisting  for  the  most  part  of  professional 
books,  maps,  and  scientific  periodicals,  shall  be  maintained  separate 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  159 

and  apart  from  the  post  library  and  for  the  convenience  and  improve- 
ment of  officers. 

50.  In  case  of  loss  or  damage  to  any  book,  periodical,  map,  or  other 
property  belonging  to  the  college,  the  person  responsible  for  such  loss 
or  damage  shall  make  the  same  good  by  the  payment  of  the  amount  of 
the  damage  or  actual  cost  of  the  article  lost  or  destroyed.  The  dam- 
age shall  be  assessed  by  the  secretary  of  the  college,  whose  action, 
when  approved  by  the  commandant,  shall  be  final. 

51.  The  authorized  text-books  and  books  of  reference  shall  be  selected 
upon  the  recommendation  of  the  staff  of  the  college  and  with  approval 
of  the  commandant,  but  instructors  and  assistant  instructors  shall, 
when  required  to  do  so,  prepare  essays  on  the  subject-matter  of  their 
courses  of  instruction,  which,  when  recommended  by  the  staff  and 
approved  by  the  commandant,  shall  become  authorized  text-books  and 
be  printed  at  the  college. 

52.  Student  officers  shall  be  required  to  purchase  their  text-books. 

53.  Instructors  and  assistant  instructors  shall  submit  to  the  college 
staff,  immediately  after  the  final  examination,  any  suggestions  or  rec- 
ommendations they  may  have  with  regard  to  the  course  of  instruction 
and  the  text-books  used  in  their  respective  departments. 

PROGRAMME  OF  INSTRUCTION. 

DEPARTMENT   OF   TACTICS. 

Programme  of  the  Course  in  Tactics. 

The  course  in  tactics  is  divided  into  ten  parts  and  embraces  lessons, 
lectures,  and  practical  exercises  with  and  without  troops. 

Part  I. — Infantry  drill  regulations. 

II. — Small  arms  firing  regulations,  supplemented  by  lectures  on  fire  discipline. 
III. — Cavalry  drill  regulations. 
IV. — Equitation  and  hippology. 
V. — Demonstrations  of  field  artillery. 
VI. — Manual  of  guard  duty. 
VII. — Troops  in  campaign. 
VIII. — Security  and  information. 
IX. — Organization  and  tactics. 
X. — Practical  work  in  the  study  and  application  of  the  principles  of  minor 
tactics. 

Detailed  Programme  of  Studies. 

Part  I. — Infantry  drill  regulations. 

(a)  theoretical. 

Definitions;  signals;  general  principles;  school  of  the  soldier;  school 
of  the  company;  school  of  the  battalion;  evolutions  of  the  regiment; 
the  brigade;  the  division;  the  squad;   fire  discipline;  instruction  on 


160  REPORT  OF  THE  8ECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

varied  ground;  the  platoon;  the  company;  the  battalion;  the  regi- 
ment; the  brigade  in  battle;  the  division  in  battle;  marches;  camping; 
ceremonies. 

(6)  PRACTICAL. 

Exercises  in  command  of  the  squad,  platoon,  company,  and  battal- 
ion at  drills  and  battle  formations. 

Part  II. — Small  arms  firing  regulations. 

(a)  Preliminary  drills  and  exercises;  sighting  drills;  position  and 
aiming  drills;  gallery  practice. 

(b)  Range  practice;  suggestions  to  riflemen;  skirmish  practice;  field 
practice. 

(c)  Theoretical  principles;  the  motion  of  bullets;  the  trajectory  as 
affected  by  atmospheric  conditions. 

(d)  The  effects  of  fire;  dangerous  space;  defiladed  space;  employ- 
ment of  fire  in  action. 

(e)  Estimation  of  distances. 

(f)  Revolver  practice. 

Recitations  in  this  subject  are  to  be  supplemented  by  lectures  on 
modern  developments  in  small  arms  with  reference  to  caliber,  ammu- 
nition, and  systems  of  loading,  and  lectures  on  ammunition  supply. 

Part  III. — Cavalry  drill  regulations, 
(a)  theoretical. 

Definitions;  signals;  general  principles;  school  of  the  soldier;  school 
of  the  trooper;  the  troop;  the  squadron;  the  regiment;  the  brigade; 
employment  of  cavalry;  marches;  camping;  stable  duty;  ceremonies; 
cavalry  horses  (instruction,  care  of,  and  shoeing);  packing. 

(b)  practical. 

Exercises  in  command  of  the  squad,  platoon,  troop,  and  squadron 
at  drills  and  battle  formations;  exercises  in  packing. 

Part  IV. — Equitation  and  hippology. 

(a)  THEORETICAL. 

The  cavalry  horse;  age  of  horses;  endurance  of  horses;  framework 
of  the  horse  mechanically  considered;  gaits  of  the  horse;  bits;  bitting 
and  training;  saddles;  cavalry  saddles  and  packs;  seats;  forage;  sta- 
ble management;  diseases  and  injuries. 

Lecture  on  the  description  of  the  horse. 

Lectures  on  conformation. 

Lectures  by  veterinary  surgeon  on  the  bony  framework  of  the 
horse,  muscles,  ligaments,  and  tendons;  the  foot;  the  teeth;  diseases; 
the  digestive  system;  soundness. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  161 

(b)  PRACTICAL. 

Exercises  in  determining  the  age  of  horses.  Exercises  in  examina- 
tion for  soundness.  Exercises  in  judging  conformation.  Stable  man- 
agement and  horseshoeing.     Riding  lessons. 

Part  V. — Demonstrations  of  field  artillery. 

The  course  consists  of  demonstrations  on  the  manual  of  field  and 
machine  guns;  mechanical  maneuvers  of  field  pieces;  ammunition; 
marches;  pointing  and  ranges,  and  the  employment  of  United  States 
field  artillery  in  field  service  and  battle. 

Part  VI. — Manual  of  guard  duty. 

(a)    THEORETICAL. 

Rosters;  commanding  officer;  officer  of  the  day;  commander  of  the 
guard;  sergeant  of  the  guard;  corporal  of  the  guard;  musicians  of 
the  guard;  orderly  for  the  commanding  officer;  privates  of  the  guard; 
orders  for  sentinels  on  post;  orders  for  all  sentinels  except  those  at  the 
post  of  the  guard;  orders  for  sentinels  at  the  post  of  the  guard;  com- 
pliments for  sentinels;  compliments  from  guards;  special  orders;  color 
line  and  sentinels;  supernumeraries;  prisoners;  special  orders  for  sen- 
tinels in  charge  of  prisoners;  guard  patrols;  countersigns  and  paroles; 
miscellaneous;  stable  sergeant  and  stable  orderly;  troop  stable  guard; 
battery  stable  and  park  guard;  police  and  fatigue  duty;  property 
under  charge, of  the  guard;  flags  and  colors;  reveille  and  retreat  gun. 

(b)     PRACTICAL. 

Tours  of  duty  as  officer  of  the  guard  and  officer  of  the  day. 

Part  VII. —  Troops  in  campaign. 

Organization  of  an  army  in  the  field;  tents,  baggage,  and  baggage 
trains;  headquarters,  depots,  etc.;  intrenched  posts;  reconnoissances; 
military  occupation,  contributions,  and  requisitions;  safeguards;  pris- 
oners of  war;  marches;  journals  of  marches;  military  maps;  convoys 
and  their  escorts;  movements  of  troops  by  rail  and  water;  advance 
guards  and  outposts;  sieges;  battles. 

Part  VIII. — Security  and  information. 

Preliminary  definitions;  introduction;  the  advance  guard;  outposts; 
reconnoissances;  the  cavalry  screen ;  rear  guards;  spies;  newspapers; 
orientation  and  map  reading;  Indian  scouting;  advance  guard  drill, 
infantry  and  cavalry. 

war  1902— vol  1 11 


162  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

Part  IX. — Organization  and  tactics. 

Definitions;  organization  and  discipline;  characteristics  of  the  three 
arms;  infantry  in  attack  and  defense;  cavalry  in  attack  and  defense; 
artillery  in  attack  and  defense;  the  three  arms  combined;  convoys; 
the  transportation  of  an  army  corps;  space  and  time  required  in  forma- 
tions and  marches. 

Part  X. — Practical  work  in  tlie  study  and  application  of  Vive  principles  of  minor  tactics. 

(a)  Written  tactical  exercises,  with  and  without  maps. 

(b)  Exercises  without  troops;  reconnoissances;  tactical  rides;  selec- 
tion, occupation,  preparation,  attack,  and  defense  of  positions  outlined. 

(c)  Exercises  with  troops;  a  course  in  patrolling;  relay  lines; 
advance  guards;  rear  guards;  flank  guards;  cavalry  screen;  outposts 
(by  day  and  by  night);  attack  and  defense  of  convoys;  reconnoissances 
in  force;  attack  and  defense  of  positions;  marches;  camps  and  bivouacs. 

(d)  Practice  in  writing  military  orders  and  reports  and  military 
correspondence  in  general,  as  taught  in  lectures  on  this  subject. 

DEPARTMENT  OF  ENGINEERING. 

Programme  of  the  Course  of  Engineering. 

The  course  of  engineering  is  divided  into  three  parts  and  consists 
of  lessons,  lectures,  and  exercises  in  application,  as  follows: 

Part      I. — Military  topography  and  sketching. 
II. — Temporary  01*  field  fortifications. 
III. — Military  field  engineering. 

Detailed  Programme  of  Studies. 
Part  I.  —  Topographical  surveying  (theoretical.) 

Theoretical  instruction  in  this  subject  will  be  by  recitation,  by  lec- 
tures, by  questions,  and  by  criticism  of  the  work  done,  and  will  include 
the  following  subjects: 

General  considerations;  topographic  surveying;  military  require- 
ments; topographic  sketching,  principles  involved  and  methods 
employed;  triangulation,  how  conducted;  degrees  of  magnitude  ahd 
accuracy;  advantages  of  first  using  accurate  instruments,  etc.;  consid- 
eration of  a  map;  immediate  object  in  topographic  surveying. 

Drawing  papers,  inks,  and  instruments,  description  of;  how  to  use 
them;  the  solution  of  problems  involving  their  use. 

Scales  and  verniers;  construction,  reading,  and  use  of. 

Selecting  )>ase  lines;  measuring*  them;  use  of  odometer;  ranging 
lines  over  hills  and  across  valleys;  passing  obstacles  by  direct  meas- 
urement; the  expansion;  selection  of  stations;  erection  of  signals. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  163 

Description  and  adjustments  of  transit;  measuring  angles  with 
transit;  refraction;  curvature;  prolonging  straight  lines;  measuring 
angles  of  deflection;  .traversing;  plotting  the  traverse;  determining 
the  true  meridian. 

Description  and  adjustment  of  the  compass;  errors  of;  declination 
and  variations;  determining  the  true  meridian;  traversing;  establish- 
ing lines;  converting  bearings  to  azimuths,  and  vice  versa. 

Description  of  plane  table;  locations  by  intersection,  and  secondary 
triangulation;  traversing;  locations  by  resection;  resection  from  two 
points,  from  three  points,  mechanically. 

Object  of  leveling;  description  of  Y  level,  and  adjustments;  leveling 
rods;  datum  level;  bench  marks;  differential  leveling;  profile  leveling; 
leveling  for  grade. 

"Filling  in"  details;  instruments  and  methods  used;  definition  of 
contours;  what  they  show;  method  of  explaining;  definition  of  ground 
forms,  features,  etc.;  methods  of  surveying  contour  lines;  scales  of 
horizontal  equivalents,  their  construction  and  uses. 

The  sextant. — Description,  adjustments,  and  uses  of;  theory  of; 
determining  latitude;  resection;  setting  off  angles;  determining  dis- 
tances; determining  elevations. 

The  aneroid  barometer. — Description,  object,  uses;  determining  dif- 
ferences of  elevation. 

PRACTICAL   STUDY    OF   SURVEYING    INSTRUMENTS. 

The  study  of  instruments  by  recitation,  manipulation,  ancj  adjust- 
ment will  precede,  as  to  each,  its  use  on  the  ground.  As  instruction 
in  the  course  progresses,  students  will  be  required  to  use  the  instru 
ments  in  the  field,  to  solve  problems  depending  upon  their  use,  to 
make  the  necessary  calculations,  and  to  plat  the  field  notes  to  a  given 
scale.     The  plats  will  be  submitted  and  marked  according  to  merit. 

The  instruments  in  the  use  of  which  practical  instruction  will  be 
had  are  as  follows: 

For  measuring  distances:  Steel  tape,  chain,  odometer,  and  telemeter. 

For  measuring  angles:  Transit,  sextant  (mariner's  and  box),  com- 
pass (surveyor's,  prismatic,  and  box),  plane  table,  and  sketching  case. 

For  determining  differences  of  elevation:  Engineer's  Y -level,  transit, 
clinometer,  and  barometer. 

TOPOGRAPHICAL   SKETCHING    (THEORETICAL). 

Measurement  of  distances ,  by  range  finders,  by  odometers,  by  pac- 
ing, by  sound,  by  estimation. 

Measurement  of  directions,  bjr  the  box  compass,  by  the  prismatic 
compass;  the  plotting  diagram;  the  use  of  protractors;  resection  with 
the  compass. 


164  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

Measurement  of  slope*,  with  hand  clinometer,  with  slope  board. 

Conventional  signs  and  symbols. 

Finishing  map*)  lettering,  title,  scales,  meridian,  and  border. 

Ma-p  reading,  aids  in.  Using  maps  on  the  ground;  sections  and 
elevations;  the  visibility  of  one  point  from  another;  the  horizon  visi- 
ble from  a  given  point;  calculating  height  of  objects  just  visible  from 
a  given  point. 

Copying  maps,  same  size;  enlarging  and  reducing  maps. 

Methods  of  field  work. — General  idea;  base  line;  intersections; 
traversing  in  general;  traversing  with  compass  and  topographic  field 
notebook;  traversing  with  compass  and  drawing  board;  traversing 
with  cavalry  or  field  sketching  case;  traversing  without  instruments; 
sketching  hill  features;  sketching  mountains.  Combined  surveys, 
general  method  of  procedure,  finishing  and  combining  (1)  of  a  large 
tract  not  previously  mapped,  when  time  and  instruments  are  available; 
(2)  of  large  tract  when  map  is  at  hand,  to  show  tactical  capabilities 
and  recent  changes;  (3)  of  a  tract  when  triangulation  is  impracticable 
and  no  map  is  available.  Civil  maps  as  a  basis  for  military  topo- 
graphical maps. 

Map  platting  f  ram  data. 

Military  reconnoissance. — The  sketch;  the  report.  Reconnoissance 
of  roads,  of  railroads,  of  rivers,  of  outposts,  of  positions. 

Exercises  in  Application  of  Topographical  Surveying  and  Topographical 

Sketching. 

The  object  of  these  exercises  is  to  familiarize  students  with  the 
principal  processes  of  topograph}'  and  to  engender  skill  and  rapidity 
in  the  representation  of  topographic  features.  Each  exercise  at  first 
is  intended  to  involve  the  use  of  some  one  or  more  of  the  instruments 
as  they  would  be  used  in  topographic  work,  the  taking  of  notes,  reduc- 
tions, and  platting  the  notes,  at  the  same  time  studying  forms  and 
features  in  relation  to  their  military  capabilities. 

They  consist  in  measuring  base  lines  with  tape  and  chain,  on  level 
and  undulating  ground;  passing  obstacles;  ranging  out  straight  lines 
over  hills,  across  valleys;  measuring  angles  with  transit,  compass,  or 
sextant;  traversing  with  transit,  by  azimuths,  by  deflection  angles; 
prolonging  straight  lines;  traversing  with  compass;  determining  tine 
meridian;  locating  points  by  intersection  and  resection  with  plane 
table;  traversing  and  filling  in  details;  measuring  distances  and  eleva- 
tions; pacing  on  level  ground  and  on  slopes  of  different  degree. 

Contouring  with  box  compass,  clinometer,  and  drawing  board. 

Traversing  and  sketching  on  foot,  from  5  to  10  miles  of  road,  with 
topographic  field  notebook,  box  compass,  and  clinometer.  Traversing 
and  sketching  on  foot,  from  5  to  10  miles  of  road,  with  box  cpmpass, 
clinometer,  and  drawing  board.     Traversing  and  sketching  on  foot 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  165 

with  field  sketching  case.  Traversing  and  sketching  on  horseback, 
from  5  to  20  miles  of  road,  with  field  sketching  case.  Traversing  and 
sketching  on  horseback,  from  5  to  10  miles  of  road,  with  compass, 
notebook,  and  county  road  map.  Outpost  or  terrain  sketching  with 
box  compass,  clinometer,  and  drawing  board  or  field  sketching  case. 
Position  sketching  with  box  compass,  clinometer,  and  drawing  board 
or  field  sketching  case.  Combined  surveys  with  box  compass,  clinom- 
eter, and  drawing  board.  The  conversion  of  a  small-scale  civil  map 
into  a  military  topographical  map.  Road  sketching  without  distance 
or  angle  measuring  instruments. 
Sketches  and  reports  from  memory. 

Pabts   II   and   III. — Temporary  or  field  fortifications  and  military  field  engineering 

(theoretical). 

Theoretical  instruction  in  this  subject  will  be  by  recitation,  by 
lectures,  and  by  criticism  of  work  done,  and  will  include  the  following 
subjects: 

General  principles  and  definitions;  classification  of  fire  as  regards 
direction  and  trajectory;  projectiles  and  penetration;  field  geometry; 
use  of  field  level  in  determining  slopes;  hasty  intrenchments,  gun 
pits,  and  epaulements;  loopholes;  obstacles;  field  works,  definitions 
relating  to,  and  classification  of,  forts  and  redoubts;  sector  of  fire; 
defilade  in  plan  and  in  section;  use  of  traverses;  profiling;  calculation 
of  width  of  ditch  for  a  given  parapet;  laying  out  tasks;  gun  banks 
and  embrasures;  the  organization  of  working  parties  and  method  of 
extending  same  preparatory  to  beginning  work;  revetting  materials 
and  revetments;  field  casemates  and  magazines,  blockhouses,  caponiers, 
and  tambours;  fieldworks  in  combination;  continuous  lines  and  lines 
with  intervals;  redan  trace  with  curtains;  tenaille  trace;  cr^maillere 
trace;  choosing  a  defensive  position;  siege  wTorks,  the  common  trench 
and  flying  sap;  defense  of  localities,  preparation  for  defense  of  walls, 
fences,  hedges,  embankments,  cuts,  woods,  buildings,  farms,  and 
villages. 

Use  of  cordage  and  spars;  spar,  trestle,  and  floating  bridges;  road 
construction;  railroads;  demolitions;  camping  expedients. 

Exercises  in  Application. 

Hasty  intrenchments. — These  will  embrace  the  actual  construction  of 
rifle  pits,  shelter  trenches,  loopholes,  obstacles,  etc. ,  as  well  as  the  loca- 
tion of  trenches  with  reference  to  the  configuration  of  the  ground. 

Fieldworks. — These  comprise  the  tracing  on  the  ground  of  fieldworks 
to  fulfill  certain  stated  conditions  and  the  determination  of  the  height 
of  parapet  so  as  to  satisfy  the  requirements  of  defilade,  the  making  and 


166  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

placing  of  profiles,  establishing  cutting  lines,  extending  and  superin- 
tending working  parties,  and  the  making  of  revetments.  (In  these 
exercises  whatever  relates  to  the  laying  out  of  the  work  will  be  done 
by  student  officers,  but  the  manual  labor,  except  such  as  may  be  required 
of  students,  will  be  done  by  working  parties  of  enlisted  men  under 
direction  of  students,  the  instructor  to  exercise  supervision  of  all  the 
work.) 

Bridge*  and  roads. — This  work  will  comprise  the  construction  of 
spar,  trestle,  and  floating  bridges,  and  the  laying  out  of  military  roads. 

Dernol  itiom — Experiments  before  the  class  in  the  actual  use  of  high 
explosives  in  destroying  walls,  cutting  mils,  felling  trees,  etc. 

DEPARTMENT   OF   IjVW. 
Programme  of  the  Course  of  Law. 

The  course  of  law  is  divided  into  three  parts,  and  consists  of  lessons 
in  the  section  room  supplemented  by  lectures. 

Part     I. — Military  law  and  Constitution  of  the  United  States. 
IT. — International  law. 
III. — Administration. 

Detailed  Programme  of  Studies. 
Part  I. — Wxlxtary  law. 

Military  law  proper. — The  subject  defined  and  divided;  the  written 
military  law;  the  unwritten  military  law;  the  court-martial;  the  con- 
stitution and  composition  of  general  courts-martial;  the  jurisdiction  of 
general  courts-martial;  the  procedure  of  general  courts-martial;  the 
arrest;  the  charge;  assembling  and  opening  of  the  court;  the  presi- 
dent and  members;  the  judge- advocate;  challenges;  organization, 
arraignment,  pleas,  and  motions;  evidence;  the  finding,  sentence,  and 
punishment;  action  on  the  proceedings;  the  reviewing  authority; 
inferior  courts-martial;  the  court  of  inquiry;  articles  of  war  sepa- 
rately considered. 

The  law  of  war. — The  law  of  war  as  affecting  the  rights  of  our  own 
people;  the  law  of  war  as  affecting  intercourse  between  enemies  in 
g^eral;  the  law  of  war  as  specially  applicable  to  enemies  in  arms;  the 
status  of  military  government  and  the  laws  of  war  pertaining  thereto; 
the  status  of  martial  law,  and  the  law  of  war  applicable  thereto;  trial 
and  punishment  of  offenses  under  the  law  of  war;  the  military  com- 
mission. 

Civil  functions  and*  relations  of  the  military. — Employment  of  the 
military  in  a  civil  or  quasi-civil  capacity;  liability  of  the  military  to 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.         167 

civil  suit  or  prosecution;  other  civil  relations  of  the  military;  the  Con- 
stitution of  the  United  States  and  lectures  thereupon. 

Part  II. — International  law. 

Definition  and  history;  States  and  their  essential  attributes;  perfect 
and  imperfect  rights;  national  character;  extradition;  private  inter- 
national law;  the  right  of  legation;  treaties  and  conventions;  the  con- 
flict of  international  rights;  war;  neutrality;  contraband  of  war;  block- 
ade; the  right  of  search;  the  laws  of  war  on  land;  additional  subjects; 
instructions  for  the  government  of  the  armies  of  the  United  States  in 
the  field;  the  Geneva  convention  for  the  amelioration  of  the  condition 
of  the  sick  and  wounded  of  armies  in  the  field;  declaration  of  St. 
Petersburg;  the  treaty  of  Paris;  the  convention  between  the  United 
States  of  America  and  certain  powers  with  respect  to  the  laws  and 
customs  of  war  on  land.     (G.  O.  52,  A.  G.  O.,  June  11, 1902.) 

Part  III. — Administration. 

Military  discipline;  command;  post  administration;  regiments — 
organization,  instruction,  and  records;  company  administration;  coun- 
cils of  administration;  regimental,  bakery,  company,  and  mess  funds; 
post  bakeries,  libraries,  etc.;  rosters,  detachment  and  daily  service; 
honors,  courtesies,  and  ceremonies;  purchase  of  supplies  and  engage- 
ment of  services;  money  accountability;  accounts  current;  public 
property,  accountability  and  responsibility;  boards  of  survey;  mili- 
tary correspondence;  orders;  returns  of  troops;  records;  Quarter- 
master's Department — general  duties,  records,  returns  and  reports 
required;  Subsistence  Department — general  duties,  ration  tables,  sav- 
ings, sales,  accounts,  and  returns;  Pay  Department — reenlistment  and 
continuous-service  pay,  forfeitures  and  deductions,  deposits. 

DEPARTMENT   OF  MILITARY   SANITATION   AND   HYGIENE. 
Programme  op  the  Course  of  Military  Sanitation  and  Hygiene. 

The  course  of  military  sanitation  and  hygiene  consists  of  theoretical 
studies  of  the  authorized  text-book  (Woodhull's),  practically  illus- 
trated and  explained  by  lectures,  drawings,  microphotographs, 
models,  etc. 

detailed  programme  of  studies. 
[Military  sanitation  and  hygiene.] 

1.  Definition;  necessity  for  the  study.     Selection  of  soldiers. 

2.  Military  clothing. 

3.  Food  and  alimentation. 


168  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

4.  Barracks  and  quarters,  hospitals,  site,  soil,  dampness  of,  precau- 
tions against;  material;  ventilation;  floor  and  air  space;  heating  of. 

5.  Camps;  bivouacs;  marches;  cleanliness;  exercise;   amusements. 

6.  Disposal  of  waste;  drainage  and  sewerage;  plumbing,  tests  for 
leaks  in. 

7.  Potable  waters,  quality,  quantity  required;  chemical  and  other 
examinations  of;  common  impurities  and  methods  of  purification.    Ice. 

8.  Preventable  diseases  common  to  armies  in  campaigns  and  perma- 
nent barracks,  and  precautions  against  the  same. 


APPENDIX  H. 


[Corrected  copy.] 


General  Orders, 
No.  94. 


Headquarters  of  the  Army, 

Adjutant-General's  Office, 

Washington,  August  9,  1902. 
I.  By  direction  of  the  Acting  Secretary  of  War  the  following  laws, 
regulations,  and  instructions  governing  the  detail  of  officers  of  the 
Army  at  educational  institutions  are  published  for  the  information 
and  government  of  all  concerned: 

[As  amended  by  act  approved  September  26, 1888.] 

Sec.  1225.  The  President  may,  upon  the  application  of  any  established  military 
institute,  seminary  or  academy,  college  or  university,  within  the  United  States, 
having  capacity  to  educate  at  the  same  time  not  less  than  one  hundred  and  fifty 
male  students,  detail  an  officer  of  the  Army  or  Navy  to  act  as  superintendent  or 
professor  thereof;  but  the  number  of  officers  so  detailed  shall  not  exceed  fifty  from 
the  Army  and  ten  from  the  Navy,  being  a  maximum  of  sixty,  at  any  time,  and  they 
shall  be  apportioned  throughout  the  United  States,  first,  to  those  State  institutions 
applying  for  such  detail  that  are  required  to  provide  instruction  in  military  tactics 
under  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  Congress  of  July  second,  eighteen  hundred  and 
sixty-two,  donating  lands  for  the  establishment  of  colleges  where  the  leading  object 
shall  be  the  practical  instruction  of  the  industrial  classes  in  agriculture  and  the 
mechanic  arts,  including  military  tactics;  and  after  that  said  details  to  be  dis- 
tributed, as  nearly  as  may  be  practicable,  according  to  population.  The  Secretary 
of  War  is  authorized  to  issue,  at  his  discretion  and  under  proper  regulations  to  be 
prescribed  by  him,  out  of  ordnance  and  ordnance  stores  belonging  to  the  Govern- 
ment, and  which  can  be  spared  for  that  purpose,  such  number  of  the  same  as  may 
appear  to  be  required  for  military  instruction  and  practice  by  the  students  of  any 
college  or  university  under  the  provisions  of  this  section,  and  the  Secretary  shall 
require  a  bond  in  each  case,  in  double  the  value  of  the  property,  for  the  care  and 
safe-keeping  thereof  and  for  the  return  of  the  same  when  required:  Proiided,  That 
nothing  in  this  act  shall  be  so  construed  as  to  prevent  the  detail  of  officers  of  the 
Engineer  Corps  of  the  Navy  as  professors  in  scientific  schools  or  colleges  as  now 
provided  by  act  of  Congress  approved  February  twenty-sixth,  eighteen  hundred  and 
seventy-nine,  entitled  "An  act  to  promote  a  knowledge  of  steam  engineering  and 
iron  shipbuilding  among  the  students  of  scientific  schools  or  colleges  in  the  United 
States;' '  and  the  Secretary  of  War  is  hereby  authorized  to  issue  ordnance  and  ord- 
nance stores  belonging  to  the  Government,  on  the  terms  and  conditions  hereinbefore 
provided,  to  any  college  or  university  at  which  a  retired  officer  of  the  Army  may  be 
assigned,  as  provided  by  section  twelve  hundred  and  sixty  of  the  Revised  Statutes. 

169 


170         REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OE  WAR. 

An  Act  To  amend  section  twelve  hundred  and  twenty-five  of  the  Revised  Statutes,  concerning  details 

of  officers  of  the  Army  and  Navy  to  educational  institutions. 

Be  it  enacted  by  the  Senate  and  House  of  Representatives  of  the  United  States  of  America 
in  Congress  assembled,  That  section  twelve  hundred  and  twenty-five  of  the  Revised 
Statutes,  concerning  details  of  officers  of  the  Army  and  Navy  to  educational  institu- 
tions, be,  and  the  same  is  hereby,  amended  so  as  to  permit  the  President  to  detail, 
under  the  provisions  of  said  act,  not  to  exceed  seventy-five  officers  of  the  Army  of 
the  United  States;  and  the  maximum  number  of  officers  of  the  Army  and  Navy  to 
be  detailed  at  any  one  time  under  the  provisions  of  the  act  passed  September  twemty- 
sixth,  eighteen  hundred  and  eighty-eight,  amending  said  section  twelve  hundred 
and  twenty-five  of  the  Revised  Statutes,  is  hereby  increased  to  eighty-five:  Provided, 
That  no  officer  shall  be  detailed  to  or  maintained  at  any  of  the  educational  institu- 
tions mentioned  in  said  act  where  instruction  and  drill  in  military  tactics  is  not 
given:  Provided  further  y  That  nothing  in  this  act  shall  be  so  construed  as  to  prevent 
the  detail  of  officers  of  the  Engineer  Corps  of  the  Navy  as  professors  in  scientific 
schools  or  colleges,  as  now  provided  by  act  of  Congress  approved  February  twenty- 
sixth,  eighteen  hundred  and  seventy-nine,  entitled  "An  act  to  promote  a  knowl- 
edge of  steam  engineering  and  iron  shipbuilding  among  the  students  of  scientific 
schools  or  colleges  in  the  United  States." 

Approved  January  13,  1891. 


AN  ACT  to  increase  the  number  of  officers  of  the  Army  to  be  detailed  to  colleges. 

Be  it  enacted  by  tlie  Senate  and  House  of  Representative*  of  tlie  United  States  of  America 
in  Congress  assembled,  That  section  twelve  hundred  and  twenty-five  of  the  Revised 
Statutes,  concerning  details  oi  officers  of  the  Army  and  Navy  to  educational  institu- 
tions, be,  and  the  same  is  heieby,  amended  so  as  to  permit  the  President  to  detail 
under  the  provisions  of  said  act  not  to  exceed  one  hundred  officers  of  the  Army  of  the 
United  States;  and  no  officer  shall  be  thus  detailed  who  has  not  had  five  years'  serv- 
ice in  the  Army,  and  no  detail  to  such  duty  shall  extend  for  more  than  four  years, 
and  officers  on  the  retired  list  of  the  Army  may,  upon  their  own  application,  be 
detailed  to  such  duty  and  when  so  detailed  shall  receive  the  full  pay  of  their  rank; 
and  the  maximum  number  of  officers  of  the  Army  and  Navy  to  be  detailed  at  any 
one  time  under  the  provisions  of  the  act  approved  January  thirteenth,  eighteen 
hundred  and  ninety-one,  amending  section  twelve  hundred  and  twenty-five  of  the 
Revised  Statutes,  as  amended  by  an  act  approved  September  twenty-sixth,  eighteen 
hundred  and  eighty-eight,  is  hereby  increased  to  one  hundred  and  ten. 

Approved,  November  3,  1893. 


II.  The  following  regulations,  in  regard  to  the  detail  of  officers  of 
the  Army  at  established  colleges,  universities,  etc.,  within  the  United 
States  are  prescribed  by  the  President,  under  the  above  laws: 

1.  All  institutions,  within  the  meaning  of  section  1225,  Revised 
Statutes  of  the  United  States,  and  of  the  acts  of  Congress  amendatory 
thereof,  shall,  for  purposes  of  the  detail  of  officers  of  the  Army  as 
military  instructors  and  of  the  course  of  military  instruction  to  be 
pursued  thereat,  be  divided  into  three  classes,  as  follows: 

First  class. — All  schools  to  which  officers  of  the  Army,  active  or 
retired,  may  be  detailed  under  the  provisions  of  existing  law,  except 
schools  of  the  second  and  third  classes. 


REPORT  0?  THE  SECRET  ARY  OF  WAR.  171 

Second  class. — Agricultural  schools  established  under  the  provisions 
of  the  act  of  Congress  of  July  2, 1862,  and  which  are  required  by  said 
act  to  include  military  tactics  in  their  curriculum. 

Third  class. — Military  schools  or  colleges,  i.  e.,  those  whose  organi- 
zation is  essentially  military  and  one  of  whose  primary  objects  is  the 
acquisition  of  a  high  degree  of  military  drill  and  discipline. 

2.  No  officer  who  has  not  had  five  years'  service  as  such,  nor  any 
officer  not  of  the  line  of  the  Army,  shall  be  eligible  for  detail  as  mili- 
tary instructor,  nor  shall  any  officer  above  the  grade  of  lieutenant  be 
so  detailed  so  long  as  there  are  eligible  lieutenants  available;  nor  shall 
any  officer  on  the  retired  list  of  the  Army  be  detailed  in  the  limited 
number  authorized  by  the  act  of  November  3,  1893,  so  long  as  any 
eligible  officer  on  the  active  list  be  available,  except  at  institutions  of 
the  first  class,  for  detail  to  which  competent  officers  on  the  retired  list 
shall  have  the  preference.  All  details  from  the  retired  list  will,  under 
the  provisions  of  said  act,  be  included  in  the  limited  number  of  details 
authorized  by  that  act. 

3.  Details  shall  be  made,  first,  from  lieutenants  who  have  graduated 
at  one  of  the  service  schools;  second,  from  those  recommended  by  their 
regimental  commanders.  After  September  1, 1903,  no  lieutenant  shall 
be  recommended  by  his  regimental  commander  who  has  not  success- 
fully taken  the  course  at  an  officers'  post  school. 

4.  Details  shall  be  made  to  begin  with  the  school  term  and  shall  be 
for  a  period  of  two  years,  except  that  in  case  of  retired  officers  the 
detail  may  be  for  four  years. 

5.  When  an  officer  is  detailed  to  relieve  another  as  military  instructor, 
he  shall  report  at  the  institution  to  which  assigned  not  less  than  two 
weeks  prior  to  the  departure  of  his  predecessor. 

6.  Applications  for  the  detail  of  officers  must  be  addressed  by  the 
president  of  the  institution  to  the  Adjutant-General  of  the  Army  and 
be  accompanied  by  the  last  printed  catalogue  and  a  certificate  as  to  the 
number  of  male  students  the  institution  has  the  capacity  in  buildings, 
apparatus,  and  instructors  to  educate  at  one  and  the  same  time;  the 
number  of  such  students  in  actual  attendance  at  the  time  of  applica- 
tion, or,  if  the  application  be  made  during  vacation,  the  number  actu- 
ally in  attendance  during  the  session  immediately  preceding  it;  and 
the  number  over  15  }rears  of  age.  The  certificate  must  also  show  the 
grade  of  the  institution,  the  degrees  it  confers,  and  whether  or  not  it 
is  a  land-grant  school,  or  a  military  school  as  defined  in  the  preceding 
Paragraph  11,  section  1. 

7.  Where  a  State  has  more  than  one  school  endowed  by  the  national 
land  grant,  under  the  act  approved  July  2,  1862,  the  school  which  is 
reported  by  the  governor  of  the  State  as  most  nearly  meeting  the 
requirements  of  existing  law  will  be  held  to  have  the  first  claim  to  the 
officer  allotted  to  the  State  for  detail  at  a  land-grant  college. 


172  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

8.  When  application  is  made  for  the  detail  of  an  officer  of  the  Army 
at  an  institution  to  which  an  officer  had  not  theretofore  been  assigned, 
it  shall  be  visited  by  an  inspector  or  other  suitable  officer,  who,  after 
explaining  to  the  president  and  the  faculty  the  requirements  of  these 
regulations,  shall  satisfy  himself  as  to  the  intention  and  ability  of  the 
school  authorities  to  comply  with  them,  and  whether  the  general  sen- 
timent of  the  faculty  is  cordially  in  favor  of  military  instruction  as 
herein  required.  The  inspector  shall  then  report  to  the  War  Depart- 
ment whether  such  a  detail  should  be  made. 

9.  Officers  detailed  as  military  instructors  shall,  at  the  end  of  each 
quarter,  report  in  writing  to  the  Adjutant-General  of  the  Army  as  to 
the  exact  compliance  by  the  school  authorities  with  these  requirements 
of  the  regulations,  for  such  action  as  the  Secretary  of  War  may  direct. 
A  similar  report  shall  be  made  annually  by  an  officer  of  the  Inspector- 
General's  Department,  after  a  careful  inspection  of  the  military 
department  of  each  institution,  and  if  in  any  case  the  report  is  adverse 
the  military  instructor  shall  be  withdrawn. 

10.  No  detail  of  military  instructor  shall  be  made  at  any  institution 
which  does  not  guarantee  to  maintain  at  least  100  pupils  under  military 
instruction. 

11.  Pupils  under  military  instruction  shall  be  organized  into  com- 
panies and  battalions  of  infantry,  the  drill  and  administration  of  which 
shall  conform  in  all  respects  to  that  of  the  Army.  The  officers  and  the 
noncommissioned  officers  shall  be  selected  by  the  military  instructor 
according  to  the  principles  governing  such  selection  at  the  United 
States  Military  Academy,  and  shall  receive  their  commissions  and 
warrants  from  the  president  of  the  institution. 

12.  Pupils  organized  for  military  instruction  shall  be  known  as 

"The  company  (or  battalion)  of  cadets  of Institution."    Upon 

occasions  of  military  ceremony,  in  the  execution  of  drills,  guard  duty, 
and  when  students  are  receiving  any  other  practical  military  instruc- 
tion, they  shall  appear  in  the  uniform  prescribed  by  the  institution. 
They  shall  be  held  strictly  accountable  for  the  arms  and  accouterments 
issued  to  them. 

13.  At  every  institution  of  the  first  class  (see  Paragraph  III)  at 
which  a  niilitar}'  instructor  is  detailed  there  shall  be  allowed  a  mini- 
mum of  four  hours  each  week  during  each  school  term  to  the  depart- 
ment of  military  science  and  tactics;  at  every  institution  of  the  second 
class  there  shall  be  allowed  a  minimum  of  five  hours,  and  at  every 
institution  of  the  third  class  there  shall  be  allowed  a  minimum  of  six 
hours.  This  time  shall  be  occupied  as  the  military  instructor,  in  view 
of  the  hereinafter-prescribed  curriculum  and  such  instructions  as  he 
may  from  time  to  time  receive  from  the  War  Department,  may  deem 
best. 


REPORT  OF  THE  •  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  173 

14.  The  officer  detailed  as  military  instructor  shall  reside  at  or  near 
the  institution  to  which  assigned,  and  when  in  the  performance  of 
his  military  duties  shall  appear  in  proper  uniform.  He  shall,  in  his 
relations  to  the  institution,  observe  the  general  usages  and  regulations 
therein  established  affecting  the  duties  and  obligations  of  other  mem- 
bers of  the  faculty.  Except  at  institutions  of  the  first  class,  as 
defined  in  Paragraph  II,  section  1,  he  shall  not  perform  any  other 
duties  than  those  of  instructor  in  military  science  and  tactics. 

III.  All  rules  land  orders  relating  to  the  organization  and  govern- 
ment of  the  military  students;  the  appointment,  promotion,  and  change 
of  officers,  and  all  other  orders  affecting  the  military  department, 
except  those  relating  to  routine  duty,  shall  be  made  and  promulgated 
by  the  professor  of  military  science  and  tactics  after  being  approved 
by  the  president  or  other  administrative  officer  of  the  institution. 

IV.  It  is  the  duty  of  the  professor  of  military  science  and  tactics  to 
enforce  proper  military  discipline  at  all  times  when  students  are  under 
military  instruction,  and  in  case  of  serious  breaches  of  discipline,  or 
misconduct,  to  report  the  same  to  the  proper  authorities  of  the  insti- 
tution, according  to  its  established  methods.  In  case  no  suitable  action 
is  taken  by  the  authorities  of  the  school,  the  military  instructor  will 
report  the  facts  to  the  Adjutant-General  of  the  Army  With  a  view  to  his 
being  relieved  from  an  institution  where  discipline  can  not  be  main- 
tained. 

V.  The  following  is  prescribed  as  the  minimum  course  of  military 
instruction,  practical  and  theoretical,  at  all  institutions  to  which  a 
military  instructor  is  assigned: 

1.  Institutions  of  the  First  Class. 

(a)   PRACTICAL. 

Infantry  Drill  Regulations,  through  the  school  of  the  battalion  in 
close  and  extended  order. 

Advance  and  rear  guards,  and  outposts. 

Marches. 

The  ceremonies  of  battalion  review,  inspection,  parades,  guard 
mounting,  and  escort  of  the  colors. 

Infantry  target  practice. 

Instruction  in  first  aid  to  the  injured. 

Weather  permitting,  there  shall  be  not  less  than  one  parade  and  one 
guard  mount  during  each  week  of  the  school  term,  and  one  battalion 
inspection  and  review  each  month. 

In  no  case  shall  target  practice,  to  the  extent  permitted  by  the 
allowance  of  ammunition,  be  omitted  during  the  school  year,  except 
on  authority  given  in  each  case  by  the  Secretary  of  War. 


174  BEPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

Target  practice  on  the  range  should  be  preceded  by  instruction  in 
gallery  practice,  and  at  those  institutions  where  range  practice  can  not 
be  had,  every  effort  must  be  made  to  substitute  gallery  practice  for  it. 

(J)   THEORETICAL. 

The  Infantry  Drill  Regulations  covered  by  the  practical  instruction. 

The  Manual  of  Guard  Duty. 

Small-Arms  Firing  Regulations,  Parts  I,  II,  and  VII. 

The  Articles  of  War,  with  special  reference  to  articles  4,  8,  15,  20, 
21,  22,  23,  24,  32,  38,  39,  40,  42,  44,  46,  47,  50,  55,  57,  61,  and  65. 

And  the  following  records:  Enlistment  and  discharge  papers,  includ- 
ing descriptive  lists;  morning  reports;  field  and  monthly  returns; 
muster  rolls;  rosters;  ration  returns;  requisitions;  property  returns. 

The  articles  of  war  specifically  mentioned  are  among  the  most  impor- 
tant for  the  young  officer  to  know  on  first  entering  the  service. 

The  records  prescribed  for  study  should  be  thoroughly  understood 
by  all  graduating  cadets,  because  they  show  how  the  soldier  enters 
and  leaves  the  service,  how  he  is  accounted  for,  paid,  fed,  clothed, 
armed,  and  how  his  military  duties  are  regulated. 

2.  Institutions  of  the  Second  Class. 

(a)  PRACTICAL. 

Same  as  the  practical  course  for  institutions  of  the  first  class,  and, 
in  addition — 

A  guard  shall  be  mounted  five  times  (weather  permitting)  in  each 
week  of  the  school  year,  and  the  guard  shall  be  practically  instructed 
for  one  hour  in  the  posting  and  relief  of  sentinels  and  their  duties. 

(b)  THEORETICAL. 

Same  as  the  theoretical  course  for  institutions  of  the  first  class, 
and,  in  addition — 

Ten  lectures  each  year  upon  the  following  subjects,  notes  to  be 
taken  by  the  students  and  to  be  made  the  basis  of  subsequent  recita- 
tions: Two  lectures  on  the  organization  of  the  United  States  Army, 
including  volunteers  and  militia;  one  lecture  on  patrols  and  outposts; 
one  lecture  on  marches;  one  lecture  on  camps  and  camp  hygiene;  three 
lectures  on  lines  and  bases  of  operations;  two  lectures  on  the  attack 
and  defense  of  advance  and  rear  guards  and  outposts,  and  convoys. 

All  of  the  foregoing  to  be  illustrated  by  historical  examples. 


REPORT   OF   THE   SECRETARY   OF   WAR. 


175 


3.    InSTITUTIONS  OF  THE  THIRD  CLASS. 

(a)  PRACTICAL. 

Same  as  the  practical  course  for  institutions  of  the  second  class, 
and,  in  addition — 

Light  artillery  drill  regulations  in  the  school  of  the  cannoneer. 

Mechanical  maneuvers. 

Aiming  drill  and,  where  practicable,  target  practice. 

There  should  be  a  guard  mount  and  parade  daily  (weather  permit- 
ting), except  Saturdays  and  Sundays. 

One-fourth  of  the  time  devoted  to  practical  work  should  be  given  to 
advance  guard  and  outpost  drill,  reconnoissances,  and  patrols,  con- 
ducted as  prescribed  in  any  work  accepted  by  the  War  Department  as 
a  standard  on  security  and  information. 

Instruction  in  lirst  aid  to  the  injured. 

(b)   THEORETICAL. 

Same  as  the  theoretical  course  for  institutions  of  the  second  class, 
and,  in  addition — 

The  elements  of  field  engineering,  to  include  practical  exercises  in 
the  determination  of  the  military  crest  and  the  profiling  of  hasty 
intrenchments  for  infantry;  the  study  of  an  elementary  work  on  the 
art  of  war. 

VI.  The  following  apportionment,  in  accordance  with  the  foregoing 
laws  and  the  census  of  1900,  having  received  the  approval  of  the  Act- 
ing Secretary  of  War,  is  adopted,  and  details  will  be  made  in  accord- 
ance therewith: 

Apportionment  of  details  at  colleges,  universities,  etc.,  under  section  1225,  Revised  Statutes, 
and  the  amendments  thereof,  based  upon  the  number  of  officers  of  the  Army  available  for 
such  details. 


States. 


Maine 

New  Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode  Island 

Connecticut 

New  York 

New  Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District  of  Columbia. 

Virginia 

West  Virginia 


Population  of 

States  arranged 

in  groups. 


694, 
411, 
343, 


466 
ooo 
641 


428, 

908, 
7,268, 
1,883, 
6,302, 

184, 
1,118, 

278, 
1,864, 

958, 


556 
420 
894 
669 
116 
735 
044 
718 
184 
800 


Population  of 

groups  and  of 

States  not 

arranged  in 

groups. 


1,449,695 

2,805,346 
1,336,976 

9,152,563 

6,486,860 

1,396,762 

ii,  oL£f  vo4 


' 


Details 
for  land- 
grant 
schools. 


Details 
by  popu- 
lation. 


Total  de- 
tails due. 


1 

7 
5 
1 
2 


3 
3 

9 

7 

2 

4 


176 


REPORT    OF   THE    SECRETARY    OF    WAR. 


Apjxurtiontnent  of  detail*  at  colleges,  atiirerstiiea,  etc. — Continued. 


static. 


North  Carolina.. 
South  Carolina.. 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Arkansas 

Texas 

Oklahoma 

Indian  Territory 

New  Mexico 

Tennessee 

Kentucky 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Michigan 

Illinois 

Wisconsin 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Minnesota 

North  Dakota . . . 
South  Dakota  . . . 

Montana 

Kansas 

Nebraska 

Colorado 

Alaska 

Washington 

Oregon 

Idaho  

Wyoming 

Nevada 

Utah 

Arizona 

California 

Hawaii 


Population  of 
Population  of   groups  and  of 
States  arranged  |      States  not 
in  groups.     ,   arranged  in 
groups. 


Details 
for  land- 
grant 
schools. 


2.216,331  ') 
528,542   J 


3,048,710  ) 

308,331 

392,060 

195,310 

2,020,616 

2, 147, 174 


4,821,550 

2,069,042 

2,231,853 

3,106,665 

1,751,394 

319, 146 

401,570 

243,329 


1,066,300 

539,700 

63,592 

518, 103 

413,536 

161,772 

92,531 

42,335 

276, 749 

122, 931 

1.485,053 

154,001 


1,893,810 
1,340,316 

2,744,873 

1,828,697 
1,551,270 
1,381,625 
1,311,551 


4.034,411 

4.167,790 

4,157,545 
2,516,462 
2,420,982 

6,890,592 
5,338,518 

2,716,439 

1,470,495 
1,606,000 


I 


1,691,549 


l 


1,639,054 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


Details 

"LET" 


1 
1 


1 
1 
1 
1 

3 

3 

3 
2 
2 

6 
4 


.1 


Total  de- 
tails due. 


2 
2 


2 
2 
2 
2 


4 
3 
8 

7 
6 


2 
3 


VII.  The  following  are  the  regulations  prescribed  by  the  Secretary 
of  War  for  the  issue  of  arms,  etc.,  required  for  military  instruction 
and  practice  at  colleges,  universities,  etc.,  under  section  1225,  Revised 
Statutes,  and  the  amendments  thereof: 

1.  As  the  appropriations  for  the  supply  of  ordnance  and  ordnance 
stores  to  the  Army  are  very  limited,  and  as  the  language  of  the  law 
restricts  the  issues  that  can  be  made  to  colleges  to  such  as  "can  be 
spared  for  that  purpose,"  issues  of  ordnance  and  ordnance  stores  to 
colleges  will  be  limited  to  arms  and  the  equipments  and  implements 
necessary  to  enable  them  to  be  used  by  the  students  for  purposes  of 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  177 

drill,  parade,  and  similar  exercises,  but  not  for  field  and  encampment 
purposes. 

2.  Only  such  ordnance  and  ordnance  stores  as  are  enumerated  in 
the  following  paragraphs  will  be  issued  for  the  purpose  of  military 
instruction  to  each  selected  college  and  university  having  an  officer  of 
the  Army  stationed  thereat. 

3.  The  field  pieces  of  artillery,  with  their  carriages  and  implements, 
will  be  limited  to  the  following,  viz: 

Two  muzzle-loading  wrought  iron  rifled  guns,  caliber  3  inches;  2 
carriages  and  limbers  for  3-inch  guns;  2  gunner's  haversacks;  2  trail 
handspikes;  4  lanyards;  2  priming  wires;  4  sponges  and  rammers, 
3-inch;  4  sponge  covers,  3-inch;  2  tube  pouches;  4  thumb  stalls;  2 
tompions,  3-inch;  2  vent  covers;  1  pendulum  hausse,  3-inch;  1  pendu- 
lum-hausse  seat;  1  pendulum-hausse  pouch;  2  paulins,  12  by  15  feet. 

4.  When  in  the  opinion  of  the  Chief  of  Ordnance  the  supply  on 
hand  will  permit,  there  may  be  issued  in  lieu  of  the  foregoing  two  of 
the  3.2-inch  breech-loading  steel  field  guns,  with  their  carriages  and 
implements,  as  above. 

5.  The  small  arms  issued  to  any  college  will  be  the  Springfield 
."  Cadet"  rifles,  similar  to  those  which  were  supplied  the  United  States 
Military  Academy  at  West  Point,  but  in  no  case  will  the  number  of 
rifles  issued  be  in  excess  of  the  number  of  male  students  in  regular 
attendance  and  actually  receiving  military  instruction. 

6.  The  accouterments  to  be  issued  with  the  Cadet  rifles  will  consist 
of  a  bayonet  scabbard,  cartridge  box,  gun  sling,  waist  belt,  and  waist- 
belt  plate. 

7.  The  service  noncommissioned  officer's  sword  can  be  issued  for 
the  use  of  the  officers  and  noncommissioned  officers  of  the  Corps  of 
Cadets.  The  sliding  frog  will  enable  these  swords  to  be  worn  on  the 
ordinary  waist  belt. 

8.  A  limited  number  of  cavalry  sabers  and  belts  (for  purposes  of 
instruction  only)  will  be  issued  when  satisfactory  evidence  of  their 
necessity  is  presented. 

9.  Issue  of  the  above  stores  will  be  made  b'v  the  Chief  of  Ordnance 
to  any  selected  institution  upon  its  filing  a  bond  in  the  penal  sum  of 
double  the  value  of  the  property,  conditioned  that  it  will  fully  insure, 
take  good  care  of,  and  safely  keep  and  account  for  the  same,  and 
will,  when  required  by  the  Secretary  of  War,  duly  return  the  same, 
within  thirty  days,  in  good  order,  to  the  Chief  of  Ordnance,  U.  S. 
Army,  or  such  other  officer  or  person  as  the  Secretary  of  War  may 
designate  to  receive  them. 

10.  For  practice  firing,  the  following  allowances  of  ammunition 
will  be  made  annually  to  each  of  the  various  institutions,  viz:  One 
hundred  blank  cartridges  and  300  friction  primers  for  3-inch,  or  for 
3.2-inch  breech-loading  gun,  as  the  case  may  be.  Projectiles  will  not 
be  issued  for  the  field  guns. 

war  1902— vol  1 12 


178  REPORT  OF  THE  8ECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

11.  Ammunition  for  rifle  target  practice  will  be  issued  annually  at 
the  rate  of  50  carbine  ball  cartridges  (or  their  equivalent  value  in 
reloading  material,  reloading  tools,  or  target  supplies)  for  each  cadet 
actually  engaged  in  target  practice,  but  there  shall  not  be  issued  to 
any  college  more  than  7,500  ball  cartridges  in  any  one  year.  Where 
it  is  not  deemed  practicable  to  have  target  practice,  a  limited  quantity 
of  rifle  blank  cartridges  will  be  furnished  for  instruction  in  firing. 
This  ammunition  will  be  issued  upon  requisition,  to  be  forwarded  to 
the  Chief  of  Ordnance  by  the  presidents  or  superintendents  of  the 
institutions;  and  as  annual  allowances  date  in  all  cases  from  July  1  of 
each  year,  requisitions  should  be  forwarded  before  or  as  soon  after 
that  date  as  practicable  for  the  current  year's  supply.  Undrawn 
allowances  of  one  year  can  not  be  drawn  in  the  succeeding  year. 

12.  The  reloading  material,  reloading  tools,  and  target  supplies 
which  can  be  drawn  as  part  of  the  ammunition  allowance  for  target 
practice  are: 

(a)  Reloading  materials,  consisting  of  small-arms  powder,  carbine 
bullets,  round  balls,  cartridge  primers. 

(5)  Reloading  tools,  consisting  of  one  set  of  hand  reloading  tools. 
(Bench  reloading  tools  are  not  issued  to  colleges.) 

(c)  One  bullet  mold,  casting  four  balls,  one  melting  ladle,  one  pour- 
ing ladle. 

(d)  Target  supplies,  consisting  of  paper  targets  A  and  B,  and 
centers  for  these  targets,  paper  targets  for  gallery  practice,  pasters, 
white  and  black. 

13.  When  tools  for  reloading  rifle  cartridges  or  implements  for 
casting  lead  balls  for  gallery  practice  have  been  issued  to  colleges,  the 
parts  required  to  keep  them  in  good  order  may  be  issued  when 
requested,  and  charged  against  the  money  value  of  the  annual  ammu- 
nition allowance. 

14.  All  ordnance  and  ordnance  stores  issued  to  colleges  must  be 
kept  insured  by  the  college  authorities  for  their  full  invoice  value,  as 
shown  in  the  bond,  and  the  Chief  of  Ordnance  promptly  informed 
when  and  where  the  insurance  is  placed. 

15.  The  transportation  of  ordnance  and  ordnance  stores  from  the 
Government  arsenals  to  institutions  of  learning,  and  from  institutions 
of  learning  back  to  the  Government  arsenals,  is  always  without  expense 
to  the  United  States. 

16.  The  colleges  to  which  issues  of  ordnance  and  ordnance  stores 
are  made,  under  bonds  given  as  required  by  law,  will  be  required  to 
keep  said  property  in  like  good  and  serviceable  condition  as  when 
issued  by  the  Government,  and  for  this  purpose  the  spare  parts,  imple- 
ments, and  appendages  necessary  for  this  purpose  will  be  sold  to  them 
at  cost  price  on  application  to  the  Chief  of  Ordnance. 

17.  When  ordnance  and  ordnance  stores  are  returned  to  the  Ord- 
nance Department  by  any  institution  of  learning,  they  will  be  carefully 


BEPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  179 

examined  when  received  at  the  arsenal,  and  if  they  are  found  imper- 
fect or  unserviceable  by  reason  of  carelessness  or  other  causes  than 
legitimate  use  in  service  the  damage  will  have  to  be  made  good  to  the 
United  States. 

18.  The  cost  of  all  missing  property  must  be  made  good  to  the 
United  States. 

19.  When  any  of  the  ordnance  or  ordnance  stores  become  unfit  for 
further  use  the  president  of  the  college  will  report  the  fact  to  the 
Chief  of  Ordnance,  and  be  will  authorize  the  college  to  send  them  to 
an  arsenal  without  expense  to  the  United  States.  On  reaching  the 
arsenal  the  property  will  be  inspected  by  an  officer  of  the  Ordnance 
Department,  and  if  its  condition  is  found  to  be  due  to  the  ordinary 
incidents  of  service  it  may  be  replaced  with  serviceable  stores  of 
like  character;  but  if  its  condition  is  found  to  be  due  to  carelessness  or 
other  than  legitimate  causes  the  extent  of  damage  or  value  of  missing 
stores  will  be  determined  by  the  Chief  of  Ordnance  and  must  be  paid 
by  the  college  before  any  new  issue  of  stores  is  made. 

20.  The  guns  and  carriages  must  not  be  allowed  to  remain  outdoors 
with  only  the  paulins  as  a  protection  from  the  weather,  but  they  must 
be  housed  in  a  suitable  shed  and  habitually  kept  there  except  when 
used  for  drills  or  saluting  purposes. 

21.  Regular  property  returns  will  be  rendered  quarterly  to  the  Chief 
of  Ordnance  by  each  president  or  superintendent  of  an  institution 
supplied  with  arms,  etc.,  accounting  for  all  ordnance  and  ordnance 
stores  issued  to  the  institution  under  his  charge.  These  returns  will 
be  made  on  the  blank  forms  to  be  supplied  by  the  Chief  of  Ordnance. 

22.  Failure  on  the  part  of  any  institution  of  learning  to  comply 
with  the  foregoing  regulations,  or  any  others  that  may  be  prescribed 
by  the  Chief  of  Ordnance,  for  the  care,  preservation,  or  accountability 
of  any  ordnance  or  ordnance  stores  issued  to  it  by  the  United  States, 
will  be  considered  sufficient  cause  for  the  prompt  withdrawal  by  the 
Secretary  of  War  of  the  Government  property  in  its  possession. 

23.  Whenever  any  institution  shall  fail  to  return  the  public  prop- 
erty in  its  charge  within  thirty  days  after  demand  made  by  the 
Secretary  of  War,  the  delinquency  will  be  peremptorily  referred  to 
the  Attorney-General,  that  the  bond  of  the  institution  may  forthwith 
be  put  in  suit. 

24.  The  following  is  the  form  of  bond  to  be  executed  previous  to 
the  issue  of  ordnance  and  ordnance  stores,  viz: 

FORM   OF   BOND. 

Know  all  men  by  these  presents  that  we,  the  Knox  College,  located  at  Galesburg, 
Illinois,  a  corporation  duly  organized  under  the  laws  of  the  State  of  Illinois,  as  prin- 
cipal, and  Clark  E.  Carr,  of  Galeslmrg,  Illinois,  and  Edgar  A .  Bancroft,  of  Galesburg, 
Illinois,  as  sureties,  are  held  and  bound  to  the  United  States  of  America  in  the  penal 


180  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

sum  of  a  eight  thousand  four  hundred  and  seventy-two  dollars  and  ninety  cents  ($8,472.90), 
for  the  payment  of  which  well  and  truly  to  be  made  to  the  Secretary  of  War,  or  to 
such  officer  or  person  whom  he  may  designate,  we  do  bind  ourselves  and  each  of  us, 
our  successors,  heirs,  executors,  and  administrators,  for  and  in  the  whole,  jointly 
and  severally,  firmly  by  these  presents.  Given  under  our  hands  and  seals  at  Gales- 
burg,  Illinois,  this  10th  day  of  May,  A.  D.  1888. 

The  condition  of  the  above  obligation  is  such  that,  whereas  the  Knox  College  is  an 
established  college  b  within  the  United  States  having  capacity  to  educate  at  the  same 
time  not  less  than  one  hundred  and  fifty  male  students,  and  whereas  the  said  col- 
lege h  has  heretofore  applied  to  the  President  of  the  United  States  to  detail  an  officer 
of  the  Army  to  act  as  professor  of  military  science  and  tactics  thereof,  and  the  Presi- 
dent by  virtue  of  the  authority  vested  in  him  by  section  1225,  Revised  Statutes,  as 
amended  by  the  act  of  September  26,  1888,  has  detailed  such  officer  to  act  accord- 
ingly; and  whereas  the  Secretary  of  War  by  the  authority  vested  in  him  by  said 
section  is  about  to  issue  to  the  said  college  b  for  the  military  instruction  and  practice 
of  the  students  thereof  the  following  ordnance  and  ordnance  stores,  to  wit: 

2  muzzle-loading  wrought-iron  rifted  guns,  caliber  3  inches,  at  $450 $900. 00 

2  carriages  and  limbers,  for  3-inch  gun,  at  $325 650. 00 

2  gunner's  haversacks,  at  $2.20 4. 40 

2  trail  handspikes,  at  $1. 10 2. 20 

4  lanyards,  at  10  cents .40 

2  priming  wires,  at  10  cents .20 

4  sponges  and  rammers,  3-inch,  at  $1 4. 00 

4  sponge  covers,  3-inch,  at  30  cents 1. 20 

2  tube  pouches,  at  $1.50 3. 00 

4  thumbstalls,  at  20  cents .80 

2  tompions,  3-inch,  at  30  cents .60 

2  vent  covers,  at  40  cents .85 

1  pendulum  hausse,  3-inch 2. 50 

1  pendulum-hausse  seat .60 

1  pendulum-hausse  pouch .70 

2paulins,  12  by  15  feet,  at  $10.25 20.50 

150  Springfield  "Cadet"  rifles,  caliber  .45,  with  appendages,  etc.,  at  $15..  2,250.00 

1 50  bayonet-scabbards,  steel,  Cadet,  at  81  cents 121. 50 

150  waist-belts  and  plates,  at  60  (rents 90. 00 

150  cartridge  boxes,  caliber  .45,  at  $1.22 183. 00 

being  together  of  the  value  of  four  thousand  two  hundred  and  thirty-six  dollars  and  forty- 
fire  cents  ($4,236.45) ;  all  of  which  property,  when  issued,  the  said  college0  hereby  agrees 
to  take  good  care  of  and  safely  keep,  insure,  and  keep  insured  against  loss  to  the  United 
States,  and  account  for  quarterly  on  blank  forms  to  l>e  prescribed  by  the  Chief  of  Ord- 
nance, United  States  Army,  and  to  return  all  of  said  property  to  said  Chief  of  Ord- 
nance, or  such  officer  or  person  as  may  be  designated  to  receive  the  same  within  thirty 
davs  after  demand  bv  the  Seeretarv  of  War. 

Now,  therefore,  if  the  said  college"  shall  take  good  care  of  and  safely  keep  and  insure 
and  keep  insured  against  loss  to  the  United  States  and  account  for  the  said  ordnance 
and  ordnance  stores,  and  shall  when  required  by  the  Secretary  of  War  duly  return 
the  same  within  thirty  days  in  good  order  to  the  Chief  of  Ordnance,  United  States 
Army,  or  to  such  other  officer  or  person  as  the  Secretary  of  War  may  designate  to 
receive  them,  then  this  obligation  shall  lx?come  inoperative  and  void,  otherwise  to 
remain  in  full  force  and  virtue. 

In  witness  whereof,  and  in  pursuance  of  a  resolution  of  the  board  of  directors* 
passed  on  the  first  day  of  May,  A.  D.  1888,  a- copy  of  which  is  hereto  annexed,  the 

fl  Double  the  value  of  the  property. 

''College  or  university. 

c  Board  of  directors  or  other  governing  body  of  the  institution. 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRET ABY  OF  WAR.  181 

corporate  seal  of  said  corporation  is  hereto  affixed  and  these  presents  dnly  signed  by 

the  president  of  the  college. a 

Knox  College, 

By  Newton  Bateman.     [seal.] 

President. 
In  presence  of — 

Geo.  A.  Lawrence, 

Thomas  A.  Brown. 

Clark  K  (-ark.     [seal.] 
In  presence  of — 

Robert  G.  Sutton, 

Chas.  E.  Bailey. 

Edgar  A.  Bancroft,     [seal.] 
In  presence  of — 
E.  A.  Skillman, 
S.  C.  Hull. 

State  of  Illinois,  County  of  Knox,  ss: 

On  this  10th  day  of  May,  1888,  personally  appeared  before  me,  a  notary  public  for 
the  county  aforesaid,  Clark  E.  Carry  one  of  the  sureties  named  in  the  within  bond, 
who  made  oath  that  he  is  worth  eight  tliousand  five  hundred  dollars  over  and  above 
all  his  debts  and  liabilities. 

Clark  E.  Carr. 

Sworn  and  subscribed  before  me  on  the  day  and  date  aforesaid. 

George  A.  Lawrence, 

Notary  Public. 

State  op  Illinois,  County  of  Knox,  ss: 

On  this  10th  day  of  May,  1888,  personally  appeared  before  me,  a  notary  public  for 

the  county  aforesaid,  Edgar  A.  Bancroft,  one  of  the  sureties  named  in  the  within 

bond,  who  made  oath  that  he  is  worth  eight  thousand  fire  hundred  dollars  over  and 

above  all  his  debts  and  liabilities. 

Edgar  A.  Bancroft. 

Sworn  and  subscribed  before  me  on  the  day  and  date  aforesaid. 

George  A.  Lawrence, 

Notary  Public. 

I,  Elmer  S.  Dundy,  hereby  certify  that  the  sureties  who  have  signed  the  foregoing 
bond  are  personally  known  to  me,  and  that  each  is  responsible  and  sufficient  to  insure 
the  payment  of  the  entire  penalty  named  therein. 

Elmer  S.  Dundy, 
Judge  of  the  District  Court  of  the  United  States  in  and  for  the  State  of  Illinois. 

The  following  instructions  must  be  strictly  observed  in  preparing 
the  bond  required  to  be  furnished  the  Chief  of  Ordnance,  U.  S.  Army, 
before  any  arms,  etc.,  can  be  obtained  by  any  college: 

25.  A  copy  of  the  record  of  the  adoption  of  the  resolution  of  the 
board  of  directors  or  governing  body  of  the  institution,  including  also 
the  record  of  the  resolution  itself,  authorizing  the  president  to  execute 
the  bond  on  behalf  of  the  corporation,  authenticated  by  the  signature 
of  the  secretary  and  the  corporate  seal,  must  accompany  the  bond. 

26.  A  copy  of  the  charter  or  articles  of  incorporation,  authenticated 
by  the  secretary  of  state,  is  also  required. 

<* The  president  or  officer  authorized  to  sign  for  the  institution. 


182  BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRET ABY  OF  WAR. 

27.  The  sureties  must  sign  and  seal  the  bond.  The  seal  must  be 
attached  opposite  the  signature  of  each  person  and  must  be  a  seal  of 
wax,  wafer,  or  other  adhesive  substance,  not  a  mere  scroll  with  a  pen. 
Their  names  must  be  written  in  the  body  of  the  bond,  together  with 
their  residence,  including  town,  county,  State  or  Territory. 

28.  Two  witnesses  are  required  to  each  signature. 

29.  There  must  be  two  sureties  when  individuals  are  the  sureties. 
Each  surety  must  make  oath  that  he  is  worth  some  specific  sum,  equal 
to  the  full  amount  of  the  penalty,  over  and  above  all  his  debts  and 
liabilities.  Two  persons  must  not  join  in  one  affidavit.  Each  one 
must  subscribe  and  acknowledge  his  own  oath  separately.  The  suf- 
ficiency of  the  sureties  must  be  certified  to  by  some  United  States 
judge  or  district  attorney,  whose  official  character  must  be  certified 
to  by  the  clerk  of  his  court,  such  certificate  to  be  on  or  attached  to 
the  bond. 

30.  Incorporated  surety  companies  which  have  complied  with  the 
requirements  of  the  War  Department  will  also  be  accepted  as  surety 
on  the  bond,  and  in  this  case  only  one  surety  is  required. 

31.  A  college  corporation  desiring  ordnance  or  ordnance  stores  for 
the  use  of  the  college  must  furnish  evidence  that  some  one  is  author- 
ized to  execute  in  its  behalf  the  bond  which  the  law  requires. 

32.  This  authority  can  only  be  given  by  the  governing  body  of  the 
corporation,  i.  e.,  the  body  invested  with  authority  to  employ  the 
faculty  and  make  all  other  contracts  in  its  behalf,  and  designated  in 
the  charter  of  the  corporation  as  board  of  regents,  board  of  trustees, 
etc.,  and  this  body  must  give  the  authority  in  the  formal  way  in  which 
it  does  other  business,  the  action  taken  being  recorded  as  a  part  of 
the  proceedings  of  the  meeting  at  which  it  was  taken.  The  evidence 
of  this  authority  required  to  be  furnished  to  this  office  will  be  an 
extract  from  the  record  of  the  proceedings  of  the  board  of  regents,  or 
board  of  trustees,  showing  that  the  board  met  in  its  official  capacity, 
that  a  resolution  was  offered  authorizing  some  person  by  name  to 
execute  the  required  bond  for  the  corporation,  and  that  this  resolution 
was  adopted;  and  this  extract  must  be  certified,  under  the  corporate 
seal,  to  be  a  true  extract  from  the  record  of  the  proceedings  of  the 
board,  by  the  secretory  or  other  custodian  of  the  records.  His  cer- 
tificate that  the  authority  has  been  conferred,  or  that  such  a  resolution 
was  passed,  is  not  sufficient.  The  record  speaks  for  itself,  and  a  copy 
of  so  much  of  it  should  be  furnished  as  will  show  that  it  purports  to 
be  a  record  of  the  board,  that  the  resolution  was  offered,  and  that  it 
was  passed. 

33.  Great  pains  should  be  taken  to  use  the  name  given  the  corpora- 
tion by  its  charter,  and  to  mention  in  the  resolution  the  particular 
bond  to  be  given. 


REPOBT  OF  THE  8ECRETARY  OF  WAR.  183 

34.  It  is  desired  that  a  copy  of  the  charter  be  sent  to  the  Chief  of 
Ordnance,  U.  S.  Army,  Washington,  D.  C;  also,  a  copy  (accompanied 
by  certificate  under  corporate  seal)  of  so  much  of  the  record  of  the 
election  of  the  officers  of  the  corporation  as  will  show  the  election  of 
the  particular  officer  who  is  to  execute  the  bond. 

In  calling  for  form  of  bond  it  should  be  stated — 

First.  If  the  principals  and  sureties  are  individuals. 

Second.  If  the  principal  is  a  corporation  and  surety  an  individual. 

Third.  If  principal  is  an  individual  and  surety  a  corporation. 

Fourth.  If  both  principal  and  surety  are  corporations. 

As  indicated  above,  there  are  four  forms  of  bond,  as  follows: 

Form  K. — When  both  principal  and  sureties  are  individuals. 

Form  Z. — When  principal  is  a  corporation  and  sureties  are  indi- 
viduals. 

Form  M. — When  principal  is  an  individual  and  surety  is  a  corpora- 
tion. 

Form  N. — When  both  principal  and  surety  are  corporations. 

In  calling  for  the  blank  forms  of  bond,  they  may  be  called  for  as 
"  Form  K,"  "Form  L,"  etc. 

VIII.  In  the  administration  of  each  cadet  battalion  the  adjutant, 
assisted  by  the  sergeant-major,  shall  keep  a  letter  book,  an  order  book, 
a  roster,  and  a  consolidated  morning- report  book.  The  quartermaster, 
assisted  by  the  quartermaster-sergeant,  shall  keep  a  book  containing  a 
record  of  all  issues  of  Government  property,  with  the  receipts  of  those 
to  whom  issued.  Each  captain  shall  keep  a  morning-report  book  and, 
where  necessary  for  the  regulation  of  duty,  a  roster.  At  institutions 
of  the  third  class  the  morning  report  shall  be  made  out  by  the  captains 
daily;  at  the  other  institutions  on  drill  days  or  when  the  cadets  are 
ordered  to  parade. 

IX.  The  professor  of  military  science  and  tactics  shall  render  a 
quarterly  report  to  the  Adjutant-General  of  the  Army  of  the  whole 
number  of  undergraduate  students  in  the  institution  capable  of  per- 
forming military  duty,  the  number  required  by  the  institution  to  be 
enrolled  as  military  students,  the  average  attendance  at  drills,  the 
number  absent,  and  number  and  kind  of  drills,  recitations,  and  lectures, 
or  other  instruction  had  during  the  quarter,  and  the  number  reported 
for  discipline.  He  will  retain  copies  of  all  reports  and  correspondence 
and  transfer  them  to  the  officer  who  may  succeed  him,  or  forward  them 
to  the  Adjutant-General's  Office  should  the  detail  expire.  On  the 
graduation  of  every  class  he  shall  obtain  from  the  president  of  the 
college  and  report  to  the  Adjutant-General  of  the  Army  the  names  of 
such  students  belonging  to  the  class  as  have  shown  special  aptitute  for 
military  service,  and  furnish  a  copy  thereof  to  the  adjutant-general  of 
the  State  for  his  information.     At  those  institutions  which  grade  the 


184  REPOBT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

department  of  military  science  and  tactics  equally  with  the  other 
important  branches  of  instruction,  and  which  make  proficiency  in  that 
department  a  requisite  for  securing  a  diploma,  the  names  of  the  three 
most  distinguished  students  in  said  department  shall,  when  graduated, 
be  inserted  in  the  U.  S.  Army  Register. 

X.  The  military  department  shall  be  subject  to  inspection  under  the 
authority  of  the  President  of  the  United  States;  such  inspections  to 
be  made,  when  practicable,  near  the  close  of  the  college  year.  The 
inspecting  officer  shall,  upon  his  arrival  at  the  institution,  report  to 
the  president  or  other  administrative  officer,  in  order  to  obtain  from 
him  the  necessary  facilities  for  the  performance  of  his  duty.  A  copy 
of  the  report  of  inspection  will  be  furnished  the  president  of  the  insti- 
tution by  the  War  Department. 

XI. — The  following  are  the  laws  providing  for  the  detail  of  retired 
officers  at  colleges,  universities,  etc. : 

[Section  1260,  Revised  Statutes.] 

Any  retired  officer  may,  on  his  own  application,  be  detailed  to  serve  as  professor 
in  any  college.  (But  while  so  serving,  such  officer  shall  be  allowed  no  additional 
compensation. ) 

[Extract  from  the  act  of  Congress  approved  May  4, 1880.] 

That  upon  the  application  of  any  college,  university,  or  institution  of  learning 
incorporated  under  the  laws  of  any  State  within  the  United  States,  having  capacity 
at  the  same  time  to  educate  not  less  than  one  hundred  and  fifty  male  students,  the 
President  may  detail  an  officer  of  the  Army  on  the  retired  list  to  act  as  president, 
superintendent,  or  professor  thereof;  and  such  officer  may  receive  from  the  institu- 
tion to  which  he  may  be  detailed  the  difference  between  his  retired  and  full  pay,  and 
shall  not  receive  any  additional  pay  or  allowance  from  the  United  States. 

[Extract  from  the  act  of  Congress  approved  August  6,  1894.] 

Provided,  That  nothing  in  the  act  entitled  "An  act  to  increase  the  number  of 
officers  of  the  Army  to  be  detailed  to  colleges,' '  approved  November  third,  eighteen 
hundred  and  ninety- three,  shall  be  so  construed  as  to  prevent,  limit,  or  restrict  the 
detail  of  retired  officers  of  the  Army  at  institutions  of  learning  under  the  provisions 
of  section  twelve  hundred  and  sixty,  Revised  Statutes,  and  the  act  making  appropri- 
ations for  the  support  of  the  Army,  and  so  forth,  approved  May  fourth,  eighteen 
hundred  and  eighty,  nor  to  forbid  the  issue  of  ordnance  and  ordnance  stores,  as  pro- 
vided in  the  act  approved  September  twenty-sixth,  eighteen  hundred  and  eighty- 
eight,  amending  section  twelve  hundred  and  twenty-five,  Revised  Statutes,  to  the 
institutions  at  which  retired  officers  may  be  so  detailed;  and  said  act  of  November 
third,  eighteen  hundred  and  ninety- three,  and  said  act  of  May  fourth,  eighteen 
hundred  and  eighty,  shall  not  be  construed  to  allow  the  full  pay  of  their  rank  to 
retired  officers  detailed  under  said  section  twelve  hundred  and  sixty,  Revised  Statutes, 
and  said  act  of  May  fourth,  eighteen  hundred  and  eighty. 

[Extract  from  the  act  of  Congress  approved  February  26, 1901.] 

Section  1.  *  *  *  That  section  twelve  hundred  and  twenty-five  of  the  Revised 
Statutes,  concerning  the  detail  of  officers  of  the  Army  and  Navy  to  educational 
institutions  be,  and  the  same  is  hereby,  amended  so  as  to  permit  the  President  to 
detail  under  the  provisions  of  that  act,  and  in  addition  to  the  detail  of  the  officers 


REPORT  OF  THE  8ECRETARY  OF  WAR.  185 

of  the  Army  and  Navy  now  authorized  to  be  detailed  under  the  existing  provisions 
of  said  act,  such  retired  officers  of  the  Army  and  Navy  of  the  United  States  as  in  his 
judgment  may  be  required  for  that  purpose,  to  act  as  instructors  in  military  drill  and 
tactics  in  schools  in  the  United  States,  where  such  instruction  shall  have  been 
authorized  by  the  educational  authorities  thereof,  and  where  the  services  of  such 
instructors  shall  have  been  applied  for  by  said  authorities. 

Sec/2.  That  no  detail  shall  be  made  under  this  act  to  any  school  unless  it  shall 
pay  the  cost  of  commutation  of  quarters  of  the  retired  officers  detailed  thereto  and 
the  extra-duty  pay  to  which  thelatter  may  be  entitled  liy  law  to  receive  for  the  per- 
formance of  special  duty:  Provided,  That  no  detail  shall  be  made  under  the  pro- 
visions of  this  act  unless  the  officers  to  be  detailed  are  willing  to  accept  such  position 
without  compensation  from  the  Government  other  than  their  retired  pay. 

The  details  authorized  by  section  1260,  Revised  Statutes,  as  amended 
by  the  act  approved  May  4,  1880,  and  by  the  act  approved  February 
26,  1901,  will  be  in  addition  to  the  number  allowed  by  section  1225, 
Revised  Statutes,  and  the  amendments  thereof,  and  may  be  made  to 
incorporated  institutions  of  learning  of  the  requisite  grade  in  any 
State,  without  reference  to  population  or  to  the  number  of  officers 
already  serving  therein. 

By  command  of  Lieutenant-General  Miles: 

H.  C.  Corbin, 
Adjutant-  General ,  Major- General,  U.  S.  Army. 


APPENDIX  I. 


General  Orders,  )  Headquarters  of  the  Army, 

V  Adjutant-General's  Office, 

No.  102.  )  Washington,  September  «?,  1902. 

To  carry  out  the  provisions  of  General  Orders,  No.  155,  Adjutant- 
General's  Office,  of  November  27, 1901,  which  relate  to  officers'  schools 
at  posts,  the  following  instructions  are  published  for  the  information 
and  guidance  of  all  concerned: 

1.  Post  commanders,  subject  to  the  supervision  of  department  com- 
manders, shall  have  immediate  charge  of  the  instruction  and  shall 
cause  detailed  records  to  be  kept  of  the  operations  of  the  schools  in 
order  to  facilitate  the  work  of  inspection. 

2.  All  field  officers  and  captains  of  over  ten  years'  service  as  com- 
missioned officers  will  be  utilized  as  instructors,  but  failing  a  sufficient 
number  of  these,  post  commanders  will  detail  such  other  officers  as  in 
their  judgment  possess  fitness  for  such  duties.  Instructors  of  the  last- 
named  class  will  be  excused  from  recitations  during  the  school  term, 
but  at  the  end  thereof  will  be  required  to  take  examinations  in  all  sub- 
jects completed  during  the  course,  except  the  ones  in  which  they  have 
acted  as  instructors,  and  in  lieu  thereof  a  certificate  of  proficiency 
from  the  commanding  officer  will  be  given  them  if  the  latter  is  satis- 
fied that  it  is  merited;  otherwise  they  will  be  examined  in  these  sub- 
jects as  well. 

Whenever,  in  carrying  out  the  provisions  of  this  paragraph,  it 
becomes  necessary  to  utilize  the  services  of  an  instructor  junior  in 
rank  to  the  officers  under  instruction  he  shall,  in  the  execution  of  his 
duties,  be  given  the  respect  due  his  position. 

3.  The  officers  from  whom  systematic  recitations  are  required,  and 
who  shall  take  the  complete  course,  will  include  captains  of  the  line  of 
less  than  ten  years'  service  as  commissioned  officers,  and  all  first  and 
second  lieutenants,  with  the  exceptions  hereinafter  noted. 

Exceptions. — Graduates  of  the  United  States  Military  Academy  at 

West  Point;  the  Infantry  and  Cavalry  School  at  Fort  Leavenworth, 

Kans. ;  the  Artillery  School  at  Fort  Monroe,  Va.,  or  the  Engineer 

School  of  Application,  now  at  Washington  Barracks,  D.  C,  may  be 

excused  from  recitations  in  military  law,  international  law,  and  field 

187 


188  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

engineering;  but  they  will  be  required  at  the  close  of  the  term  to 
qualify  in  those  subjects  as  well  as  in  those  in  which  they  have  made 
systematic  recitations. 

Nothwithstanding  the  exceptions  herein  noted,  department  com- 
manders shall  require  either  systematic  recitations  or  qualification  by 
examinations  at  the  end  of  the  school  term  of  anv  officer  of  their  com- 
mands,  regardless  of  rank,  when  in  their  judgment  such  officer  may  be 
in  need  of  instruction  in  the  course  herein  prescribed. 

In  the  formation  of  classes  for  recitations  lieutenants  will  constitute 
one  section  and  officers  of  higher  grade  another. 

4.  The  annual  period  of  theoretical  instruction  shall  aggregate 
ninety  school  days  between  November  1  and  the  30th  day  of  the  fol- 
lowing April.  Two  hours  per  diem  shall  be  devoted  to  recitations, 
exclusive  of  the  time  necessary  for  proper  preparation. 

5.    COURSE   OF   INSTRUCTION. 

(ft)    A DMINISTRATION. 

Tluoreticdl. — Recitations  in  the  U.  S.  Array  Regulations  and  in 
general  orders  and  circulars  amendatory  thereof,  including:  Military 
discipline;  command;  post  administration;  regiments — organization, 
instruction,  and  records;  company  administration;  councils  of  admin- 
istration; regimental,  bakery,  company,  and  mess  funds;  post  baker- 
ies, libraries,  etc.;  rosters,  detachment,  and  daily  service;  honors, 
courtesies,  and  ceremonies;  purchase  of  supplies  and  engagement  of 
services;  money  accountability  and  responsibility;  accounts  current; 
public  property,  accountability  and  responsibility;  boards  of  survey; 
military  correspondence;  orders;  returns  of  troops;  records;  enlist- 
ments; Quartermaster's  Department — general  duties,  records,  returns, 
and  reports  required;  Subsistence  Department — general  duties,  ration 
tables,  savings,  sales,  accounts,  and  returns;  Pay  Department — reen- 
listment  and  continuous-service  pay,  forfeitures  and  deductions,  and 
deposits. 

Particular  attention  will  be  given  to  the  information  contained  in 
the  manuals  of  the  three  departments  last  named;  a  thorough  famil- 
iarity therewith  will  be  insisted  upon. 

Practical. — Assignment  to  duty  in  turn  as  assistants  to  post  staff 
and  recruiting  officers  and  to  orderly  room  work  with  their  respective 
company  organizations  for  such  periods  as  the  commanding  officer 
may  deem  necessary  to  thoroughly  acquaint  them  with  the  various 
duties. 

(b)    DRILL   REGULATIONS. 

Theoretical. — Recitations  in  the  prescribed  manuals  of  the  respective 
arms. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  189 

Practical. — Drill  of  troops — not  necessarily  during  the  term  pre- 
scribed for  theoretical  instruction.  Lieutenants  shall  be  given  occa- 
sional opportunity  to  act  as  captains,  and  captains  as  field  officers  at 
drills. 

(c)    MANUAL  OP  GUARD   DUTY. 

Theoretical. — Recitations  in  the  prescribed  manual. 
Practical. — Duty  as  officer  of  the  day  and  as  officer  of  the  guard, 
when  practicable. 

(d)    SMALL- ARMS   FIRING    REGULATIONS. 

Theoretical. — Recitations  in  the  prescribed  manual. 
Practical. — Practice  upon  the  range  and  in  supervision  of  troops 
during  the  regular  practice  season. 

(e)    TROOI*H   IN   CAMPAIGN. 

T/teoretical. — Recitations  in  the  prescribed  manual. 

(J)  MINOR  TACTICS. 

Theoretical. — Recitations  in  Wagner's  Security  and  Information. 

Practical. — Exercises  in  patrolling,  reconnoissance,  formation  and 
use  of  advance  and  rear  guards,  outposts,  attack  and  defense  of  con- 
voys, etc.,  as  frequently  as  possible  for  purposes  of  illustration  during 
school  term  and  during  the  season  of  drill  and  field  maneuvers. 

(<j)     MILITARY    LAW. 

T/ieoretical. — Recitations  in  Winthrop's  Abridgment  of  Military 
Law. 

(//)   FIELD  ENGINEERING. 

Theoretical. — Recitations  in  Beach's  Manual  of  Field  Engineering. 

Practical. — Designing  and  superintending  the  actual  construction  of 
rifle  pits,  shelter  trenches,  loopholes,  obstacles,  etc. ,  as  well  as  locating 
trenches  with  reference  to  configuration  of  the  ground;  making  of 
various  kinds  of  revetments;  establishing  trace  and  profile  of  field 
work,  with  reference  to  requirements  of  defilade;  extending  and  super- 
intending working  parties  as  f requently  as  possible  for  purposes  of 
illustration  during  school  term  and  during  the  season  of  field  maneu- 
vers; construction  of  models  of  various  kinds  of  works  to  scale  in  clay 
or  sand. 

(i)    MILITARY    TOPOGRAPHY    AND    SKETCHING. 

Theoretical. — Recitations  in  Root's  Military  Topography  and  Sketch- 
ing, as  follows:  Chapters  I,  II,  III,  V,  XI  to  middle  of  page  170;  from 
"pacing,  on  page  257  to  bottom  of  page  286;  Chapter  XXII  to  bot- 
tom of  page  312;  Chapter  XXIV." 


190  BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECBETARY  OF  WAR. 

Practical. — Exercises  in  measuring  lines  with  chains  and  tapes; 
ranging  out  lines;  measuring  angles  with  box  and  prismatic  compasses; 
use  of  cavalry  sketching  case  on  foot  and  mounted  in  road  sketching; 
keeping  of  notes  and  map  drawing. 

(j)    INTERNATIONAL   LAW. 

Theoretical.  —Recitations  in  Davis's  International  Law. 

(k)    HIPPOLOGY    (FOR   ALL   OFFICERS). 

Theoretical. — Recitations  in  Carter's  Horses,  Saddles,  and  Bridles 
(second  edition). 

Practical. — At  posts  where  cavalry  or  field  artillery  is  stationed — 
stable  management  and  horseshoeing;  examination  of  horses  for  age; 
conformation  and  soundness. 

(/)    METHODS,    MATERIALS,    AND    IMPLEMENTS    NECESSARY   TO   COAST   DEFENSE    (FOR 

OFFICERS   OF  COAST   ARTILLERY    COMPANIES). 

Theoretical. — General  knowledge  of  guns,  carriages,  sights,  quad- 
rants, powders,  fuses,  and  projectiles. 

Text-books:  Ordnance  and  Gunnery,  Bruff;  Artillery  Circular  L 
series  1893;  Drill  Regulations  for  Coast  Artillery;  Handbook  of  Sights 
for  Cannon,  Ordnance  Department. 

Thorough  knowledge  of  exterior  ballistics  so  far  as  relates  to  veloc- 
ities and  pressures;  construction  and  use  of  range  tables. 

Text-books:  Ingalls's  Handbook  on  Ballistics;  Artillery  Circulars  M 
and  N. 

Construction  and  use  of  gun  commanders'  range  scales,  difference 
charts,  and  platting  boards. 

Text-book:  Drill  Regulations  for  Coast  Artillery. 

Principles  of  construction,  use,  and  adjustment  of*  position  finders 
and  other  instruments  connected  with  fire  control  and  direction. 

Text- books:  Artillery  Note,  No.  3;  The  Lewis  Range  Finder,  Capt. 
E.  W.  Hubbard,  Artillery  Corps. 

General  principles  of  construction,  test,  and  operation  of  telephones, 
telegraphs,  and  lines  of  communications. 

Text-books:  Artillery  Circular  C;  Handbook  for  use  of  Electricians; 
Telephones,  Capt.  S.  Reber,  Signal  Corps,  and  publication  about  to 
be  issued  by  the  Signal  Corps. 

General  knowledge  of  the  construction,  use,  and  care  of  such  elec- 
trical apparatus  as  is  usually  found  at  artillery  posts. 

Text-books:  Handbook  for  use  of  Electricians;  Artillery  Note,  No. 
4;  Torpedo  Manual. 

Elementary  cordage,  setting  up  and  rigging  gins  and  shears;  the 
care  and  use  of  hydraulic  jacks. 

Text- books:  Tidball's  Manual;  Best's  Gunner's  Manual. 


BEPOBT   OF  THE   SECBETABY   OF  WAR. 


191 


Instruction  in  submarine  mining  as  outlined  in  General  Orders,  No. 
51,  Adjutant-General's  Office,  1902. 

Practical. — As  above  by  drills  and  practical  work  so  far  as  the 
armament  and  equipment  of  the  post  will  permit. 

Lieutenants  to  be  occasionally  assigned  to  duty  as  battery  com- 
manders and  captains  as  fire  commanders.  At  posts  equipped  with 
electrical  or  other  power  plants  officers  will  from  time  to  time  be 
assigned  to  duty  as  assistants  to  the  officer  in  charge  thereof. 

It  is  to  be  understood  that  nothing  in  this  order  relieves  artillery 
district  commanders  or  other  officers  charged,  under  existing  orders 
or  regulations,  with  the  duty  of  securing  efficiency  in  theoretical  and 
practical  instruction  in  their  commands  from  their  present  full 
responsibility  therefor. 

6.  Allotment  of  time  in  hours  ftrr  recitation  in  the  several  subjects. 

FIRST  YEAR. 


Administration  (complete) 

Drill  regulations  (complete) 

Manual  of  guard  duty  ( complete) 

Small-arms*  firing  regulations  (complete) 

Minor  tactics  (partial) 

Military  law  (partial) 

Field  engineering  (partial) , 

Military  topography  and  sketching  (partial) 

International  law  (partial) 

Hlppology  (partial) 
Methods,  i 


ods,  materials,  and  implements  necessary  to  coast  de- 
fense ( partial ) 


Officers  of— 


Cavalry. 


Total. 


35 
35 
6 
18 
15 
15 
15 
615 
15 
11 


180 


Field 
artillery. 


35 
35 
6 
18 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
11 


180 


Coast 
artillery. 


35 
a20 
6 
18 
15 
15 


15 
15 
11 

30 


180 


Infantry 


35 
35 
6 
18 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
11 


180 


SECOND  YEAR. 


General  review  of  administration 

General  review  of  drill  regulations 

General  review  of  manualof  guard  duty 

General  review  of  small-arms'  firing  regulations 

Troops  in  campaign  (complete) 

Completion  of  minor  tactics 

Completion  of  military  law 

Completion  of  field  engineering 

Completion  of  military  topography  and  sketching  i> 

Completion  of  international  law 

Completion  of  hippology 

Completion  of  methods,  materials,  and  implements  neces- 
sary to  coast  defense 


Total. 


5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

1 

1 

1 

2 

2 

2 

18 

18 

18 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 
25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

24 

24 

14 
35 

180 

180 

180 

5 

5 

1 

2 

18 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

24 


180 


a  To  include  school  of  battery. 


b  Including  practical  work. 


Should  it  be  found  necessary  in  certain  instances  to  impart  instruc- 
tion of  a  more  elementary  character  than  here  outlined,  post  command- 
ers are  directed  to  form  classes  therefor.  The  hours  necessary  for 
recitations  of  these  classes  shall  be  in  addition'  to  the  hours  herein 
directed  for  the  regular  prescribed  course,  but  shall  be  within  the 
school  term. 


192  REPOET  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

GENERAL  INSTRUCTIONS. 

7.  Officers  who  are  temporarily  detached  from  their  proper  posts 
or  stations  will  be  expected  to  so  prepare  themselves  in  the  subjects 
herein  prescribed  for  the  post  school  instruction  of  officers  that,  upon 
rejoining  at  any  time  during  the  school  term,  they  will  be  able  to  take 
up  the  course  and  proceed  with  the  regular  classes.  If  for  any  reason 
an  officer  joining  a  post  during  the  school  term  lacks  such  necessary 
preparation,  he  will  be  excused  from  participation  in  the  prescribed 
course  until  the  beginning  of  the  following  term. 

8.  At  the  close  of  each  school  term  every  commanding  officer  will 
appoint  a  board  of  competent  officers,  senior  in  rank  to  those  under- 
going examination,  to  examine  each  officer  as  to  his  proficiency  in  the 
subjects  completed  during  the  course.  Whenever  this  board  certifies 
to  the  proficiency  of  an  officer  in  any  subject  and  the  proceedings  are 
approved  by  the  commanding  officer  a  statement  to  that  effect  shall 
be  entered  in  the  post  records,  a  copy  of  which  shall  be  furnished  to 
the  Adjutant-General  of  the  Army  and  to  the  officer  concerned,  and 
which  shall  entitle  him  thereafter  to  be  excused  from  further  recita- 
tion in  that  particular  subject.  Whenever  the  number  of  officers  at 
any  garrison  is  so  small  that  a  sufficient  number  can  not  be  secured  to 
conduct  the  examination  of  officers  who  have  pursued  any  portion  of 
the  courses  prescribed  for  their  instruction,  department  commanders 
are  authorized  to  order  officers  to  adjacent  posts  for  examination,  or 
to  order  properly  qualified  officers  from  adjacent  posts  to  complete 
the  number  required  for  an  examining  board,  which  shall  in  all  cases 
consist  of  three  members. 

In  case  of  officers  who  fail  to  acquire  a  proper  degree  of  efficiency 
in  any  subject,  report  will  be  made  to  the  Adjutant-General  of  the 
Army  for  note  upon  their  efficiency  records  and  they  will  be  required 
to  repeat  the  course  at  the  next  annual  term  of  theoretical  instruction. 
In  event  of  a  second  failure,  special  report  will  be  made  by  the  com- 
manding officer  with  a  view  to  its  consideration  by  the  board  which 
may  be  thereafter  designated  to  examine  them  as  to  their  fitness  for 
promotion. 

9.  Those  officers  who  exhibit  the  most  aptitude  and  intelligence  in 
the  course  of  instruction  pursued  will  be  reported  to  their  respective 
regimental  or  corps  commanders  (in  case  of  artillery  officers  through 
artillery  district  commanders  to  the  Chief  of  Artillery)  with  a  view  to 
their  detail  at  the  general  service  and  staff  college  at  Fort  Leaven- 
worth, Kans.,  for  further  instruction. 

10.  When  an  officer  is  transferred  to  a  new  station  his  record  as  to 
the  portion  of  the  prescribed  course  completed  and  of  proficiency  or 
deficiency  therein  shall  be  furnished  through  his  regimental  or  artillery 
district  commander  to  his  new  post  commander. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OV   WAR.  193 

11.  This  order  is  issued  with  a  view  to  systematizing  the  instruction 
of  officers  of  the  line  of  the  Army  during  a  limited  period  of  the  year 
in  accordance  with  the  general  scheme  of  progressive  instruction,  and 
is  in  nowise  intended  to  limit  the  authority  of  department  commanders 
to  require  additional  work  during  the  portion  of  the  year  herein  only 
partially  occupied.  The  remaining  portion  of  the  year  will  be  further 
utilized  by  such  commanders  to  the  fullest  advantage  in  the  practical 
instruction  of  their  commands. 
By  command  of  Lieutenant-General  Miles: 

Wm.  H.  Carter, 
Brigadier- General,  U.  S.  Army, 

Acting  Adjutant- General. 

war  1902— vol  1 13 


APPENDIX  K. 


Headquarters  Department  of  the  Missouri, 

Omaha,  2/ebr.,  October  31,  1902. 

Sir:  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  following  report  of  the  concen- 
tration of  troops  at  Fort  Riley,  Kans.,  and  of  the  encampment  and 
maneuvers  held  there  during  the  latter  part  of  September  and  the  first 
part  of  the  current  month. 

When  definite  orders  were  received  in  the  latter  part  of  August 
prescribing  that  maneuvers  be  held,  I  convened  a  board  of  officers  to 
meet  in  Omaha,  Nebr.,  to  prepare  plans  for  utilizing  the  period  of  the 
encampment  to  the  best  practicable  advantage,  and  especially  to  pre- 
pare the  tactical  problems  which  it  was  desired  to  have  executed. 
This  board  worked  zealously,  and  its  labors  .met  with  my  entire 
approval.  I  have  previously  transmitted  to  you  a  report  rendered 
by  the  board,  dated  September  4. 

The  solution  of  both  strategical  problems  and  tactical  exercises  natu- 
rally presented  itself  to  the  board  for  consideration.  It  was  wisely 
decided  to  be  impracticable,  at  least  at  this  time,  to  enter  into  the 
question  of  strategy,  which  would  require  an  extended  theater  of 
operations  as  well  as  the  expenditure  of  a  greater  amount  of  money 
than  was  available,  and,  to  be  satisfactory,  would  also  require  a  larger 
number  of  troops  than  were  ordered  to  participate.  Moreover,  that 
part  of  the  National  Guard  which  had  decided  to  take  part  was  not 
expected  to  arrive  until  a  week  or  later  after  the  regular  forces  had 
reached  camp.  The  board  therefore  decided  to  eliminate  the  subject  of 
strategy,  and  to  confine  its  recommendations  to  tactical  problems  and 
such  instruction  as  time  would  permit  in  camping,  camp  sanitation, 
methods  of  the  supply  departments,  field  engineering,  including  field 
intrenchments,  pontoon  and  spar  bridge  building,  the  duties  of  the 
Signal  Corps,  etc.  As  the  past  demands  of  our  service  have  generally 
required  that  companies  of  the  same  regiment  be  widely  scattered, 
thus  making  it  usually  impracticable  to  give  instruction  in  regimental 
drill,  it  was  decided  to  hold  such  drills  in  the  early  part  of  the 
encampment  and  follow  them  by  maneuvers  of  the  brigades  and  the 
division.  This  was  done  with  decided  profit,  especially  to  the  senior 
officers. 

Where  the  distances  were  not  too  great  the  troops  in  the  Depart- 
ment of  the  Missouri  were  ordered  to  proceed  to  Fort  Riley  by  march- 
es 


196  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR 

ing.  Those  thus  included  were  the  headquarters,  band,  and  two  bat- 
talions, Twenty-second  Infantry,  from  Fort  Crook,  Nebr.,  197  miles; 
the  headquarters  and  two  battalions,  Sixth  Infantry,  with  the  First 
Battalion  of  Engineers,  the  Second  Squadron,  Fourth  Cavalry,  and  the 
Twenty-eighth  Battery  (Mountain),  Field  Artillery,  from  Fort  Leaven- 
worth, Kans.,  a  distance  of  about  140  miles.  The  lack  of  sufficient 
wagon  transportation  caused  the  headquarters,  band,  and  one  battalion, 
Sixth  Infantry,  to  proceed  by  rail.  On  account  of  the  great  distance 
of  the  following-named  posts  from  Fort  Riley,  as  well  as  of  the  limited 
time,  the  troops  brought  from  Forts  Logan  H.  Roots,  Ark.,  and  Reno, 
and  Sill,  Okla.,  were  ordered  to  move  by  rail.  The  First  Squadron  of 
the  Eighth  Cavalry,  however,  from  the  latter  post,  returned  after  the 
encampment  to  its  station  by  marching,  as  did  the  troops  from  Fort 
Crook,  and  also  from  Fort  Leavenworth,  except  the  headquarters  and 
band,  Sixth  Infantry,  and  the  dismounted  portion  of  the  First  Bat- 
talion of  Engineers. 

As  it  was  early  decided  to  divide  the  command  from  time  to  time 
into  two  forces  to  represent  opposing  detachments  in  contact  problems, 
the  troops  were  directed  to  take  with  them  to  Fort  Riley  both  blue 
(undress)  and  khaki  uniforms,  to  enable  them  to  represent  either  the 
"blues"  or  "browns"  as  circumstances  might  require.  The  march 
to  Riley  offered  an  excellent  opportunity  for  certain  training,  and  the 
organizations  which  were  directed  to  proceed  overland  were  instructed 
that  marches  would  be  conducted  as  if  in  the  enemy's  country,  and 
instruction  and  exercises  given  in  all  the  ordinary  measures  for  the 
safety  of  the  command,  such  as  advance  and  rear  guard,  patrols,  flank- 
ers, and  at  night,  outposts,  etc.  An  itinerary  and  a  map  of  the  route 
traveled  was  also  prescribed.  Commanding  officers  of  troops  moving 
by  rail  were  directed  to  give  careful  attention  to  entraining  and 
detraining  their  commands.  Reports  received  indicate  that  material 
instruction  was  given  on  the  march  in  the  several  commands.  The 
map  submitted  by  Second  Lieut.  N.  E.  Bower,  Corps  of  Engineers, 
U.  S.  Army,  of  the  route  taken  by  the  First  Battalion  of  Engineers, 
deserves  particular  mention  for  the  care  and  detail  with  which  it  was 
prepared. 

The  20th  of  September  found  the  several  organizations  detailed  from 
the  regular  establishment  to  participate  in  the  maneuvers  at  Fort 
Riley,  and  an  order  was  issued  announcing  the  following  organiza- 
tions: 

jfiirst  Brigade. — Sixth  United  States  Infantry,  Eighteenth  United 
States  Infantry,  Twenty-second  United  States  Infantry,  Brig.  Gen. 
William  A.  Kobb6,  U.  S.  Army,  commanding. 

Second  Brigade. — The  organizations  composing  this  brigade  and 
the  name  of  the  general  commanding  were  not  announced  until  the 
arrival  of  the  troops  from  the  State  of  Kansas,  when  the  First  and 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  197 

Second  regiments  of  infantry  of  the  National  Guard  from  that  State 
were  assigned  and  the  command  given  to  Brig.  Gen.  J.  W.  F.  Hughes 
of  the  same  guard. 

Divisional  Cavalry. — First  and  Second  squadrons,  Fourth  United 
States  Cavalry,  and  First  Squadron,  Eighth  United  States  Cavalry, 
Col.  C.  C.  C.  Carr,  Fourth  United  States  Cavalry,  commanding. 

Divisional  artillery. — The  Sixth,  Seventh,  Nineteenth,  Twentieth, 
and  Twenty-eighth  Field  Batteries,  United  States  Army,  and  two  skele- 
ton batteries,  Kansas  National  Guard,  Col.  George  B.  Rodney,  Artil- 
lery Corps,  U.  S.  Army,  commanding. 

Engineers.  —  First  Battalion  of  Engineers,  United  States  Army,  Maj. 
Smith  S.  Leach,  Corps  of  Engineers,  commanding. 

The  Hospital  Corps  had  one  field  hospital  and  one  ambulance  com- 
pany in  addition  to  the  medical  attendance  assigned  to  the  several 
organizations,  and  the  Signal  Corps  one  maneuver  field  company. 

Proper  flags  and  pennants  were  prescribed  to  designate  division  and 
brigade  headquarters,  the  designs  for  which  had  been  approved  by  the 
War  Department. 

It  was  first  intended  to  divide  the  regular  regiments  of  infantry 
between  the  First  and  Second  Brigades,  and  brigade  the  volunteer  regi- 
ments with  them.  As  the  Kansas  officers,  however,  expressed  a  strong 
desire  to  retain  their  brigade  organization,  their  wish  was  complied 
with.  The  "Provisional  Battalion"  from  Colorado  requested  to  be 
assigned  to  the  First  Brigade,  which  was  done. 

The  camp  was  pitched  on  "Pawnee  Flat,"  near  the  post,  and  had 
good  railroad  terminal  facilities.  The  ground  chosen  is  gently  rolling 
and  has  fine  natural  drainage.  This  proved  to  be  a  very  important 
consideration,  for  6n  several  days  during  the  encampment  the  rain  fell 
continuously,  but  the  water  ran  off  rapidly  and  the  ground  dried 
quickly.  The  necessary  pipes  were  laid  to  bring  water  from  the  post 
reservoir  for  camp  purposes,  and  a  sufficient  and  wholesome  supply 
was  thus  secured. 

The  chief  quartermaster,  Capt.  C.  B.  Baker,  the  chief  commissary, 
Capt.  Hugh  J.  Gallagher,  the  chief  surgeon,  Lieut.  Col.  John  Van  R. 
Hoff,  and  the  chief  signal  officer,  Maj.  George  P.  Scriven,  were  on  the 
ground  for  some  days  before  the  beginning  of  the  encampment,  and 
made  all  necessary  preliminary  arrangements  pertaining  to  their 
respective  departments  in  a  most  satisfactory  manner.  Major  Scriven 
was  unfortunately  painfully  injured  by  the  premature  bursting  of  a 
bomb,  sent  up  to  indicate  the  time  of  day,  and  was  worthily  succeeded 
by  Capt.  Edward  B.  Ives,  Signal  Corps,  U.  S.  Army. 

Carefully  drawn  orders  prescribing  camp  sanitation  were  prepared 
before  the  date  set  for  the  encampment,  and  no  effort  was  omitted  to 
impress  upon  all  the  importance  of  this  subject.  In  order  to  avoid 
detailing  men  away  from  their  companies   to  act  as  police  parties 


198  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

throughout  the  day,  the  entire  command  was  turned  out  morning  and 
afternoon  to  police  the  camp  grounds.  In  this  way  the  camps  were 
made  clean  in  a  few  minutes  and  the  companies  were  kept  nearly  at 
their  full  strength  for  field  exercises. 

The  question  of  the  care  of  sinks  was  given  much  thought,  and  as  it 
was  not  desired  by  the  War  Department  to  give  this  camp  the  perma- 
nence of  form  assigned  to  camps  occupied  in  the  latter  part  of  1898 
and  in  1899,  I  decided  to  adopt  the  pit  sink,  in  which  morning  and 
evening  a  sufficient  quantity  of  lime  was  thrown,  then  a  layer  of  straw 
about  3  inches  thick,  on  which  crude  petroleum  was  poured  and  ignited; 
after  this,  such  earth  as  was  found  necessary  was  spread  over  the  bot- 
tom of  the  sink.  This  method,  if  rigidly  enforced,  produces  excellent 
results,  and  can  be  applied  in  almost  any  camp  in  the  field,  and  thus 
officers  and  men  had  experience  in  handling  this  matter  in  a  practica- 
ble way.  Carefully  prescribed  instructions  for  disposing  of  kitchen 
refuse  and  the  contents  of  slop  barrels  were  also  given.  A  good  result 
of  care  in  above  matters  is  shown  in  the  excellent  health  enjoyed  by 
the  command. 

In  addition  to  the  two  daily  inspections  prescribed  in  orders  from 
these  headquarters  to  be  made  by  company  and  battalion  commanders, 
brigade  commanders  were  instructed  to  cause  further  inspections  to 
be  made  by  their  respective  inspectors-general  and  chief  surgeons, 
and  reports  were  submitted  directly  to  division  headquarters  by 
Lieut.  Col.  S.  C.  Mills,  inspector-general,  who  made  frequent  tours 
of  the  camp  and  who  was  authorized  to  give  orders  on  the  spot  for 
such  work  as  seemed  necessary  to  enforce  my  orders  for  camp  sanita- 
tion. As  a  result  of  these  inspections,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Mills  states 
that — 

Under  all  conditions  of  weather,  I  regard  the  general  sanitation,  police,  and  dis- 
cipline of  the  camp  as  excellent;  there  was  an  earnest  desire  on  the  part  of  all  organ- 
izations to  make  the  camp  a  success  and  to  carry  out  to  the  letter  the  orders  relative 
to  the  care  of  the  camp.  The  troops  of  the  National  Guard  from  Kansas  and  Colorado 
seemed  bent  upon  showing  that  the  regulars  could  not  best  them  in  camp  police  and 
sanitation. 

He  is  of  the  opinion  that  the  advantages  of  locating  sinks  and  com- 
pany kitchens  at  opposite  ends  of  the  company  streets  were  observed 
and  appreciated  by  all  before  the  camp  was  over.  He  also  believes  that 
in  semipermanent  camps  the  best  method  to  be  observed  in  company 
lavations  is  to  place  the  necessary  water  in  galvanized-iron  cans  kept 
midway  between  the  sink  and  the  end  of  the  company  street,  and  to 
require  all  men  to  wash  in  that  vicinity,  the  dirty  water  being  thrown 
on  the  ground  near  by. 

In  connection  with  the  burning  of  hay  and  crude  petroleum  in  the 
pit  sinks,  he  states  the  system  worked  well  and  that  he  has  never 
before  noticed  so  little  odor  in  a  tour  of  camp  sinks,  and  that  there 


REPORT  OF  THE  8ECRETARY  OF  WAR.  199 

was  also  a  noticeable  absence  of  flies.  The  Inspector-General  rurther 
calls  attention  to  the  necessity  for  careful  drill  in  the  estimation  of 
distances,  and  states  there  was  a  great  variety  of  opinion  among 
officers  of  the  same  organizations  in  judging  distance. 

In  the  matter  of  dress  it  was  prescribed  that  when  outside  of  their 
tents  officers  and  enlisted  men  appear  at  all  times  in  proper  uniform, 
and  that  when  the  blouse  was  worn  it  be  invariably  buttoned  through- 
out. Except  while  representing  a  "blue"  or  "brown"  force,  regi- 
mental commanders  and  commanding  officers  of  separate  battalions 
were  authorized  to  prescribe  the  dress  for  their  respective  com- 
mands, which,  however,  would  be  uniform  throughout  the  particular 
command. 

A  list  of  calls  were  prepared  and  observed  by  the  entire  command. 

In  his  interesting  report  the  chief  surgeon,  Lieut.  Col.  John  Van  R. 
Hoff,  says: 

The  regulations  governing  the  organization  and  equipment  of  the  several  medical 
field  units  having  been,  promulgated  just  previous  to  the  time  the  autumn  maneuvers 
were  ordered,  the  Surgeon-General  determined  to  take  advantage  of  the  opportunity 
to  submit  the  new  organizations  to  as  complete  a  trial  as  the  conditions  would  per- 
mit. *  *  *  I  was  directed  to  at  once  make  requisition  upon  the  Quartermaster, 
Ordnance,  and  Medical  departments  for  the  various  materials  needed  for  one  field 
hospital  and  one  ambulance  company  for  duty  with  the  maneuver  division. 

• 

He  says  it  should  be  understood  that  a  field  hospital  for  a  division 
is  intended  to  meet  the  requirements  of  6,000  men  for  three  months, 
including  the  replenishment  of  the  regimental  field  hospitals,  and  the 
chesting  of  this  material  so  that  it  would  be  easy  of  transportation 
and  access  was  no  small  undertaking. 

Assuming  that  the  strength  of  the  maneuver  division  would  be  about 
5,500  men,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Hoff  thought  a  bed  capacity  of  some- 
thing over  200,  or  4  per  cent,  should  be  provided  for  the  sick. 
With  this  end  in  view,  and  at  the  same  time  to  complete  the  picture 
of  medical  organization,  the  post  hospital,  Fort  Riley,  was  designated 
the  base  hospital,  and  tent  wards  capable  of  accommodating  100  patients 
were  pitched.  The  field  hospital  was  organized  to  bed  108  patients, 
and  in  emergency  double  this  number  could  have  been  provided  for  by 
extending  tent  flies  and  putting  half  the  patients  on  bed  sacks.  The 
regiments  and  battalions  had  field  hospitals  with  a  combined  bed  capac- 
ity of  54.  Thus  the  medical  department  was  prepared  with  a  grand 
total  of  256  beds,  exclusive  of  two  12-bed  regimental  hospitals  loaned 
to  the  Kansas  National  Guard,  and  4  beds  brought  in  by  the  Colorado 
battalion.  Thus  it  will  be  seen  that  the  Department  was  fully  pre- 
pared to  meet  any  probable  demands  that  would  be  made  upon  it. 

The  chief  surgeon  says: 

To  keep  the  field  hospitals  mobile,  and  enable  them  to  take  part  in  the  hypotheti- 
cal functions  of  the  maneuvers  those  pertaining  to  the  regiments  were  used  simply 
for  observation  of  patients  who,  if  pick  twenty-four  hours,  were  sent  to  the  division 


200  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

field  hospital,  and  after  twenty-four  hours  there  to  the  base  hospital.  Upon  reach- 
ing the  base  hospital,  if  the  ailment  was  of  such  a  character  as  to  indicate  a  disability 
which  would  last  beyond  the  period  of  the  encampment  the  man  was  returned  to 
his  permanent  station.  By  this  arrangement  the  sick  were  never  permitted  to 
remain  with  the  troops,  and  I  doubt  if  many  knew  that  the  medical  department  was 
caring  for  upward  of  100  patients  daily— small  as  the  number  was  comparatively. 

It  was  ordered  that  during  field  exercises  when  an  umpire  decided 
that  any  men  of  a  command  were  wounded  he  would,  when  practicable, 
hand  to  the  company  commander  a  diagnosis  tag  for  each  with  direc- 
tions that  tho3e  who  were  thus  tagged  would  fall  out  and  be  taken 
back  to  the  regimental  aid  station  in  the  manner  described  on  the  tag. 
At  the  aid  station  they  were  to  be  dressed  and  thence  taken  by  men 
of  the  Hospital  Corps  to  the  ambulance  station,  from  which,  whenever 
the  case  required,  the  wounded  man  was  to  be  transported  in  the 
ambulance  to  the  dressing  station,  and  thence  to  the  field  hospital. 
Medical  officers  were  required  to  keep  a  record  of  the  wounded  pass- 
ing through  the  several  stations  and  report  the  same  to  division  head- 
quarters through  the  division  surgeon.  Company  commanders  were 
required  to  forward  a  list  of  casualties.  Thus  a  most  valuable  object 
lesson  in  the  care,  removal,  and  report  of  the  wounded  was  given  both 
to  the  medical  department  and  to  the  line. 

While  Lieutenant-Colonel  Hoff  thinks  the  camp  sinks  were  usually 
kept  in  good  condition,  he  is  of  the  opinion  that  the  use  of  the  pit  sink 
is  a  mistake.     He  presents  his  views  in  the  following  words: 

The  sanitary  arrangements  of  the  camp  were  primitive,  but  the  conservancy  was 
so  excellently  carried  out  that  the  requirements  of  the  present  occasion  were  well 
met.  I  do  not,  however,  believe  that  in  view  of  our  experience  during  the  Spanish- 
American  war  we  can  afford  to  continue  the  use  of  pit  sinks  in  model  fixed  camp,  no 
matter  how  successfully  they  were  used  at  Camp  Root,  where  all  the  conditions  were 
most  favorable  to  a  perfect  conservancy. 

The  chief  surgeon  expresses  the  opinion  that  no  command  was  ever 
provided  with  a  more  thoroughly  organized  and  supplied  medical 
department  than  was  the  maneuver  division  at  Camp  Root.  Officers 
and  men  vied  to  promote  its  efficiency,  and  he  particularly  invite® 
attention  to  the  excellent  work  of  two  assistant  surgeons — Capt.  F.  P. 
Reynolds,  commanding  the  division  field  hospital,  and  Capt.  J.  S. 
Wilson,  commanding  the  ambulance  company.  M ajs.  George  E.  Bush- 
nell  and  H.  P.  Birmingham,  brigade  surgeons,  First  and  Second  bri- 
gades, rendered  valuable  service. 

I  am  glad  of  this  opportunity  to  express  my  appreciation  of  the 
good  work  done  by  the  medical  department. 

Capt.  C.  B.  Baker,  in  his  report  as  chief  quartermaster,  expresses 
the  belief  that  if  the  maneuvers  are  to  be  continued  from  year  to 
3rear  the  water  system  should  be  put  in  in  a  permanent  manner  and 
the  pipe  sunk  to  a  sufficient  depth  to  prevent  damage  from  frost  or 
other  causes.     This  year  it  was  laid  hurriedly  and  only  a  sufficient 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  201 

depth  to  prevent  injury  from  passing  wagons  or  animals,  which 
required  it  all  to  be  taken  up  upon  the  completion  of  the  encampment, 
at  considerable  expense.  The  chief  quartermaster  is  also  of  the  opin- 
ion that  if  the  "Pawnee  Flats"  are  to  be  used  annually  for  a  camping 
ground  a  permanent  sewer  system  should  be  established.  Proper 
sewerage  and  sinks  of  a  semipermanent  nature  undoubtedly  have  their 
advantage,  but  they  also  have  the  disadvantage  of  materially  dimin- 
ishing instruction  to  officers  and  men  in  camp  sanitation  as  it  will 
usually  have  to  be  applied  in  case  of  war.  Captain  Baker  states  the 
camp  garbage  was  carried  to  a  point  about  a  mile  and  a  half  distant 
from  camp,  emptied  into  deep  trenches,  and  immediately  covered.  He 
also  says  that  owing  to  the  almost  continuous  rains  and  the  lack  of 
necessary  facilities  it  was  found  impracticable  to  burn  it.  He  rec- 
ommends a  crematory  plant  be  provided  for  future  use.  In  this 
connection  it  may  be  stated  that  such  a  plant  has  already  been  recom- 
mended for  Fort  Riley,  and  if  it  be  authorized  its  capacity  should  be 
such  as  to  dispose  of  the  garbage  of  future  maneuver  camps  as  well 
as  of  the  post. 

He  further  recommends  that  "in  case  of  future  encampments  a  tem- 
porary depot  under  canvas  be  established,  entirely  separate  from  the 
post  of  Fort  Riley,  for  furnishing  and  handling  supplies  and  stores 
intended  for  the  use  of  the  troops  participating  in  the  maneuvers," 
and  "that  all  business  of  the  camp  and  the  post  be  kept  entirely  dis- 
tinct," in  which  recommendations  I  concur. 

With  my  sanction  Captain  Baker  issued  about  95,000  pounds  of  nay 
in  lieu  of  straw  for  bedding  for  the  men.  This  was  necessary  to  the 
health  of  the  command,  in  view  of  the  exceedingly  wet  and  inclement 
weather.  If  future  encampments  are  to  be  held  late  in  the  fall,  it  is 
believed  organizations  might  bring  with  them  to  advantage  bed  sacks. 

In  the  earlier  part  of  the  encampment  the  supply  of  riding  animals 
being  inadequate  the  necessities  of  the  medical  department  were  met 
in  part  by  mounting  hospital  stewards  and  orderlies  on  mules  taken 
from  the  pack  train.  The  aggregate  number  of  animals  in  the  camp 
was  1,166. 

Arrangements  were  made  with  the  railroad  officials  of  the  Union 
Pacific  Railroad  whereby  new  sidings  were  put  in  at  Pawnee  Flats,  to 
the  great  convenience  of  the  camp. 

The  hospital  tents  for  the  field  and  base  hospital  were  floored  as 
well  as  the  tents  of  the  field  depot  commissary;  other  tents  were 
without  floors. 

Under  the  direction  of  the  chief  quartermaster  a  bureau  of  infor- 
mation was  organized  for  the  convenience  of  visitors.  This  bureau 
also  had  charge  of  receiving  and  shipping  the  baggage  belonging  to 
visiting  officers  from  the  National  Guard,  and  one  member  of  the  detail 


202  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

met  all  trains  arriving  in  order  to  look  after  the  comfort  of  incoming 
visitors. 

Incoming  organizations  were  met  by  a  representative  of  the  chief 
quartermaster  and  conducted  to  the  camp  site  assigned,  and  the  com- 
manding officer  was  furnished  with  a  memorandum  informing  him  as 
to  all  preparations  made,  and  as  to  the  point  from  which  and  the  man- 
ner whereby  all  supplies  required  could  be  obtained,  both  from  the 
quartermaster  and  commissary  departments.  As  I  have  stated  above, 
the  manner  in  which  these  departments  were  conducted  under  Captain 
Baker  and  Captain  Gallagher  were  very  satisfactory. 

For  the  return  movement  arrangements  were  made  by  the  quarter- 
master's department  for  necessary  freight  and  passenger  equipment  to 
be  in  position  on  the  siding  at  " Pawnee  Flats"  on  October  9,  and  a 
diagram  was  prepared  showing  the  various  locations  on  the  side  tracks 
of  each  train,  and  indicating  the  troops  to  embark  thereon,  and  the 
hour  scheduled  for  departure. 

Upon  the  completion  of  the  maneuvers,  Captain  Baker  states  it  was 
found  practicable  to  turn  in  all  property  for  storage  at  the  post,  pay 
all  accounts  in  form  for  settlement,  and  conclude  all  business  con- 
nected with  the  camp,  including  the  policing  of  the  ground,  by  the 
afternoon  of  October  13. 

1  am  of  the  opinion  that  a  storehouse  of  suitable  dimensions  should 
be  built  at  Fort  Riley  for  storing  from  year  to  year  property  sent 
there  for  the  exclusive  use  of  the  maneuver  encampment. 

The  work  in  the  subsistence  department  was  well  thought  out,  the 
necessary  supplies  reaching  the  troops  promptly,  and  they  were  gen- 
erally satisfactory. 

In  order  to  accommodate  the  National  Guard  officers  who  attended 
without  troops  a  wall  tent  was  assigned  to  each,  and  the  chief  com- 
missary procured  and  had  erected  a  large  mess  tent,  capable  of  seating 
about  200  persons.  With  my  staff  I  procured  my  meals  at  the  same 
mess  and  am  pleased  to  say  it  was  satisfactory.  This  mess,  although 
under  the  general  control  of  a  commissary  officer,  was  in  the  immedi- 
ate charge  of  a  hired  caterer  who  did  very  well,  but  I  concur  in  the 
opinion  expressed  in  a  report  submitted  upon  the  termination  of  the 
camp  by  the  chief  commissary  that  hereafter  the  subsistence  depart- 
ment conduct  the  mess  for  officers  and  visitors  at  headquarters  without 
the  intervention  of  a  caterer,  the  quartermaster  department  supplying 
the  necessary  ranges,  cooking  utensils,  and  tableware,  leaving  to  the 
former  department  to  hire  the  steward,  cooks,  waiters,  and  supply  the 
food.  In  view  of  the  fact  that  even  a  larger  number  of  National 
Guard  officers  will  probably  hereafter  attend  these  maneuvers,  if  the 
War  Department  decides  to  hold  them,  the  chief  commissary  is  fur- 
ther of  the  opinion  that  to  get  the  best  results  when  an  appropriation 
is  made  by  Congress  providing  for  these  encampments,  one  item  should 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  203 

cover  the  employment  of  cooks,  stewards,  and  waiters.  In  this  way 
officers  and  visitors  living  at  headquarters  can  be  supplied  with  whole- 
some food  at  reasonable  rates;  in  fact,  at  the  actual  cost  of  the  food 
itself,  increased  by  the  cost  of  perhaps  a  few  other  minor  necessaries 
and  paying  for  breakages  and  loss  of  tableware. 

The  Regular  Army  ration  was  supplied  to  the  National  Guard  from 
Kansas  and  Colorado,  for  which  they  paid  cost  price.  It  seems  to  have 
proved  satisfactory. 

One  evening  was  devoted  to  instruction  of  officers  of  the  National 
Guard  regarding  the  workings  of  the  subsistence  department,  and  it 
was  intended  to  give  on  another  night  practical  instruction  in  render- 
ing accounts  and  returns,  but  bad  weather  interfered  to  prevent  it.  It 
is  thought  such  instruction  should  be  made  an  important  feature  in 
all  future  encampments. 

The  work  of  the  Signal  Corps  is  to  be  commended.  The  different 
headquarters  were  connected  by  telephone.  Practical  illustrations  of 
the  use  of  the  searchlight  were  given,  and  information  and  orders  were 
transmitted  on  the  field  by  means  of  the  flag  and  hastily  constructed 
telegraph  lines,  the  material  for  which  was  conveyed  in  wagons  that 
followed  the  different  columns  in  the  several  exercises  and  kept  in 
close  touch  with  all,  except  rapidly  moving  cavalry  and  field  batteries. 
The  plant  for  the  field  searchlight  was  also  used  to  furnish  power  for 
a  number  of  incandescent  lights  around  division  headquarters,  and 
especially  in  the  large  mess  tent,  in  which  several  hundred  officers 
were  assembled  upon  a  number  of  evenings  to  listen  to  the  reports  of 
the  umpires  and  discussions  upon  the  exercises  which  had  taken  place, 
and  on  one  occasion  to  hear  an  excellent  lecture  on  strategy  by  Col. 
A.  L.  Wagner,  assistant  adjutant-general.  If  in  future  one  or  more 
carefully  prepared  lectures  upon  military  topics  be  deemed  advisable 
it  may  be  found  useful  to  employ  an  electric  stereopticon,  such  as  is 
used  in  the  several  departments  of  instruction  at  the  United  States 
Military  Academy.  The  improved  methods  for  facilitating  communi- 
cation between  different  parts  of  an  army  were  well  illustrated  by  the 
Signal  Corps,  and  in  future  maneuvers  it  will  be  well  to  afford  all  rea- 
sonable opportunities  to  show  what  can  be  done  in  this  line  and  to 
enable  desired  experiments  to  be  tested. 

The  command  was  fortunate  in  having  a  battalion  of  engineers,  and 
the  latter  was  equally  fortunate  in  being  given  an  opportunity  to  prac- 
tically apply  much  that  they  had  learned  only  in  books.  The  practical 
examples  given  in  intrenching  and  in  building  spar  and  pontoon 
bridges  were  most  useful.  Greater  experience  in  the  construction 
and  use  of  a  pontoon  bridge  was  undoubtedly  had  at  Fort  Riley  than 
has  been  seen  in  this  country  since  the  close  of  the  civil  war.  The 
Kansas  River,  swollen  by  recent  heavy  rains,  had  a  swift  current,  and 
could  be  crossed  only  by  bridging.    A  pontoon  bridge  was  constructed, 


204  BEPORT  OF  THE  8E0BETABY  OP  WAR. 

and  three  regiments  and  one  battalion  of  infantry,  three  squadrons  of 
cavalry,  and  two  batteries  field  artillery  were  passed  over  in  forty-five 
minutes.  Engineers,  infantry,  cavalry,  and  artillery  all  alike  profited 
by  this  experience.  On  another  occasion  it  is  suggested  a  tactical 
problem  be  prescribed  to  illustrate  the  forcing  of  a  passage  of  a  river 
in  the  face  of  the  enemy  by  means  of  pontoon  bridges.  As  the  Foil 
Riley  Reservation  is  of  limited  extent,  and  no  very  satisfactory  point 
can  be  found  along  the  river  where  the  reservation  covers  both  sides 
for  the  execution  of  such  a  problem,  it  will  be  well  to  select  some  site 
a  few  miles  from  the  fort  and  purchase  the  privilege  from  the  sur- 
rounding farmers  to  enter  on  their  fields  for  the  exercise.  This 
doubtless  can  be  done  very  cheaply. 

In  connection  with  the  size  of  the  Fort  Riley  Reservation,  about 
20,000  acres,  I  desire  to  say  it  is  doubtful  if  more  than  10,000  men 
can  be  concentrated  there  for  maneuvers  to  advantage.  As  experi- 
ence is  gained  in  these  maneuvers  and  public  interest  increases, 
either  money  must  be  appropriated  by  Congress  to  hire  the  privilege 
of  entering  upon  farms  for  conducting  field  exercises,  or  the  Govern- 
ment must  arrange  to  hold  army  maneuvers  on  some  of  its  public 
lands  on  the  plains  or  near  the  slopes  of  the  Rocky  Mountains.  We 
should  look  to  the  time  when  two  bodies  of  men,  each  representing  an 
army  corps  of  25,000  or  30,000  men,  should  approach  each  other  from 
a  starting  distance  of  about  150  miles  or  more.  This  would  give  an 
opportunity  for  a  study  and  illustration  of  strategy  in  the  earlier  part 
of  the  movement,  to  be  followed  later  on  by  a  like  experience  in 
battle  tactics. 

The  reports  of  the  umpires  dwelt  on  several  occasions  upon  evident 
defects  in  our  organization  and  equipment,  and  I  deem  the  following 
of  sufficient  importance  for  mention: 

The  necessities  for  mounted  orderlies  in  regiments  of  infantry  is 
evident,  even  for  administration  in  camp  and  garrison,  and  this  need 
is  made  greater  in  action,  because  under  modern  battle  conditions  a 
regiment  at  full  war  strength  covers,  when  deployed,  such  an  extent 
of  territory  that  the  commanding  officer  can  not  in  the  crisis  of  battle 
impress  his  will  upon  the  battalion  and  company  commanders  without 
the  liberal  use  of  mounted  men.  Moreover,  the  colonel  and  his  staff, 
the  lieutenant-colonel,  battalion  commanders,  and  their  staff  officers 
must  on  occasions  dismount  on  the  battlefield  and  should  have  mounted 
orderlies  to  take  their  horses  to  a  place  of  safety  and  return  with  them 
when  wanted.  If  this  statement  of  the  case  be  correct,  as  I  think  must 
be  acknowledged,  it  becomes  only  a  question  as  to  whether  the  neces- 
sary mounted  orderlies  be  detached  from  troops  of  cavalry  organized 
and  maintained  at  large  expense  for  an  entirely  different  purpose,  or 
if  a  certain  number  of  mounted  men  be  made  a  part  of  the  organisa- 
tion of  an  infantry  regiment.     In  addition  to  the  duties  enumerated 


REPORT  OF  THE  8ECRETARY  OF  WAR.  205 

above,  they  would  be  available  in  extreme  cases  as  mounted  scouts  and 
patrols.     Eighteen  to  each  regiment  will  probably  be  required. 

The  importance  of  clothing  troops  in  the  field  with  the  most  non- 
conspicuous  uniform  was  made  very  apparent,  and  it  was  observed 
that  under  strong  sunlight  the  scabbards  of  swords  and  sabers  fre- 
quently indicated  the  position  of  a  command  that  might  otherwise  have 
been  unobserved.  It  is  recommended  that  the  scabbards  of  cavalry 
sabers  be  given  a  dull  or  bronze  finish  and  that  when  in  the  field 
officers  and  noncommissioned  staff  officers  of  infantry  discard  the 
swords  and  carry  only  the  revolver.  Staff  officers,  company  com- 
manders, and  all  senior  officers  should  carry  field  glasses. 

Capt.  Lawson  M.  Fuller,  ordnance  officer,  accompanied  the  troops 
on  marches,  whenever  opportunity  offered,  with  a  view  of  determining 
defects  in  the  equipments  issued  by  the  Ordnance  Department,  and  he 
submitted  a  report  on  this  subject,  under  date  of  the  6th  instant, 
which  has  already  been  forwarded  to  the  Chief  of  Ordnance,  through 
your  office.  Among  other  matters  covered,  he  is  of  the  opinion  that 
improvements  can  be  made  in  the  following,  viz:  The  new  wind-gauge 
sight  for  the  carbine,  the  cavalry  link,  curb  strap,  manner  of  marking 
packing  boxes  containing  ordnance  stores,  and  snap  for  officer's  saber 
belt;  and  he  suggests  that  the  Ordnance  Department  have  issued  each 
year  a  price  list  of  stores  for  sale  or,  when  not  for  sale,  the  prices  at 
which  articles  lost  or  destroyed  are  to  be  charged  on  muster  and  pay 
roll,  and  •  that  when  equipments  are  sent  out  from  any  of  the  several 
arsenals  differing  in  the  slightest  degree  from  the  regular  output  a 
printed  or  typewritten  circular  be  sent  with  each  explaining  the  differ- 
ence and  reason  for  the  change.     I  concur  in  these  suggestions. 

The  opinion  seemed  to  be  general  among  those  who  attended  the 
maneuvers  that,  notwithstanding  the  inclement  weather  during  part  of 
the  time,  the  camp  and  the  field  exercises  were  a  success.  The  value 
of  such  concentrations  and  maneuverings  can  not  be  overestimated, 
either  to  the  regular  forces  or  to  the  National  Guard,  as  it  gives  to 
both  an  opportunity  for  observing  the  appearance  and  formation  of  a 
division  under  various  conditions,  and  affords  to  officers  of  the  several 
arms  of  the  service  a  chance  for  seeing  the  evolutions  and  capabilities 
of  the  other  arms,  and  enables  them  to  enlarge  their  circle  of  military 
acquaintanceship,  which  can  rarely  be  done  without  absorbing  new  ideas 
upon  military  subjects.  During  the  exercises  under  discussion  young 
officers  had  constantly  impressed  upon  them  the  value  of  studying  the 
terrain  with  a  view  to  protecting  their  commands  by  the  accidents  of 
the  ground  and  of  seizing  advantageous  positions.  The  lessons  learned 
in  this  connection  at  Fort  Riley  may  be  the  means  of  saving  many  lives 
in  future  hostilities.  The  power  of  modern  weapons  was  well  illus- 
trated and  accentuated  by  each  opponent  maneuvering  for  position. 

CoL  A.  L.  Wagner,  chief  umpire,  performed  his  duties  in  a  highly 


206  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

satisfactory  manner.  His  comments  on  the  problems  executed  and 
his  recommendations  for  future  field  exercises,  written  in  his  usual 
clear  and  forcible  style,  will  be  submitted  in  print.  As  a  number  of 
officers  of  the  National  Guard  who  attended  the  encampment  expressed 
a  desire  to  be  furnished  with  a  copy  of  Colonel  Wagner's  report,  and 
as  it  will  undoubtedly  be  interesting  and  instructive  to  officers  in  the 
regular  service,  I  have,  with  the  verbal  approval  of  the  Assistant  Sec- 
retary of  War,  directed  that  300  copies  be  printed,  a  number  of  which 
will  be  forwarded  as  soon  as  practicable. 

If  the  National  Guard  attends  hereafter  its  organizations  should,  if 
practicable,  be  in  camp  not  less  than  ten  days.  As  only  two  States 
sent  troops,  a  number  of  officers  attended  who  were  cared  for,  as  above 
stated,  at  division  headquarters.  Such  officers  can  probably  be  taken 
care  of  conveniently  in  the  future,  except  in  the  matter  of  providing 
mounts.  To  dismount  troops  of  cavalry  for  this  purpose  is  objectionable. 
If  there  are  to  be  several  camps  for  maneuver  purposes  it  is  thought  two 
official  representatives  from  the  National  Guard  from  any  State  will 
suffice  for  each  camp,  with  perhaps  an  additional  representative  for 
each  3,000  men  in  the  National  Guard  of  a  State,  thus  giving  to  those 
with  a  considerable  force  a  greater  number  of  official  representatives. 
In  selecting  these  representatives  the  best  results  can  probably  be 
obtained  if  regimental  officers  are  principally  chosen. 

It  is  recommended  a  number  of  specially  selected  field  officers  for 
duty  as  umpires  be  made  by  the  War  Department,  and  that  they  be 
ordered  to  report  to  the  commanding  general  of  the  maneuver  divi- 
sion several  days  before  the  commencement  of  the  field  exercises,  with 
a  view  to  studying  the  terrain,  the  necessary  regulations,  and  to  per- 
mit an  exchange  of  ideas. 

The  spirit  shown  throughout  the  command  was  most  commendable; 
officers  and  men  alike  united  in  their  efforts  to  make  the  maneuvers  a 
success.  1  desire  to  make  special  mention  of  the  valuable  work  done 
by  Brig.  Gen.  William  A.  Kobb6,  upon  whom  devolved  in  a  large 
measure  the  practical  application  and  solution  of  the  tactical  problems 
prescribed.  Maj.  John  G.  D.  Knight,  Corps  of  Engineers,  engineer 
officer,  served  principally  as  an  umpire,  in  which  capacity  he  rendered 
excellent  service.  My  thanks  are  due  and  cordially  given  to  Maj.  E. 
J.  McClernand,  adjutant-general,  Capt.  William  M.  Wright,  Horace 
M.  Reeve,  and  First  Lieut.  Van  Leer  Willis,  aids-de-camp,  who  labored 
zealously  and  intelligently  in  their  several  duties. 
Very  respectfully, 

J.  C.  Bates, 
Major-  General,  U.  S.  Army,  Commanding. 

The  Adjutant-General  United  States  Army, 

Washington,  D.  C 


APPENDIX  L. 


RESOLUTIONS  ADOITED  BY  0FFICEB8   OF  THE   NATIONAL   GUARD   OF  VARIOUS 

STATES  AND  TERRITORIES. 

Camp  Root,  Fort  Riley,  Kans.,  October  7,  190°2. 

Whereas  we,  the  undersigned  officers  of  the  National  Guard  of  the 
various  States  and  Territories  of  the  Union,  detailed  by  the  governors 
of  the  respective  States  and  Territories  (twenty-one  of  which  are  here 
represented),  in  compliance  with  the  request  of  the  honorable  Secretary 
of  War,  to  witness  the  maneuvers  of  the  Regular  Army  and  National  - 
Guard  forces,  assembled  in  camp  of  instruction  at  Camp  Root,  Fort 
Riley,  Kans.,  having  observed  the  different  military  problems  daily: 
Therefore,  be  it 

Resolved^  First.  That  we  desire  to  thank  the  honorable  Secretary  of 
War  for  permitting  us  to  witness  the  maneuvers,  from  which  we  have 
derived  so  much  benefit. 

Second.  That  we  desire  to  express  our  thanks  to  Maj.  Gen.  John  C. 
Bates,  U.  S.  Army,  commander  of  the  maneuver  division,  and  his 
staff  for  their  unfailing  courtesies  to  us  at  all  times,  thus  enabling  us 
to  perform  our  tours  of  duty  most  satisfactorily. 

Third.  That  we  desire  to  thank  Col.  Arthur  L.  Wagner,  Assistant 
Adjutant-General,  U.  S.  Army,  chief  umpire,  for  the  instruction  he 
has  given  us,  and  for  his  able  discussion  of  the  various  problems,  and 
for  his  most  practical  and  brilliant  lecture  on  military  strategy. 

Fourth.  We  desire  further  to  commend  the  policy  of  the  National 
Government,  as  indicated  by  this  camp  of  instruction,  and  for  its  effort 
to  bring  in  closer  contact  the  Regular  Army  and  National  Guard 
forces;  and  we  trust  that  these  joint  maneuvers  may  be  continued 
annually. 

Fifth.  That  these  resolutions  be  engrossed,  one  copy  to  be  for- 
warded to  the  honorable  Secretary  of  War,  one  to  Maj.  Gen.  John  C. 
Bates,  U.  S.  Army,  and  one  to  Col.  Arthur  L.  Wagner,  Assistant 
Adjutant-General,  U.  S.  Army. 

John  J.  Saunders,  major-general,  Maryland;  William  H.  Stacy, 
major-general,  Texas;  P.  H.  Barry,  brigadier-general, 
Nebraska;  John  A.  Wiley,  brigadier-general,  Pennsylva- 
nia;  Q.   O'M.   Gillmore,   brigadier-general,   New  Jersey; 

207 


208  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

E.  S.  Miller,  brigadier-general,  North  Dakota;  George  H. 
Brown,  brigadier-general,  Michigan;  Herbert  S.  Tanner, 
brigadier-general,  Rhode  Island;  J.  H.  Whitney,  brigadier- 
general,  Massachusetts;  William  F.  McGurnin,  colonel  Sec- 
ond Michigan;  H.  E.  Mead,  colonel  Third  Infantry,  Ohio; 
George  W.  McCoy,  colonel,  Indiana;  James  F.  Fee,  lieu- 
tenant-colonel, Indiana;  S.  A.  Bowman,  lieutenant-colonel, 
Indiana;  Usher  Thomason,  colonel,  Georgia;  E.  D.  Hu- 
guenin,  colonel  Second  Infantry,  Georgia;  I.  E.  Webster, 
colonel  Second  Infantry,  Florida;  Charles  K.  Darling, 
colonel  Sixth  Massachusetts;  H.  L.  Archer,  colonel  First 
Infantry,  Nebraska;  Henry  Hutchings,  colonel  First 
Infantry,  Texas;  C.  B.  Young,  colonel,  Illinois;  B.  C. 
Tilghman,  lieutenant-colonel  Third  Infantry,  Pennsyl- 
vania; Bryce  D.  Armour,  major  and  assistant  inspector- 
general,  Rhode  Island;  J.  H.  Dockweiler,  major  and 
engineer  officer,  First  Brigade,  California;  O.  C.  Drew, 
major  and  assistant  adjutant-general,  Texas;  Joseph  R. 
Harrison;  major,  Third  Infantry,  Indiana;  A.  L.  Kuhlman, 
major,  Third  Infantry,  Indiana;  F.  E.  Stevenson,  major, 
artillery  battalion,  Indiana;  P.  J.  H.  Farrell,  major  and 
surgeon,  Illinois;  De  Witt  Clinton  Falls,  captain  and  adju- 
tant, Seventh  Regiment,  New  York;  S.  E.  Yoder,  captain, 
Battery  A,  Nebraska;  W.  L.  Holland,  captain,  South  Omaha 
Cavalry  Troop,  Nebraska;  W.  R.  Brooks,  captain,  engineer 
signal  corps,  Nebraska;  E.  H.  Jayne,  major,  First  Infantry, 
Oklahoma  Territory;  Frederick  Gilkyson,  major  and  assist- 
ant adjutant-general,  New  Jersey;  William  J.  Coleman, 
major,  First  Infantry,  Indiana;  John  Landstreet,  captain, 
Virginia. 


iPPEHDIX  M. 

XEKORAVDUK  FOB  THE  QUABTERXASTER-GENEBAL. 

War  Department, 
Washington,  October  18,  1902. 
I  am  considering  the  expediency  of  asking  Congress  to  authorize  the 
Department  to  furnish  officers'  quarters  with  the  heavy  furniture,  such 
as  tables,  bedsteads,  bureaus,  etc.,  and  to  charge  the  officers  with  a 
small  rental  for  the  use  of  the  articles  furnished.  It  is  clear  that  the 
officer  would  save  by  this  arrangement  in  three  ways: 

1.  The  interest  on  the  money  which  he  now  expends  for  furniture. 

2.  The  great  cost  of  transportation  of  these  heavy  articles  when  he 
is  ordered  from  one  station  to  another. 

8.  The  rapid  depreciation  of  the  articles,  caused  l>oth  by  use  and  by 
transportation. 

On  the  other  hand,  it  is  clear  that  the  Government,  buying  the  fur- 
niture in  large  quantities,  could  get  it  at  a  very  much  smaller  first  cost 
than  the  officers  can,  and  that  the  furniture  remaining  permanently  in 
the  same  quarters  would  depreciate  much  less  rapidly  than  when  it  is 
moved  about  from  one  post  to  another. 

I  have  an  impression  that,  considering  the  great  saving  to  the  offi- 
cers and  the  smaller  expense  to  the  United  States,  the  officers  could 
well  afford  to  pay  a  rental  which  would  constitute  a  sufficient  renewal 
fund  in  the  hands  of  the  Government  aad  would  ultimatelv  reimburse 
the  Government  for  the  principal,  so  that  the  great  expense  and  fre- 
quent hardship  to  our  officers  would  be  prevented  without  ultimate 
loss  to  the  Treasury. 

In  order  to  test  these  views,  I  should  be  glad  to  have  all  the  infor- 
mation practicable  bearing  upon  the  subject,  and  particularly  upon  the 
following  points: 

(1)  A  statement  of  the  different  articles  of  furniture  which  you  think 
could  be  advantageously  supplied  in  this  way  for  married  officers' 
quarters  and  for  bachelor  quarters,  respectively. 

(2)  The  difference  between  the  average  cost  of  such  furniture  when 
purchased  by  an  officer  individually  and  what  the  same  furniture 
would  cost  if  purchased  by  the  Quartermaster's  Department. 

(3)  An  estimate  of  the  annual  average  depreciation  of  officers' 
furniture  under  the  present  conditions  of  frequent  removals  from 
post  to  post,  and  an  estimate  of  the  probable  annual  depreciation  of 
the  same  furniture  if  furnished  by  the  Government  and  permitted  to 
remain  in  the  same  quarters. 

(4)  Such  facts  as  you  can  obtain  tending  to  show  the  cost  of  trans- 

209 
WAB  1903— VOL  1 14 


210 


REPORT   OF   THE   SECRETARY    OF   WAR. 


portation  of  furniture  to  officers  when  ordered  from  post  to  post  under 

the  present  system. 

(5)  An  expression  of  your  views  as  to  the  total  first  outlay  which 

would  be  required  to  inaugurate  the  new  system,  the  rentals  which 

officers  could  reasonably  be  expected  to  pay,  and  the  adequacy  of  such 

rentals  to  create  a  renewal  fund  and  ultimately  retire  the  principal  of 

the  original  outlay. 

Elihu  Root, 

Secretary  of  War. 


War  Department, 
Quartermaster-  Genera l's  Office, 

Washington,  November  5,  1902. 
The  following  memorandum  is  submitted  in  reply  to  inquiries  con- 
tained in  accompanying  memorandum  of  the  Secretary  of  War: 

First.  Articles  of  furniture  thought  to  be  necessary  for  married 
officers'  and  bachelor  officers'  quarters. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  furniture  which  it  is  thought  covers  all  the 
articles  which  should  be  supplied  by  the  Government.  These  articles 
comprise  the  bulky  and  heavy  furniture  which  every  married  officer 
must  have  and  covers  the  essential  articles  required  for  kitchen,  din- 
ing room,  parlor,  sitting  room  and  hall,  two  bedrooms,  and  one  serv- 
ants' bedroom,  for  which  two  beds  are  provided: 


Articles. 


Kitchen  furniture: 

1  table 

4  kitchen  chairs,  at  50  cents  each 

1  refrigerator 

Dining-room  furniture: 

Sideboard,  48  by  24  inches,  with  shelf  and  bevel  glass 

Dining  table,  pillar  extension,  10  feet  long,  48  inches  diameter 

Side  serving  table,  with  shelf  and  drawer,  87  by  17  inches 

8  dining  chairs,  quartered  oak,  with  cane  seats,  at  92.50  each 

Hall  furniture: 

Ha  track,  with  box  seat  and  hinged  lid,  with  mirror  18  by  40  inches 

Parlor  furniture: 

1  divan,  larm  chair,  and  2  side  chairs 

1  center  table 

Bedroom  furniture: 

2  iron  beds  with  brass  trimmings,  including  wire-woven  mattress,  or 
national  spring,  at  $15 

2  servants'  beds,  iron,  white  enamel,  42  or  36  inches  wide,  at  $4.75 

Bureau,  48  by  23  inches,  circular  mirror,  82  inches 

Washstand,  36  by  18  inches 

4  bedroom  chairs,  at  $1.50 

Chiffonier 

1  Morris  chair,  with  cushions 


Cost  if  pur- 
chased by 
Quarter- 
master's 
Depart- 
ment 


$3.50 

2.00 

17.00 

31.00 

18.00 

9.00 

20.00 

18.50 

69.00 
25.00 


30.00 
9.50 

36.00 

12.00 
6.00 

31.00 
9.75 

347.25 


Cost  if  pur- 
chased by 
officer. 


$4.00 

2.80 

25.00 

42.00 
24.00 
13.00 
28.00 

25.00 

100.00 
35.00 


U42.00 
ft  14. 50 
48.00 
17.00 
C8.00 
42.00 
13.50 

483.80 


a  At  $21. 


ft  At  $7.25. 


cAt$2. 


BEPOBT   OF   THE    8ECBETARY    OF    WAR. 


211 


These  are  of  good  serviceable  quality,  and  it  is  deemed  in  the  inter- 
est of  economy  that  such  only  should  be  purchased. 

The  following  articles  are  believed  to  be  necessary  for  a  bachelor 
officer's  quarters: 


Articles. 


Hall  furniture: 

1  hall  rack 

Parlor  furniture: 

1  table 

1  lounge  or  sofa. 

1  armchair 

•  4 chairs,  at  18... 
Bedroom  furniture: 

lbed 

1  bureau 

1  washstand 

2  chain,  at  $L50. 

1  chiffonier 

1  Morris  chair... 


Total 

Difference. 


CoHt  if 
purchased 
by  Quarter- 
master's 
Depart- 
ment. 

Cost  if  pur- 
chased by 
officer. 

85.00 

$6.97 

15.00 

20.89 

20.00 

27.86 

20.00 

27.80 

12.00 

16.71 

15.00 

20.89 

15.00 

20.89 

10.00 

13.93 

3.00 

4.18 

25.00 

34.82 

9.75 

13.58 

148. 75 

208.58 

59.83 

Second.  Assuming  for  the  purpose  of  determining  the  cost  of  fur- 
niture that  only  captains  and  first  lieutenants  of  the  line  would  be 
supplied,  this  would  give: 

Captains  of  cavalry $225 

Captains  of  artillery 195 

Captains  of  infantry 450 

First  lieutenants  of  cavalry 225 

First  lieutenants  of  artillery 195 

First  lieutenants  of  infantry 450 

Total 1,740 

Deduct  those  in  Philippines,  25  per  cent 435 

Leaves..... 1,305 

Deduct  those  absent  from  posts,  20  per  cent 261 

Leaves  a  balance  of 1, 044 

Assuming  that  75  per  cent  of  this  number  are  married  officers  and 
25  per  cent  are  bachelors,  the  cost  of  supplying  the  furniture  for  the 
number  of  officers  specified  would  be: 

For  married  officers: 

If  purchased  by  officer $415,100.40 

If  purchased  by  Quartermaster's  Detriment 297, 940. 50 


Difference 


117, 159. 90 


212         BEPOBT  OF  THE  SEOBETABY  OF  WAB. 

For  bachelor  officers: 

If  purchased  by  officer 59,653.88 

If  purchased  by  Quartermaster's  Department 42, 542. 50 

Difference 17,111.38 

This  furniture  could  no  doubt  be  obtained,  if  purchased  by  the 
Quartermaster's  Department  in  large  quantities,  at  somewhat  less  cost 
than  stated  above. 

Third.  Depreciation  of  furniture: 

The  allowance  specified  in  the  digest  of  insurance  adjusters  for  the 
annual  depreciation  of  furniture  where  there  is  a  large  family  of  chil- 
dren and  the  care  of  the  properly  is  left  to  servants  is  20  per  cent, 
and  where  carefully  cared  for  by  the  owners,  10  per  cent.  Allowing 
two  removals  in  five  years — a  very  low  average — and  20  per  cent 
depreciation  for  wear  and  tear  and  breakage  for  each  removal  or 
change  of  station,  would  make  40  per  cent  depreciation  on  account  of 
removals  in  five  years,  or  8  per  cent  per  year;  adding  to  this  the 
annual  depreciation  of  20  per  cent  on  account  of  wear  and  tear  in  use, 
makes  the  annual  average  depreciation  to  the  officer  under  present 
conditions  28  per  cent,  or  a  renewal  in  about  four  years,  equal  to 
$120.98  per  year  for  articles  in  above  list  for  married  officers  at  retail 
prices,  and  $52.15  per  year  for  bachelor  officers.  This  would  be  about 
$51  per  year  more  in  the  case  of  married  officers  and  $22.50  more  in 
case  of  bachelor  officers  than  the  amount  of  rental  to  be  paid  to  the 
Government  for  the  use  of  the  furniture  at  an  allowance  of  20  per 
cent  per  annum  depreciation. 

It  is  remarked  in  this  connection  that  under  the  present  system  of 
transportation  of  officers'  effects  the  expense  of  packing  and  crating 
officers  authorized  allowance  of  furniture  practically  always  falls  upon 
the  Quartermaster's  Department;  under  the  proposed  system  the 
department  would  be  relieved  of  this  expense,  the  percentage  of  which 
it  is  difficult  to  estimate. 

An  allowance  of  20  per  cent  depreciation  per  annum  would  retire 
the  original  outlay  of  the  Government  every  five  years.  With  ordinary 
use  and  small  expenditures  for  repairs  as  needed,  this  Government  fur- 
niture would  still  have  some  value  at  the  end  of  five  years,  although  just 
what  this  would  be  it  is  also  difficult  to  estimate  without  some  experience 
upon  which  to  base  the  calculations.  It  is  therefore  believed  that,  all 
things  considered,  the  Government  would  be  adequately  compensated 
by  a  rental  of  15  per  cent  per  annum  on  first  cost  of  furniture  furnished 
to  officers,  which  is  the  mean  between  the  highest  and  lowest  estimate 
for  annual  depreciation  by  insurance  adjusters  and  equal  to  renewal  in 
about  seven  years. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  213 

Fourth.  The  following  is  the  cost  to  the  United  States  of  a  change 
of  station  allowance  for  a  captain,  2,0<K)  pounds: 


Cost.      Distance. 


From  Chicago  to  Washington $20.60 

From  8an  Francisco  tc  Chicago 70. 60 

From  San  Francisco  to  Washington 77. 20 

From  FortThrmas,  Ky.,  to  Fort  Assinniboine,  Mont '  76.60 

From  Fort  Logan  H.  Roots,  Ark.,  to  Fort  Bnolling,  Minn 29. 60 


i 


Miles. 

905 
2,328 
3.233 
1,674 

925 


Making  an  average  of  $30.20  per  1,000  miles.  It  is  believed  that 
the  average  amount  of  baggage  transported  by  an  officer  atmve  his 
regulation  allowance  is  3,000  pounds,  at  an  estimated  average  cost 
ot  $55. 

It  is  believed  that  there  will  be  no  saving  in  transportation  charges 
to  the  Government  for  some  years  to  come  by  the  adoption  of  the 
proposed  method,  as  the  authorized  amount  of  baggage  allowed  to  an 
officer  will  still  be  shipped,  at  least  in  the  case  of  married  officers. 
The  furniture  mentioned  in  the  foregoing  list  would  cover  only  that 
part  of  an  officer's  personal  baggage  in  excess  of  the  amount  now 
allowed  to  him  by  the  Government  and  for  which  he  is  required 
under  present  conditions  to  pay  transportation  charges. 

Fifth.  Total  first  outlay,  etc. : 

Assuming  the  average  amount  of  deterioration  by  wear  and  tear  in 
use  and  removal  of  the  furniture  in  the  foregoing  list  for  a  married 
officer,  amounting  to  $183.80,  under  present  conditions,  at  28  per  cent 
per  annum,  would  be  $135.46;  adding  to  this  the  cost  of  excess  bag- 
gage, at  the  rate  of  $55  for  each  removal,  two  removals  in  live  years, 
costing  $110  or  $22  per  annum,  would  make  the  total  $157.40  as  the 
estimated  saving  to  the  officer  by  using  Government  furniture,  from 
which  should  be  deducted  the  rental  at  the  rate  of  15  per  cent  per 
annum  on  first  cost  of  the  furniture  to  the  Government  at  $347.25, 
equal  to  $52.08,  thus  showing  a  saving  of  $105.38  per  annum  to  the 
married  officer  after  having  paid  a  rental  at  the  rate  of  15  per  cent 
per  annum  under  the  proposed  system.  This  saving  would  be  only 
about  $36  to  the  bachelor  officer  because,  as  a  rule,  officers  of  this  class 
have  no  excess  baggage  over  the  authorized  allowance  transported 
by  the  Government. 

On  the  basis  of  the  above  estimate,  the  total  first  outlay,  assuming 
that  only  captains  and  first  lieutenants  of  the  line  are  supplied,  on  the 
basis  of  75  per  cent  married  and  25  per  cent  bachelor,  would  be 
approximately  $340,483.  As  stated  under  paragraph  3,  allowing  a 
rental  of  such  furniture  as  may  be  used  by  an  officer  at  15  per  cent  on 
its  first  cost,  constituting  a  renewal  in  about  seven  years,  it  is  believed 


214  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

would  be  ample  to  compensate  the  Government  for  the  first  outlay 
necessary  to  inaugurate  this  system. 

Assuming  that  these  articles  of  furniture  are  supplied  to  all  officers 
of  the  Army  upon  the  basis  as  noted  above,  viz,  3,820  officers,  less  25 
per  cent  in  the  Philippines  and  30  per  cent  of  the  remainder  not 
serving  at  posts,  a  total  of  1,813,  leaving  2,007  officers  to  be  provided 
for,  will  cost,  upon  the  basis  of  75  per  cent  married  and  25  per  cent 
bachelor,  a  total  of  $595,260,  to  which  must  be  added  the  cost  of 
transportation  to  the  respective  posts. 

This  system,  if  introduced  at  all,  should  be  brought  in  gradually,  so 
as  to  enable  the  officers  to  become  accustomed  to  and  make  their 
arrangements  to  meet  it,  without  being  obliged  to  dispense,  under  dis- 
advantageous conditions,  with  the  furniture  which  they  now  have.  As 
above  stated,  the  total  estimated  cost  of  supplying  the  articles  of  fur- 
niture herein  referred  to,  for  all  officers  in  the  service  likely  to  require 
it,  would  be  $595,260.  It  is  believed,  however,  that  not  more  than 
one-half  of  this  sum  could  be  advantageously  expended  during  the  first 
year  of  the  inauguration  of  this  system. 

While  the  articles  selected  are  by  no  means  a  complete  list  of  furni- 
ture that  an  officer  would  require  in  his  household,  it  is  believed  that 
they  constitute  all  that  is  necessary,  and  still  leave  the  officer  a  large 
limit  of  choice  for  the  exercise  of  his  personal  taste  in  completing  the 
furnishings  of  his  quarters. 

It  is  remarked  that  the  necessity  may  arise  for  construction  or 
enlargement  of  storehouses  at  some  posts  in  order  to  meet  cases 
where  quarters  provided  with  Government  furniture  are  vacated  by 
an  officer  and  another  officer  assigned  to  the  same  quarters  brings  his 
own  furniture  with  him,  in  which  event  either  must  be  stored  at  the 
post.     This  may,  however,  adjust  itself  in  the  course  of  time. 

M.  I.  Ludington, 
Quartermaster- General,  U.  S.  Army. 

186701. 


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APPENDIX  0. 


PAFEB8  RELATING  TO  FRIARS'  LAND  NEGOTIATIONS. 


INSTRUCTIONS  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR  TO  GOVERNOR  WIL- 
LIAM H.  TAFT  IN  THE  MATTER  OF  THE  PURCHASE  OF  FRIAR 
LANDS  IN  THE  PHILIPPINES. 

War  Department, 
Wa*ki nytipii  *  May  .9,  1002. 

Sir:  It  is  now  apparent  that  Congress  will  not  have  acted  upon  the 
Philippine  Commission's  recommendations  regarding  the  purchase  of 
friars'  lands  before  the  time  of  your  departure  for  ?*Ianila,  which 
can  not  be  longer  delayed.  You  can  not,  therefore,  as  we  had  hoped, 
now  receive  definite  instructions,  and  proceed  to  take  such  steps,  in 
the  execution  of  specific  authority  from  Congress,  as  should  properly 
be  taken  before  you  return  to  Manila.  The  committees  of  both  Houses 
have,  however,  reported  favorably  upon  the  Commission's  recommen- 
dations, and  it  appears  probable  that  Congress  will  confirm  their  action. 
In  view,  therefore,  of  the  critical  situation  of  this  subject  in  the  Philip- 
pines, and  of  the  apparent  impossibility  of  disposing  of  the  matter 
there  by  negotiation  with  the  friars  themselves,  the  President  does  not 
feel  at  liberty  to  lose  the  opportunity  for  effective  action  afforded  by 
your  presence  in  the  West.  He  wishes  you  to  take  the  subject  up 
tentatively  with  the  ecclesiastical  superiors  who  must  ultimately  deter- 
mine the  friars'  course  of  conduct,  and  endeavor  to  reach  at  least  a 
basis  of  negotiation  along  lines  which  will  be  satisfactory  to  them  and 
to  the  Philippine  government,  accompanied  by  a  full  understanding 
on  both  sides  of  the  facts  and  of  the  views  and  purposes  of  the  pirties 
to  the  negotiation,  so  that  when  Congress  shall  have  acted  the  business 
may  proceed  to  a  conclusion  without  delay. 

You  are  accordingly  authorized,  in  the  course  of  your  return  jour- 
ney to  Manila,  to  visit  Rome,  and  there  ascertain  what  church  author- 
ities have  the  power  to  negotiate  for  and  determine  upon  a  sale  of 
the  lands  of  the  religious  orders  in  the  Philippines  Islands,  and  if 
you  find,  as  we  are  informed,  that  the  officers  of  the  church  at  Rome 
have  such  power  and  authority,  you  will  endeavor  to  attain  the  results 
above  indicated.  Any  negotiations  which  you  may  enter  upon  are 
always  subject  to  granting  of  power  by  Congress  to  follow  the  nego- 

233 


234  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

tiations  by  binding  action.  In  any  conferences  and  negotiations  you 
will  bear  in  mind  the  following  propositions,  which  are  deemed  to  be 
fundamental,  and  which  should  be  fully  and  frankly  stated  to  the  other 
side  in  the  negotiations: 

(1)  One  of  the  controlling  principles  of  our  Government  is  the  com- 
plete separation  of  church  and  state,  with  the  entire  freedom  of  each 
from  any  control  or  interference  by  the  other.  This  principle  is 
imperative  wherever  American  jurisdiction  extends,  and  no  modifica- 
tion or  shading  thereof  can  be  a  subject  of  discussion. 

(2)  It  is  necessary  now  to  deal  with  the  results  of  establishing  a 
government  controlled  by  this  principle  in  the  Philippine  Islands, 
which  have  for  centuries  been  governed  under  an  entirely  different 
system,  with  church  and  state  closely  united,  and  having  functions  of 
the  one  exercised  by  agents  of  the  other;  where  the  church  has  long 
controlled  and  acted  virtually  as  the  agent  of  the  state  in  the  field  of 
public  instruction  and  public  charities,  and  has  from  time  to  time 
acquired  large  properties  held  by  it  or  by  its  subordinate  corpora- 
tions or  officers  for  these  public  uses.  A  novel  situation  has  been 
created  under  which  the  adjustment  of  means  to  ends  appropriate  to 
the  former  system  entirely  fails  to  produce  the  intended  result  under 
the  new  system,  and  the  separation  of  church  and  state  requires  to  be 
followed  by  a  readjustment  and  rearrangement  in  the  interests  both  of 
church  and  of  state,  and  for  the  attainment  of  the  great  ends  of  civil 
government,  of  education,  of  charity,  and  of  religion. 

(3)  By  reason  of  the  separation  the  religious  orders  can  no  longer 
perform  in  behalf  of  the  state  the  duties  in  relation  to  public  instruc- 
tion and  public  charities  formerly  resting  upon  them,  and  the  power 
which  they  formerly  exercised,  through  their  relations  to  the  civil 
government,  being  now  withdrawn,  they  find  themselves  the  object  of 
such  hostility  on  the  part  of  their  tenantry  against  them  as  landlords, 
and  on  the  part  of  the  people  of  the  parishes  against  them  as  repre- 
sentatives of  the  former  government,  that  they  are  no  longer  capable 
of  serving  any  useful  purpose  for  the  church.  No  rents  can  be  col- 
lected from  the  populous  communities  occupying  their  lands  unless  it 
be  by  the  intervention  of  the  civil  government  with  armed  force. 
Speaking  generally,  for  several  years  past  the  friars,  formerly  installed 
over  the  parishes,  have  been  unable  to  remain  at  their  posts,  and  are 
collected  in  Manila  with  the  vain  hope  of  returning.  They  will  not  be 
voluntarily  accepted  again  by  the  people,  and  can  not  be  restored  to 
their  positions  except  by  forcible  intervention  on  the  part  of  the  civil 
government,  which  the  principles  of  our  Government  forbid. 

It  is  manifest  that  under  these  conditions  it  is  for  the  interest  of  the 
church,  as  well  as  of  the  state,  that  the  landed  proprietorship  of  the  reli- 
gious orders  in  the  Philippine  Islands  should  cease,  and  that  if  the 
church  wishes,  as  of  course  it  does  wish,  to  continue  its  ministration 


BEPORT  OF  THE  8ECRETARY  OF  WAR.  235 

among  the  people  of  the  islands,  and  to  conduct  in  its  own  behalf  a 
system  of  instruction,  with  which  we  have  no  desire  to  interfere,  it 
should  seek  other  agents  therefor. 

(4)  It  is  the  wish  of  our  Government,  in  case  (Congress  shall  grant 
authority,  that  the  titles  of  the  religious  orders  to  the  large  tracts  of 
agricultural  lands  which  they  now  hold  shall  be  extinguished,  but 
that  full  and  fair  compensation  shall  be  made  therefor. 

(5)  It  is  not,  however,  deemed  to  be  for  the  interests  of  the  people 
of  the  Philippine  Islands  that,  in  thus  transforming  wholly  unpro- 
ductive tracts  of  land  into  money  capable  of  productive  investment, 
a  fund  should  thereby  be  created  to  be  used  for  the  attempted  res- 
toration of  the  friars  to  the  parishes  from  which  they  are  now  sepa- 
rated, with  the  consequent  disturbance  of  law  and  order, 

(6)  The  titles  to  the  great  amount  of  church  lands  and  buildings 
in  the  islands,  other  than  those  of  the  religious  orders  and  now 
apparently  owned  by  the  state,  should  be  settled  fairly. 

(7)  Provision  should  be  made  for  ascertaining  what  rentals,  if  any, 
ought  to  be  paid  for  conventos  and  other  church  buildings  which  have 
been  occupied  by  United  States  troops  during  the  insurrection,  this 
being  of  course  subject  to  further  specific  action  by  Congress. 

(8)  The  rights  and  obligations  remaining  under  the  various  specific 
trusts  for  education  and  charity  which  are  nowr  in  doubt  and  contro- 
versy ought  to  be  settled  by  agreement  if  possible,  rather  than  by  the 
slow  and  frequently  disastrous  processes  of  litigation,  so  that  the 
beneficent  purposes  of  these  foundations  may  not  fail. 

(9)  Your  errand  will  not  be  in  any  sense  or  degree  diplomatic  in  its 
nature,  but  will  be  purely  a  business  matter  of  negotiation  by  you  as 
Governor  of  the  Philippines  for  the  purchase  of  property  from  the 
owners  thereof,  and  the  settlement  of  land  titles,  in  such  a  manner  as 
to  contribute  to  the  best  interests  of  the  people  of  the  islands. 

Any  assistance  which  you  may  desire,  whether  on  the  part  of  offi- 
cers of  the  civil  government,  or  of  military  officers,  to  enable  you  to 
perform  the  duties  above  described  in  a  manner  satisfactory  to  your- 
self, will  be  afforded;  but  the  business  is  left  entirely  in  your  hands, 
subject  to  such  action  as  may  be  taken  pursuant  to  law  upon  }Tour 
report. 

Very  respectfully,  Elihu  Root, 

Secretary  of  War. 

Hon.  William  H.  Taft, 

Civil  Govern  wr  of  the  Philippines, 

Washington*  />.   (\ 


236  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

[Copy  of  cablegram  Rent.] 

Washington,  June  5,  1902. 

Taft,  Rome,  Italy: 

Referring  to  your  dispatch  of  June  third.    The  statements  regarding 

the  religious  orders  on  page  3  of  the  instructions  are  to  be  understood 

as  referring  to  the  four  orders  named  in  your  telegram.     The  system  of 

instruction  mentioned  in  line  twenty-three   is   to  be  understood  as 

referring  to  instruction  in  the  parishes. 

Root,  Secretary  of  War. 


Department  of  State, 

Washington,  May  10,  1902. 
Most  Eminent  Sir:  1  take  pleasure  in  presenting  to  your  em i nance 
the  Honorable  William  H.  Taft,  one  of  our  most  distinguished  citizens, 
who  is  at  present,  and  has  been  for  several  years,  the  civil  governor  of 
the  Philippine  Islands,  which  important  office  he  has  filled  with  great 
intelligence  and  success.  He  is  now  returning  to  the  islands  after  a 
brief  stay  in  this  country.  On  his  way  he  will  visit  Rome  for  the  pur- 
pose of  reaching,  if  possible,  a  basis  for  the  just  settlement  of  the 
many  pending  questions  relating  to  property  held  in  the  Philippine 
Islands  for  religious  and  charitable  uses.  I  beg  to  commend  him  to 
your  confidence  and  kind  consideration  with  sincere  hope  for  the  attain- 
ment of  results  which  shall  promote  both  the  civil  and  religious  welfare 
of  the  people  of  the  islands. 

I  profit  by  this  occasion,  Most  Eminent  Sir,  to  tender  you  the  assur- 
ance of  my  profound  esteem  and  highest  consideration. 
Your  obedient  servant, 

John  Hay. 
To  His  Eminence,  Cardinal  M.  Rampolla  del  Tindaro, 

Secretary  of  State  to  IL's  Holiness,  etc. ,  etc. 


[Translation.] 

Excellency:  I  have  the  gratification  to  signify  to  your  Excellency 
that  you  will  be  received  by  His  Holiness  in  private  audience,  together 
with  the  members  of  the  honorable  mission  in  your  part}T,  to-morrow, 
Thursday,  the  fifth  instant,  at  the  hour  of  half  past  twelve. 

I  avail  myself  of  the  opportunity  to  assure  your  Excellency  of  the 

distinct  sense  of  consideration  with  which  I  have  the  honor  to  be  of 

your  Excellency  the  most  devoted  servant. 

M.  Card.  Rampolla. 
Rome,  June  4, 1902. 

To  Mr.  William  Taft, 

Governor  of  the  Philippines. 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  237 

Text  of  address  made  hy  Governor  Taft  to  ITU  Holiness  the  Pope. 

Your  Holiness:  On  my  departure  from  Washington,  President 
Roosevelt  committed  to  my  hands  an  autograph  note  of  personal  greet- 
ing and  eight  bound  volumes  of  his  literary  works  to  be  delivered  to 
Your  Holiness.     I  now  have  the  honor  of  complying  with  his  direction. 

I  desire  next  to  express  my  sense  of  the  personal  honor  of  this  audi- 
ence. I  am  not  a  member  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church;  but  one 
who  has  marked  the  enlightened  statesmanship,  the  limpid  purity  of 
character,  and  the  earnest  seeking  for  the  uplifting  of  all  humanity 
that  have  been  the  personal  characteristics  of  the  head  of  the  Roman 
Church  during  the  quarter  century  of  the  present  pontificate  can  not 
fail,  whatever  his  church  or  creed,  to  entertain  the  most  profound 
respect  for  Your  Holiness. 

The  transfer  of  sovereignty  and  all  governmental  property  rights  and 
interests  from  the  Crown  of  Spain  to  the  United  States  in  the  Philip- 
pine Islands  contained  in  the  Treaty  of  Paris  was  a  transfer-  from  a 
government  between  which  and  the  Church  of  Rome  there  had  been  in 
those  islands  the  closest  association  in  property,  religion,  and  politics, 
to  a  government  which  by  the  law  of  its  being  is  absolutely  prevented 
from  having  such  sissociations  with  any  church.  To  make  the  transfer 
effectual,  and  at  the  same  time  just,  it  is  obvious  that  the  proper  line 
of  division  must  be  drawn  between  what  were  really  civil  property 
interests  of  the  Crown  of  Spain  and  what  were  religious  trusts  of  the 
Catholic  Church,  and  that  all  union  of  civil  and  clerical  agencies  for 
performance  of  political  functions  must  end. 

It  is  said  that  many  churches  and  conventos  are  on  United  States 
land.  It  is  said  that  rental  is  due  from  the  United  States  for  occupa- 
tion of  churches  and  conventos.  Of  the  very  nice  questions  thus  aris- 
ing, some  might  be  settled,  perhaps  after  years  of  litigation  in  the 
ordinary  courts  of  Justice,  though  others  could  not  be  disposed  of  in 
this  way.  Especially  is  this  true  of  certain  questions  which  I  shall 
now  briefly  state:  The  transfer  of  sovereignty  from  Spain  to  the 
United"  States  had  been  preceded  by  two  revolutions  among  the  Philip- 
pine people  against  Spain.  The  popular  hostility  was  chiefly  mani- 
fested against  the  members  of  four  religious  orders  who  had,  in 
addition  to  their  clerical  duties  as  parish  priests,  been  charged  by  the 
Spanish  Government  with  the  performance  of  a  burden  of  local  polit- 
ical and  police  duties,  and  in  the  performance  had  been  held  responsible 
by  the  people  for  the  oppression  of  which  it  was  said  that  Spain  was 
guilty. 

Three  of  these  orders  were  owners  of  large  tracts  of  valuable  agri- 
cultural lands,  and  in  each  revolution  the  hostility  toward  the  mem- 
bers of  the  religious  orders  was,  in  provinces  where  this  land  lay, 
agrarian  as  well  as  political.     The  justice  or  injustice  of  this  hostility 


238  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

is,  as  I  conceive,  aside  from  the  issue.  It  exists  and  is  the  result  of 
years  of  peace  and  war.  It  can  not  be  ignored.  The  members  of  these 
orders  have  not  yet  returned  to  their  parishes,  which  are  being 
administered  by  the  native  clergy,  and  they  have  not  yet  resumed 
possession  of  their  lands.  An  attempt  by  them  to  assume  the  rights 
of  landlords  or  to  become  parish  priests  again  will,  it  is  confidently 
believed,  seriously  disturb  the  peace  and  order  of  the  islands. 

On  behalf  of  the  Philippine  government,  it  is  proposed  to  buy  the 
lands  of  the  religious  orders  with  the  hope  that  the  funds  thus  fur- 
nished may  lead  to  their  withdrawal  from  the  islands,  and,  if  necessary, 
a  substitution  therefor,  as  parish  priests,  of  other  priests  whose  pres- 
ence would  not  be  dangerous  to  public  order.  It  is  further  hoped  that 
church  titles,  rentals,  and  prices  might  all  be  fixed  either  by  arbitration 
or  in  a  general  compromise.  Authority  to  purchase  the  agricultural 
lands  of  religious  orders  must  ultimately  come  from  the  Congress  of 
the  United  States,  but  a  bill  granting  such  authority  has  been  favor- 
ably reported  to  both  Houses  of  Congress,  and  there  is  every  pros- 
pect of  its  passage  before  the  close  of  the  session,  which  will  probably 
end  in  July.  The  bill  leaves  the  method  of  purchase  to  the  Philippine 
government,  so  that  the  negotiations  concerning  such  a  purchase  are 
not  now  premature. 

We  now  have  in  the  Philippine  Islands  a  Christian  people  of 
6,000,000  souls,  substantially  all  Roman  Catholics,  just  awaiting  the 
dawn  of  a  new  political  and  business  life.  What  a  burden  upon  them, 
what  a  burden  upon  their  church,  to  which  they  are  devoted,  that  deep- 
seated  political  and  agrarian  hostilities  growing  out  of  the  troubles  of 
a  previous  regime  should  be  permitted  now  to  cast  their  shadow  upon 
their  religious  and  political  welfare.  Should  such  questions  be  left 
open  to  a  continued  discussion  with  all  the  unfortunate  heat  likely  to 
be  engendered?  Is  it  not  wise  that  in  a  straightforward  business 
method  a  basis  for  a  general  settlement  and  compromise  should  be 
reached  in  an  amicable  conference  between  the  representatives  of  the 
head  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  and  agents  or  officials  of  the  Phil- 
ippine and  United  States  Governments?  In  such  a  conference  conces- 
sions and  compromises  may  be  expected  if  they  do  not  involve  a 
violation  of  principle,  and  the  supreme  benefit,  both  to  the  state  and 
the  church,  of  an  amicable  settlement  will  make  each  side  bend  to 
reach  it. 

I  do  not  need  to  assure  Your  Holiness  that  the  attitude  of  the  United 
States  and  of  the  Philippine  government  is  not  one  of  unfriendliness 
toward  the  Roman  Catholic  Church.  The  policy  of  separating  church 
from  state,  as  required  in  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  does 
not  indicate  hostility  to  religion  or  to  the  maintenance  of  any  church. 
On  the  contrary,  the  founders  of  our  government  were  profoundly 
convinced  that  religion  must  be  upheld  for  the  benefit  of  the  state,  and 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OV   WAR.  239 

that  it  was  the  true  basis  for  the  morality  of  the  citizen;  and  in  prac- 
tice it  will  be  found  that  in  the  United  States  the  rights  of  all  churches, 
both  as  to  property,  administration,  and  practice  of  religion,  are  ob- 
served and  protected  with  even  more  scrupulous  care  than  in  some  coun- 
tries where  church  and  state  arc  said  to  be  united.  1  venture  to  point 
to  the  prosperity  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  in  America  as  indicat- 
ing that  it  has  nothing  to  fear  from  the  extension  of  the  same  rule 
over  the  Philippine  Islands.  The  Government  of  the  United  States 
treats  all  churches  and  creeds  alike.  It  protects  them  all,  but  favors 
no  one  against  another.  It  is  not  engaged  in  proselyting  for  one 
church  or  creed,  and  an}'  officer  using  his  office  for  such  a  purpose, 
directly  or  indirectly,  ought  to  forfeit  his  office. 

I  do  not  intend  further  to  weary  Your  Holiness  with  a  detailed 
statement  of  the  questions  likely  to  arise  in  the  conference  now  at 
hand.  When  Your  Holiness  shall  refer  us  to  dignitaries  of  the 
church  authorized  to  enter  upon  the  negotiation,  the  questions  will 
then  be  stated  at  length,  as  set  forth  in  instructions  given  to  me  by 
my  immediate  superior,  the  Secretary  of  War. 

Under  my  instructions  I  am  authorized  to  call  others  to  my  assist- 
ance as  my  advisers  and  counselors  in  the  negotiations.  I  have  asked 
the  Right  Rev.  Thomas  O'Gorman,  bishop  of  Sioux  Falls,  the  Hon. 
James  F.  Smith,  associate  justice  of  the  supreme  court  of  the  Philip- 
pines, and  Maj.  John  Kiddle  Porter,  judge-advocate  department, 
United  States  Army,  to  assist  me  in  this  way,  and,  with  Your  Holi- 
ness's  permission,  I  now  present  them. 


Letter  referred  to  in  the  foregoing  «/Mre*#. 

White  House, 
Washington,  May  «9,  1902. 
Your  Holiness:   In   felicitating  you   upon   your  entry  into   the 
twenty-fifth  year  of  your  Pontificate,  I  beg  to  ask  your  acceptance  of 
the  volumes  which  Governor  Taf t  will  present  to  you  from  me. 

I  most  cordially  thank  %you  for  your  repeated  expressions  of  good 
will  to  this  country;  and,  trusting  that  you  may  have  many  happy  and 
prosperous  years  of  life,  I  am, 

With  regard,  faithfully  yours, 

Theodore  Roosevelt. 
His  Holiness  Pope  Leo  XHL 


240  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

The  instructions  of  May  9  with  the  construction  included  in  dis- 
patch of  June  5  were  thereafter  presented  to  Cardinal  Rampolla,  who 
replied  to  the  views  therein  expressed  by  the  following  memorandum: 

[Translation.] 

June  22. 

Excellency:  After  a  mature  examination  of  the  instructions  which 
Your  Excellency  received  from  Mr.  the  American  Secretary  of  War 
concerning  the  religious  questions  in  the  Philippine  Islands,  the  Holy 
Father  has  commanded  me  to  address  to  Your  Excellenc}T  the  accompa- 
nying document,  in  which  are  expressed  the  appreciations  of  the  Holy 
See  on  that  subject. 

With  feelings  of  particular  regard,  I  have  the  pleasure  to  subscribe 

myself^  with  the  most  distinguished  consideration, 

Your  Exccllcncv's  most  devoted  servant, 

M.  Card.  Rampolla. 
H.  E.  Mr.  W.  H.  Taft, 

Civil  Governor  of  tlw  Philippine  Islands. 

The  decision  of  the  Government  of  the  United  States  of  America  to 
send  to  Rome  a  commission  for  the  purpose  of  treating  with  the  supreme 
authority  of  the  Catholic  Church  concerning  various  questions  of  com- 
mon interest  about  the  Philippine  Islands  and  of  settling  them  by 
means  of  amicable  accord  has  been  welcomed  by  the  Holy  See  with  a 
special  pleasure.  For  if  the  Government  of  the  United  States  has  by 
a  wise  and  approved  principle  judged  this  manner  of  direct  under- 
standing to  be  preferable  in  order  to  regulate  the  situation  created  for 
a  population  of  several  millions,  exclusively  Catholic,  that  has  entered 
the  sphere  of  its  political  dominion,  likewise  the  Holy  See  on  its 
part  deems  that  this  method  of  direct  understanding  answers  best  of 
all  others  the  reciprocal  interest  of  both  parties,  and  that  as  at  present 
so  also  in  the  future  it  will  be  of  aid  to  the  good  government  of  those 
people. 

The  Holy  See,  animated  by  a  friendly  disposition  toward  the  Ameri- 
can Government,  has  hastened  to  examine  with  benevolent  deference 
the  views  and  wishes  of  said  Government  set  forth  in  the  instructions 
of  the  Secretary  of  War  to  the  Civil  Governor  of  the  Philippine  Islands, 
and  does  not  hesitate  to  declare  that,  saving  the  religious  interests  of 
those  people,  to  the  protection  of  which  she  can  never  be  wanting,  it  is 
disposed  to  second  them  in  the  just  measure;  and  it  confides  in  the  feel- 
ings of  justice  and  equity  of  the  American  Government  and  believes 
that  it  likewise  will  hold  in  due  consideration  the  views  and  wishes  of 
the  Holy  See  to  secure  the  rights  of  the  church  and  the  spiritual  wel- 
fare of  the  Catholics  in  the  Philippine  Islands. 

The  Holy  See  is  not  ignorant  of  the  fundamental  principle  of  the 
American  Government  in  regard  to  peoples  subject  to  its  dominion, 


REPOBT  OF  THE  8ECRETABY  OF  WAR.  241 

which  require  the  separation  of  the  church  from  the  state.  However, 
the  Holy  See  can  not  suppose  that  in  the  application  of  these  princi- 
ples the  Government  does  not  take  into  account  the  situation  de  facto 
of  the  peoples  governed  by  it.  Now,  the  fact  is  that  in  the  Philippine 
Archipelago  its  sovereignty  is  exercised  over  a  population  of  7,000,000 
entirely  Catholic,  deeply  attached  to  their  faith,  and  for  many  centu- 
ries educated  and  formed  in  their  traditions,  habits,  aspirations,  in  their 
very  life,  according  to  this  faith.  It  is  to  be  hoped,  therefore,  that  the 
American  Government,  not  only  for  reasons  of  equity,  but  also  for 
reasons  of  social  and  political  order,  will  know  how  to  find  a  way  of 
reconciling  the  requirements  of  its  fundamental  system  with  the 
requirements  of  the  situation  de  facto  and  to  live  in  good  harmony 
with  the  Catholic  Church  and  the  authorities  that  represent  and  pro- 
tect its  interests. 

Regarding  the  religious  orders,  of  which  mention  is  made  in  the 
instructions  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  the  Holy  Sec  can  not  give  its 
adhesion  to  all  the  views  contained  therein;  nor  does  it  consider  oppor- 
tune to  enter  into  a  discussion  on  that  point.  Placing  itself  entirely 
on  the  practical  ground  of  the  provisions  required  by  the  new  situa- 
tion, the  Holy  See  admits  first  of  all  that  the  system  obtaining  under 
the  Spanish  domination  and  the  mixing  up  of  the  religious  in  the  civil 
administration  might  have  created  for  them  in  a  portion  of  the  people 
a  certain  ill  will.  How  to  eliminate  this  antipathy  the  Holy  See  has 
already  devised  means,  gradual^  by  opportune  measures  to  recall  the 
regulars  to  the  life  proper  to  their  institute,  to  devote  themselves 
exclusively  to  spiritual  ministry,  to  abstain  from  any  kind  of  interfer- 
ence in  things  appertaining  to  the  civil  authority,  to  consolidate  mutual 
peace  of  life  between  the  people  and  clergy  of  the  islands,  to  uphold 
the  principle  of  authority,  to  imbue  the  masses  with  morality,  and  to 
make  themselves  the  instruments  of  civilization  and  social  order. 

It  is  also  the  intention  of  the  Holy  See  to  introduce  in  the  Philip- 
pine Islands  religious  of  other  nationalities;  and,  so  far  as  possible, 
from  the  United  States,  and  to  intrust  to  them,  when  sufficiently 
instructed  in  the  local  dialects,  the  spiritual  care  of  the  faithful.  As 
to  the  Spanish  religious  in  particular  belonging  to  the  orders  men- 
tioned in  the  instructions,  not  even  they  should  be  denied  to  return  to 
those  parishes  where  the  people  is  disposed  to  receive  them  without 
disturbance  of  public  order;  and,  if  in  some  parishes  where  it  is  evi- 
dent that  they  are  desired,  or  are  favorably  regarded  by  the  whole  or 
the  great  majority  of  the  people,  obstacles  and  difficulties  should  be 
interposed  on  the  part  of  some  disturber  of  peace,  the  Holy  See  trusts 
that  the  American  authorities  by  the  ordinary  means  of  civil  justice 
will  know  how  to  protect  the  rights  of  the  religious  themselves  and 
the  wish  of  the  people.  Finally,  the  Holy  See  will  not  neglect  to  pro- 
mote at  the  same  time  the  better  ecclesiastical  education  and  training 
wab  1902— vol  1 16 


242         REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

of  the  native  clergy  in  order  to  put  them  in  the  way,  according  to 
their  fitness,  of  taking  gradually  the  place  of  the  religious  orders  in 
the  discharge  of  the  pastoral  functions. 

The  Holy  See  likewise  recognizes  that  in  order  to  reconcile  more 
fully  the  feelings  of  the  Filipinos  to  the  religious  possessing  landed 
estates  the  sale  of  the  same  is  conducive  thereto.  Therefore  it  adheres 
in  principle  to  the  request  made  by  the  American  Government  saving 
the  right  of  property  of  the  legitimate  possessor  and  an  estimate  of 
the  value  of  the  lands  conformable  with  the  principles  of  justice  and 
equity.  Considering,  however,  that  this  is  a  complicated  question, 
requiring  special  study  of  the  facts  of  the  case,  and  can  not  be  solved 
with  precipitation,  the  Holy  See  declares  it  is  disposed  to  furnish  the 
new  apostolic  delegate  who  is  to  be  sent  to  the  Philippine  Islands  with 
necessary  and  opportune  instructions  in  order  to  treat  amicably  this 
affair  in  understanding  with  the  American  Government  and  the  parties 
interested,  and  so  to  arrive  at  fixing  a  satisfactory  accord,  whether  on 
the  value  of  the  lands  or  the  conditions  of  the  sale. 

In  the  same  way  wherever  there  exists  a  doubt  as  to  the  legitimate 
ownership  of  lands  or  buildings  actually  standing  in  the  name  whether 
of  the  state  or  of  the  church,  the  Holy  See  admits  that  by  common 
accord  the  civil  and  ecclesiastical  authorities  take  under  examination  the 
respective  titles  of  property,  naturally  not  omitting  the  title  arising 
from  legitimate  possession;  and  the  lands  or  buildings  will  be  adjudged 
according  to  these  titles  to  whom  by  right.  On  this  point  also  the 
Holy  See  will  not  fail  to  give  due  instructions  to  the  apostolic  delegate. 

The  damages  sustained  by  the  Catholic  Church  in  the  Philippine 
Islands  on  account  of  the  war  constitute  an  object  worthy  of  special 
attention  in  an  amicable  arrangement  with  the  American  authorities. 
Besides  the  acts  of  vandalism  perpetrated  by  the  insurgents  in  the 
destruction  of  churches  and  the  appropriation  of  sacred  vestments, 
there  were  occupied  by  the  American  Government  episcopal  palaces, 
seminaries,  convents,  rectories,  and  other  buildings  intended  for  wor- 
ship, and  these  were  also  partly  damaged.  The  Holy  See  learns  with 
satisfaction  that  the  American  Government  is  not  disinclined  to  indem- 
nify according  to  justice  the  Catholic  Church  for  such  losses  and  dam- 
ages; and  this  may  be  effected  either  by  the  restitution  of  buildings  so 
occupied  or  by  just  compensation.  On  these  matters  the  apostolic 
delegate  will  be  instructed  to  come  to  an  understanding  with  the 
American  authorities  and  secure  a  just  settlement. 

As  for  what  concerns  Pious  Trusts,  the  Holy  See  understands 
very  well  that  the  American  system  of  government  demands  the  sep- 
aration of  those  belonging  by  right  to  the  civil  authorities  from  those 
belonging  to  the  church  authorities.  To  this  end,  however,  it  is 
proper  first  of  all  to  observe  that  if  the  American  Government  suc- 
ceeded to  the  Spanish  Government  in  the  sovereignty  of  the  State  and 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  243 

in  the  political  rights  inherent  thereto,  it  did  not  in  the  same  way  suc- 
ceed in  the  attributions  of  a  special  and  ecclesiastical  character  which 
that  Government  exercised  in  its  capacity  as  patrons. 

The  new  state  of  affairs  has  caused  to  cease  radically  everything 
connected  with  that  patronage;  nay,  the  American  laws  would  not 
allow  the  governors  of  the  Philippine  Islands  to  exercise  the  powers 
of  the  civil  governors  of  Spain  as  vice-regal  patrons,  whence  it  follows 
that  the  church  can  not  renounce  the  right  and  the  liberty  of  adminis- 
tering the  pious'trusts  of  ecclesiastical  origin  or  of  Catholic  foundation 
which  do  not  owe  their  existence  to  the  civil  power  exclusively. 
Therefore  there  will  be  needed  an  accurate  and  impartial  examination 
as  to  the  origin  of  such  foundations  in  order  to  ascribe  to  the  state 
those  that  shall  be  recognized  being  within  its  competence,  leaving  the 
church  to  administer  all  others  freelv.  And  in  order  that  such  an 
examination  be  thorough,  there  should  be  determined  the  obligations 
and  imposts  which  perchance  burden  the  properties,  whether  private 
or  public,  in  favor  of  the  pious  trust,  educational  or  charitable,  in  order 
that  by  removal  of  every  doubt  and  contest  these  obligations  and 
imposts  may  be  restored  to  their  destination. 

Finally  the  Holy  See  can  not  abstain  from  asking  the  American 
authorities  suitable  provisions  for  religious  teaching  in  the  public 
schools,  especially  the  primary,  and  that  the  choice  of  teachers  be 
made  according  to  equitable  principles,  and  principles  such  as  do  not 
wound  the  rights  and  feelings  of  a  people  entirely  Catholic. 

Response  of  Governor  Toft  to   Cardinal  Ram  polio**  communication. 

July  3. 

Your  Eminence:  I  beg  to  acknowledge  receipt  of  your  favor  of 
the  21st  of  June,  No.  70,963,  inclosing  a  communication  of  the  views  of 
the  Holy  Sec  upon  the  questions  arising  between  the  Roman  Catholic 
Church  and  the  Philippine  government,  and  discussed  by  the  Secre- 
tary of  War  of  the  United  States  in  his  instructions  to  me,  submitted 
through  your  eminence  to  His  Holiness.  It  is  a  source  of  much  grati- 
fication to  note  that  the  Hoty  See  welcomes  with  especial  pleasure  and 
approves  the  coming  of  a  representative  of  the  President  of  the  United 
States  to  Rome  for  the  purpose  of  securing  a  direct  understanding 
upon  the  questions  mooted;  and  that  in  general  the  views  of  the  Holy 
See  are  in  accord  with  those  expressed  by  the  Secretary  of  War, 
though  in  one  important  particular,  to  wTit,  that  of  the  religious  orders, 
there  seems  to  be  a  difference  as  to  the  method  to  be  adopted  to  meet 
a  recognized  difficulty. 

It  is  further  observed  in  the  communication  of  the  Holv  See  that 
many  questions  are  proposed  to  be  referred  to  a  new  apostolic  dele- 
gate to  be  sent  to  Manila.  It  is  respectfully  suggested  that  in  this 
manner  much  of  the  benefit  of  the  direct  understanding  between  the 


244         BEPOBT  OF  THE  8E0BETARY  OF  WAB. 

church  and  the  Philippine  government,  which  is  properly  valued  by 
both  parties,  will  be  lost.  The  only  efficient  method  of  securing  such 
a  direct  understanding  would  seem  to  be  the  making  and  signing  of  a 
definite  contract  between  the  parties  or  their  representatives,  which 
should  leave  as  little  as  possible  to  uncertainty  and  future  negotiation, 
and  which  should  determine  the  main  lines  along  which  harmony  and 
cooperation  between  the  state  and  the  church  may  be  secured.  The 
main  purpose  of  the  present  communication  is  to  formulate  such  a 
contract. 

An  analysis  of  the  instructions  of  the  Secretary  of  War  will  show 
that  the  purpose  of  the  President  of  the  United  States  and  the  Philip- 
pine government  is  to  make  an  agreement  with  the  supreme  head  of 
the  church,  under  which  the  former  shall  perform  four  separate  stipu- 
lations in  consideration  of  the  compliance  with  certain  conditions  by 
certain  religious  orders  and  their  members,  over  whom  the  Holy  See, 
it  is  expected,  can  exercise  control  and  for  whose  conduct  in  respect 
to  such  conditions  it  can  contract. 

First.  The  most  important  stipulation  of  the  United  States  is  to  buy 
the  agricultural  landed  estates  of  the  three  religious  orders,  the  Domin- 
icans, the  Augustinians,  and  the  Recoletos.  The  United  States  Gov- 
ernment and  the  Philippine  government  desire  to  submit  the  question 
of  the  fair  value  of  the  lands  to  be  bought  to  a  tribunal  of  arbitration 
to  be  composed  of  five  members,  two  to  be  appointed  by  His  Holiness, 
two  to  be  appointed  by  the  Philippine  government,  and  one,  the  fifth, 
to  be  selected  by  an  indifferent  person,  like  the  governor-general  of 
India.  The  expenses  of  this  tribunal,  including  the  compensation  to 
each  one  of  its  members,  the  Philippine  government  is  willing  to  pay. 
The  time  within  which  the  tribunal  should  meet  in  the  city  of  Manila 
should  be  fixed  not  later  than  January  1  next,  for  the  situation  pre- 
sents an  emergency . 

The  tribunal  should  be  given  power  to  hear  evidence;  to  view  the 
lands,  as  may  be  convenient,  and  to  render  an  award  in  accordance 
with  a  majority  vote  of  the  members.  The  valuation  of  the  lands 
should  be  fixed  in  Mexican  dollars,  because  that  is  the  usual  standard 
of  value  which  now  prevails  in  the  islands  and  is  the  one  in  which  esti- 
mates of  experts  will  naturally  be  given.  The  terms  of  payment,  it 
is  suggested,  should  be  one-third  cash  within  thirty  days  from  the 
report  of  the  award  and  the  delivery  of  the  deeds  of  the  land  pur- 
chased, one-third  in  nine  months  after  the  first  payment,  and  the 
remaining  one-third  in  eighteen  months  after  the  first  payment.  The 
Philippine  government  would  have  no  objection  to  paying  the  whole 
price  in  cash  at  the  delivery^  of  the  deeds,  except  that,  because  under 
the  proposals  about  to  be  made  the  performance  of  certain  conditions 
by  the  religious  orders  is  to  be  postponed,  it  is  fair  that  payment  of 
delayed  installments  should  correspond  to  the  performance  of  such 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  245 

conditions.  It  would  seem  that  interest  at  the  rate  of  4 J  per  cent  on 
the  delayed  payments  would  be  fair.  The  payments  ought  to  made  to 
the  person  designated  by  the  Holy  See  to  receive  the  same. 

Second.  It  is  understood  that  a  large  number  of  the  parish  churches 
and  conventos  or  rectories,  as  well  a.*  some  diocesan  churches  and 
buildings,  stand  upon  land  the  title  to  which  was  in  the  Crown  of 
Spain,  and  passed  by  the  Treaty  of  Paris  to  the  Government  of  the 
United  States.  The  Philippine  government  is  willing  to  convey  such 
lands  to  any  officer  of  the  church  to  be  designated  by  His  Holiness  for 
the  use  and  benefit  of  the  Catholic  people  of  the  respective  parishes 
in  which  such  churches  and  conventos  stand,  or  for  the  use  of  the 
proper  diocese,  as  the  case  may  be.  In  some  few  cases  the  titles  to  the 
parish  churches  and  conventos  are  claimed  by  the  respective  munici- 
palities in  which  they  are  situate.  Under  the  treaty  of  Paris  the 
United  States  Government  is  bound  to  respect  equally  the  titles  of  the 
ecclesiastical  corporations  and  of  municipal  corporations.  The  convey- 
ance by  legislative  act  herein  proposed  must  therefore  be  subject  to 
the  claims  of  title,  if  any,  made  by  the  respective  municipalities,  which 
claims  can  be  tried  in  the  ordinary  courts  of  justice. 

Third.  It  is  hoped  that  when  the  apostolic  delegate  competent  to  act 
for  the  Holy  See  visits  the  islands  he  may  take  up  with  the  Philippine 
government  the  educational  and  charitable  trusts  now  in  dispute,  and 
that  they  may  agree  by  compromise  on  those  which  should  be  con- 
ducted under  the  direction  of  the  civil  government  and  those  which 
should  be  conducted  under  the  direction  of  the  church;  but  should  it 
be  impossible  to  agree  upon  such  a  compromise,  then  it  is  proposed  to 
submit  all  the  disputed  questions  of  this  character  to  the  tribunal  of 
arbitration  constituted  under  the  first  head,  which  shall  hear  the  causes 
as  in  a  court  and  make  the  award  as  above  provided,  and  that  among 
the  questions  to  be  submitted  to  such  tribunal  shall  be  the  one  arising 
upon  the  San  Jose  foundation  now  pending  in  the  supreme  court  of 
the  islands. 

Fourth.  The  United  States  Government  has  occupied  many  churches, 
conventos,  and  other  buildings  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  and  its 
orders  in  the  islands  for  a  year  and  sometimes  for  a  longer  period,  and 
has  as  yet,  it  is  understood,  paid  no  rental  therefor.  It  is  proposed  to 
ascertain  the  reasonable  rentals  and  a  certain  class  of  damages,  if  any 
are  proven,  for  the  buildings  thus  occupied  by  means  of  a  finding  of 
the  persons  constituting  the  tribunal  of  arbitration  already  described. 
The  United  States,  it  is  understood,  has  never  included  and  paid  in 
compensation  for  such  occupancy  as  this  any  damages,  except  for 
injury  or  alteration  to  the  property  authorized  by  the  commanding 
officer  of  the  occupying  troops,  either  expressly  or  tacitly,  nor  is  com- 
pensation ever  allowed  for  injury  done  to  buildings  in  the  train  of  war. 

It  will  perhaps  turn  out  in  some  cases  that  the  churches  and  con- 


246  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

ventos  were  in  villages  in  which  the  whole  population  was  engaged  in 
insurrection  against  the  United  States,  including  the  priest  in  charge, 
and  in  such  a  case  it  is  proposed  to  leave  open  to  the  United  States  the 
defense  that  it  was  occupying  only  enemy's  property  during  the  time 
of  war  and  was  not  liable  therefore  to  pay  compensation.  Of  course 
the  validity  of  such  defense  must  be  submitted  to  the  members  of 
the  tribunal.  The  Secretary  of  War,  under  whose  general  authority 
the  buildings  were  occupied  has  authorized  me  to  agree  to  this  method 
of  ascertaining  the  amount  due,  but  as  there  is  no  present  authority 
in  the  laws  of  the  United  States  to  submit  the  question  for  final  arbi- 
tration, the  Secretary  can  only  agree  to  submit  the  ascertained  result 
to  Congress  for  its  action.  The  money  to  be  paid  in  these  instances 
is  not  the  money  of  the  Philippine  government,  but  the  money  of 
the  United  States,  and  it  can  only  be  drawn  from  the  Treasury  on  the 
appropriation  of  Congress.  There  is  no  probability  that  Congress 
would  refuse  to  provide  the  money  to  satisfy  the  conclusion  thus  fairly 
reached. 

The  Philippine  government  proposes  to  comply  with  the  preceding 
stipulations  on  certain  conditions.  An  obviously  just  condition  is  that 
no  money  shall  be  paid  for  the  lands  to  be  purchased  until  proper 
conveyances  for  the  land  shall  have  been  made  to  the  Philippine  gov- 
ernment. The  fact  is  well  known  to  the  Holy  See,  as  to  the  Philippine 
government,  that  the  three  orders — the  Dominicans,  the  Augustinians, 
and  the  Recoletos — have  transferred  their  landed  estates  to  promoters 
or  promoting  companies  with  a  view  to  the  carrying  on  of  agriculture 
or  to  the  rental  or  sale  of  the  lands;  but  it  is  also  well  known  that  the 
three  orders  have  retained  a  very  large  interest  in  the  lands  by  becom- 
ing holders  of  the  stock  in  the  promoting  company  or  by  contract  with 
the  original  promoter,  and  that  the  Holy  See  may  therefore  control 
the  sale  of  these  lands  and  the  making  of  the  proper  conveyances  by 
its  power  to  control  religious  orders. 

By  the  next  condition  it  is  to  be  agreed  on  behalf  of  the  Pope  that 
all  the  members  of  the  four  religious  orders  of  Dominicans,  Augus- 
tinians, Recoletos,  and  Franciscans  now  in  the  islands  shall  withdraw 
therefrom  after  two  years  from  the  date  of  the  first  payment  upon 
the  purchase  price  of  the  lands  under  this  agreement.  A  sufficient 
number  of  them,  it  is  provided,  may  remain  to  continue  the  schools, 
university,  and  conventual  churches  now  conducted  by  them  until  the 
close  of  such  two  years,  when  they  shall  withdraw.  It  is  further  pro- 
vided that  the  remainder  shall  withdraw  from  the  islands,  one- half 
within  nine  months  after  the  first  payment  of  purchase  money  and 
one-half  after  eighteen  months.  An  exception  is  made  in  favor  of 
any  member  of  these  orders  who  has  been  able  to  avoid  the  hostility  of 
the  people  and  to  cany  on  his  duties  as  parish  priest  in  his  parish  out- 
side of  Manila  from  August,  1898,  to  the  date  of  this  agreement.    It 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  247 

is  certain  that  such  a  priest  is  popular  with  the  people,  and  it  is  not 
desired  to  separate  him  from  them. 

This  exception  is  not  extended  to  friars  who  have  acted  as  parish 
priests  in  the  city  of  Manila,  because  no  such  inference  of  popularity 
can  be  drawn  as  to  them  from  their  immunity  from  molestation  in 
a  city  always  occupied  by  American  forces.  It  is  further  in  effect 
agreed  that  no  Spanish  members  of  these  orders  shall  bo  substituted 
for  those  withdrawn.  The  only  purpose  that  the  American  Govern- 
ment has  in  proposing  this  condition  is  to  secure  political  peace  and 
an  absence  of  disturbance.  The  Filipino  people  as  a  whole  are  deeply 
incensed  against  the  members  of  these  four  orders  in  the  islands,  because 
responsible,  as  they  suppose,  for  the  alleged  oppressions  of  Spain. 
The  members  of  the  hierarchy  of  the  church  were  all  selected  from 
these  orders,  and  the  people  understood  that  in  the  heads  of  the  orders, 
resident  in  Manila,  where  were  their  churches,  conventos,  and  colleges, 
was  deposited  almost  the  whole  of  the  political  power  exercised  by 
Spain. 

Nor  was  this  understanding  without  foundation,  for  bjr  the  laws  in 
force  under  the  Spanish  regime  the  heads  of  the  religious  orders  and 
the  head  of  the  hierarchy,  the  archbishop  of  Manila,  were  of  the 
council  of  the  governor-general  of  the  islands.  These  orders  have  a 
newspaper  which  is  still  published  by  them,  and  which  is  in  spirit 
anti- American,  anti- Filipino,  and  pro-Spanish;  and  they  thus  confirm 
in  the  minds  of  the  people  the  reason  for  their  continued  hostility.  It 
may  be  added  that  the  assessed  valuation  of  the  real  estate  and  build- 
ings of  the  religious  orders  in  Manila  is  $5,901,978  Mexican,  while 
the  estimated  value  of  the  property  owned  by  the  Roman  Catholic 
Church  is  only  $3,678,927  Mexican,  a  fact  full  of  significance  in  a  dis- 
cussion of  the  power  of  the  religious  orders  in  Manila,  especially 
when  it  is  considered  that  in  addition  to  their  Manila  property  they 
own  a  large  amount  of  invested  personal  property  as  well  as  the  agri- 
cultural lands  now  proposed  to  be  bought. 

It  may  be  added  that  the  Manila  lands  and  buildings  of  the  religious 
orders  have  largely  increased  in  value  in  the  last  two  years,  and  can  be 
sold  quickly  if  desired.  Should  the  agreement  now  proposed  be  carried 
out,  and  the  large  sum  which  will  undoubtedhr  be  awarded  as  the  purchase 
price  of  the  agricultural  lands  in  question  be  paid,  the  people  will 
expect  that  with  such  a  nucleus  and  such  great  financial  power  the 
four  orders  will  continue  the  powerful  influence  always  exercised  by 
them  from  Manila  over  the  clergy  in  the  parishes.  The  retention  of  any 
considerable  number  of  the  Spanish  members  of  such  orders  in  Manila 
will,  therefore,  very  much  neutralize  the  good  effect  of  the  assurance 
that  the  Spanish  members  of  such  orders  will  not  return  to  the 
parishes. 

It  is,  of  course,  well  understood  that  His  Holiness  desires  to  retain 
the  churches  of  these  orders  in  Manila,  and  also  to  retain  the  schools 


248  ,  REPORT   OF   THE   8ECRETARY   OF    WAR. 

and  university  established  and  conducted  by  them;  but  it  is  suggested 
that  these  churches,  schools,  and  university  may  under  this  agreement 
be  conducted  by  the  Spanish  friars  of  other  and  less  unpopular  orders, 
or,  if  need  be,  by  non-Spanish  members  of  the  same  orders.  The 
changes  proposed,  however,  it  seems  to  the  Philippine  government, 
to  be  necessary  to  convince  the  Filipino  people  that  the  old  regime  of 
the  Spanish  friars  of  these  four  orders  is  ended. 

Under  (c)  it  is  provided  that  in  all  parishes  except  the  missionary 
parishes  of  the  Jesuits  and  those  in  which  popular  members  of  the  four 
orders  have  remained  unmolested,  only  secular  priests  or  members  of 
religious  orders  that  are  not  Spanish  and  whose  presence  in  the  parish 
will  not  disturb  the  peace  or  order  thereof  shall  be  appointed  as  parish 
priests  and  that  secularized  Spanish  members  of  religious  orders  shall 
not  be  appointed  as  secular  priests  under  this  paragraph. 

It  would  be  simpler,  and  more  certainly  secure  the  purposes  of  the 
Philippine  government,  if  the  members  of  the  four  religious  orders — 
of  any  nationality — for  the  immediate  future  should  not  come  into 
the  islands;  but  in  deference  to  the  understood  reluctance  of  the  Holy 
See  to  acquiesce  in  what  might  be  construed  as  a  criticism  of  the  four 
religious  orders  as  such,  the  clause  has  been  drawn  with  a  narrower 
restriction. 

It  is  hoped  that  the  restrictions  in  (b)  and  (c)  will  meet  the  views  of 
His  Holiness,  and  that  he  will  understand  that  they  are  inserted  solely 
for  the  purpose  of  securing  what  is  absolutely  essential  to  the  progress 
both  of  the  church  and  government,  peace  and  contented  feeling 
among  the  people.  The  Philippine  government  has  not  the  slightest 
desire  to  interfere  with  the  progress  of  the  Catholic  religion  or  its 
teaching  in  the  Philippine  Islands. 

The  most  careful  consideration  has  been  given  to  what  is  said  in  the 
communication  of  the  Holy  See  in  respect  to  the  religious  orders  in 
the  Philippines  and  the  means  proposed  to  be  adopted  by  the  Holy  See 
for  avoiding  the  antipathy  which  the  regulars  now  encounter  in  the 
islands,  but  with  the  utmost  deference,  it  seems  to  the  Philippine  gov- 
ernment that  the  means  are  not  adequate  to  meet  the  emergency  which 
alone  justifies  it  in  taking  any  interest  in  the  matter.  Nothing  will 
calm  the  fears  of  the  people  and  nothing  produce  contentment  with 
church  and  government  except  the  definite  knowledge  from  such  a 
contract  as  that  here  proposed  that  the  Spanish  friars  of  the  four 
orders  are  to  leave  the  islands  at  a  definite  time,  and  are  not  to  return 
to  the  parishes  or  exercise  from  Manila  a  controlling  influence  there 
over  the  parish  priests.  It  is  hoped  that  in  view  of  these  facts,  which 
are  recited  not  to  reflect  on  the  friars,  but  only  to  show  the  de  facto 
condition,  the  Holy  See  will  deem  it  proper  to  assent  to  the  proposed 
provision  on  this  subject. 

I  accompany  this  letter  with  a  form  of  agreement  proposed  for  sig- 
nature.   The  Philippine  government  bill,  which  authorizes  the  pur- 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  249 

chase  of  the  lands  of  the  religious  orders,  has  passed  both  Houses  of 
Congress  and  has  received  the  approval  of  the  President  and  is  now 
the  law. 

In  closing  this  communication  I  desire  to  refer  to  the  last  clause  of 
the  communication  of  the  Holy  See  with  respect  to  the  religious 
instruction  in  the  public  schools.  My  instructions  do  not  permit  me 
to  discuss  the  subject,  but  I  majr  property  refer  Your  Eminence  to  sec- 
tion 16  of  the  general  school  law  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  a  copy  of 
which  I  inclose. 

It  is  not  improper  for  me  to  say  that  I  have  submitted  by  cable  the 
full  text  of  the  views  of  the  Holy  See,  as  communicated  by  Your  Emi- 
nence to  me,  and  also  the  form  of  contract  which  accompanies  this 
letter,  and  that  I  have  been  directed  to  submit  the  proposed  contract 
as  that  which  the  President  of  the  United  States  and  the  Philippine 
government  desire  in  the  premises. 

I  avail  myself  of  this  opportunity  to  assure  Your  Eminence  of  my 
most  distinguished  consideration,  and  to  subscribe  myself, 
Your  Eminence's  most  obedient  servant, 

Wm.  H.  Taft. 


[Extract  from  Philippine  scliool  law  (act  74)  mibmittc<l  with  foregoing  document.] 
Section  16  of  the  General  School  Law  of  the  Philippine  Islands. 

No  teacher  or  other  person  shall  teach  or  criticise  the  doctrines 
of  any  church,  religious  sect,  or  denomination,  or  shall  attempt  to 
influence  the  pupils  for  or  against  any  church  or  religious  sect  in  any 
public  school  established  under  this  act.  If  any  teacher  shall  inten- 
tionally violate  this  section,  he  or  she  shall,  after  due  hearing,  be  dis- 
missed from  the  public  service. 

Provided,  h/>wev^  That  it  shall  be  lawful  for  the  priest  or  minister 
of  any  church  established  in  the  pueblo  where  a  public  school  is  sit- 
uated, either  in  person  or  by  a  designated  teacher  of  religion,  to  teach 
religion  for  one-naif  an  hour  three  times  a  week  in  the  school  building 
to  those  public-school  pupils  whose  parents  or  guardians  desire  it  ana 
express  their  desire  therefor  in  writing  tiled  with  the  principal  teacher 
of  the  school,  to  l)e  forwarded  to  the  division  superintendent,  who 
shall  fix  the  hours  and  rooms  for  such  teaching.  But  no  public-school 
teacher  shall  either  conduct  religious  exercises  or  teach  religion  or  act 
as  a  designated  religious  teacher  in  the  school  building  under  the  fore- 
going authority,  and  no  pupil  shall  be  required  by  any  public-school 
teacher  to  attend  and  receive  the  religious  instruction  herein  per- 
mitted. Should  the  opportunity  thus  given  to  teach  religion  be  used 
by  the  priest,  minister,  or  religious  teacher  for  the  purpose  of  arous- 
ing disloyalty  to  the  United  States,  or  of  discouraging  the  attendance 
of  pupils  at  such  public  school,  of  creating  a  disturbance  of  public 
order?  or  of  interfering  with  the  discipline  of  the  school,  the  division 
superintendent,  subject  to  the  approval  of  the  general  superintendent 
of  public  instruction,  may ,  after  aue  investigation  and  hearing,  forbid 
sucn  offending  priest,  minister,  or  religious  teacher  from  entering  the 
public-school  building  thereafter. 


250  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

FORM  OF  AGREEMENT. 

This  agreement  between  Cardinal  Rampolla,  cardinal  secretary  of 
state  to  His  Holiness  Leo  XIII,  representing  His  Holiness,  and  Wil- 
liam Howard  Taft,  civil  governor  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  repre- 
senting the  President  of  the  United  States  and  the  Philippine 
government,  witnesseth  that: 

First.  The  Philippine  government  agrees  to  buy  all  the  agricultural 
lands,  buildings,  irrigation  plants,  and  other  improvements  thereon, 
situate  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago,  of  the  Dominican,  Augustinian, 
and  Recoleto  orders,  and  to  pay  therefor  a  reasonable  and  fair  price, 
to  be  fixed  in  Mexican  dollars  by  a  tribunal  of  arbitration  to  be  com- 
posed of  five  members,  two  to  be  appointed  by  His  Holiness  the  Pope, 
two  by  the  Philippine  government,  and  the  fifth  to  be  appointed  by 
the  governor-general  of  India.  The  tribunal  of  arbitration  shall  begin 
its  session  in  Manila  on  the  first  day  of  January,  1903,  shall  receive 
evidence  on  the  question  of  value  to  be  adduced  by  the  two  parties  to 
the  controversv,  shall  view  such  of  the  lands  as  the  tribunal  shall  deem 
necessary  and  convenient,  and  shall  make  and  certify  an  award  of  the 
value  of  such  lands  to  the  civil  governor  of  the  Philippine  Islands, 
and  to  the  Archbishop  of  Manila  or  the  apostolic  delegate  of  His 
Holiness.  A  majority  of  the  tribunal  may  make  the  award.  The 
lands  to  be  appraised  and  purchased  shall  include  all  the  agricultural 
lands  owned  by  the  three  orders  named  on  the  first  day  of  May,  1898, 
in  which  said  orders  or  other  associations,  subject  to  the  control  of 
the  head  of  the  Catholic  Church,  still  retain  a  majority  interest  by 
virtue  of  ownership  of  stock  in  the  company  or  companies  now  hold- 
ing title  to  the  same,  or  by  contract  with  the  individuals  in  whom  is 
now  the  legal  title.  The  expenses  of  the  tribunal  of  arbitration, 
including  reasonable  compensation  to  each  of  the  members,  shall  be 
paid  by  the  Philippine  government.  The  price  shall  be  paid  in  three 
installments — one-third  cash  within  thirty  days  after  the  certifying  of 
the  award  to  the  civil  governor  of  the  Philippines  and  a  tender  of  the 
necessary  deeds  of  the  land  to  him;  one-third  in  nine  months  after 
the  date  of  the  first  payment,  and  the  remaining  one-third  in  eighteen 
months  after  the  date  of  the  first  payment,  the  deferred  payments  to 
bear  four  and  one-half  per  cent  interest  from  the  date  of  the  first  pay- 
ment. The  purchase  money  shall  be  paid  to  the  representative  of  the 
Roman  Catholic  Church  to  be  designated  by  the  Pope,  and  the  receipt 
of  such  representative  shall  be  a  full  acquittance  to  the  extent  of  the 
amount  paid  of  the  Philippine  government. 

Second.  The  Philippine  government  agrees  to  release  by  legislative 
act  to  the  representatives  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  designated 
by  His  Holiness  the  Pope,  all  lands  or  enclosures  upon  which  Roman 
Catholic  churches  and  conventos  now  stand,  which  were  never  by  deed 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  251 

or  formal  grant  conveyed  by  Spain  to  the  Roman  Catholic  Church, 
the  name  to  be  held  bj'  such  representatives  for  the  use  of  the  Roman 
Catholics  of  the  parishes  in  which  such  churches  and  conventos,  respec- 
tively, stand;  without  prejudice,  however,  to  the  title,  if  any,  of  the 
municipality  in  which  any  such  church  or  convento  may  stand,  to  such 
land  to  be  asserted  in  ordinary  courts  of  law. 

Third.  The  Philippine  government  and  the  Holy  See  will  by  com- 
promise, if  possible,  reach  an  agreement  in  respect  to  the  charitable, 
educational,  and  other  trusts,  concerning  which  there  is  now  dispute 
as  to  the  proper  trustee,  by  determining  which  of  the  trusts,  if  any, 
shall  be  administered  by  the  civil  government  and  which  of  the  trusts, 
if  any,  shall  be  administered  by  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  or  its 
agents,  and  on  failure  to  reach  an  agreement  said  principals  will  abide 
by  the  finding  of  the  tribunal  of  arbitration  mentioned  in  the  first 
paragraph,  to  whom  all  such  questions  shall  be  submitted  as  a  court 
of  final  jurisdiction,  and  shall  include  the  issue  arising  in  respect  to 
the  San  Jose  foundation  now  pending  in  the  Supreme  Court  of  the 
islands. 

Fourth.  The  reasonable  rentals,  if  any,  which  ought  to  be  paid  for 
conventos  and  other  church  buildings  which  have  been  occupied  by 
United  States  troops  during  the  insurrection,  shall  be  ascertained,  for 
the  information  of  both  parties,  by  the  persons  who  constitute  the 
above-mentioned  tribunal  of  arbitration.  In  each  case  they  shall  take 
into  consideration  the  question  whether  or  not  the  church  or  convento 
was  enemy's  property  and  was  properly  occupied  in  time  of  war  with- 
out incurring  obligation  to  pay  rent.  Jt  is  understood  that  the  rental 
to  be  ascertained  may  include  allowance  for  injury  done,  or  alterations 
made  in  course  of  occupation,  to  the  buildings  occupied  when  expressly 
or  impliedly  authorized  by  commanding  officers  of  the  occupying 
troops,  but  should  not  include  injury  arising  from  the  torts  or  unau- 
thorized acts  of  individual  soldiers,  and  should  not  include  damages, 
the  result  of  the  train  of  actual  war.  The  Secretarv  of  War  undertakes 
to  present  to  the  Congress  of  the  United  States  the  results  of  the 
inquiry  herein  provided  for,  with  request  for  authority  and  means  to 
pay  the  rentals  so  ascertained  to  be  due. 

The  foregoing  stipulations  are  made  on  the  following  conditions: 

(a)  That  titles  of  the  three  religious  orders  to  the  agricultural  lands 
mentioned  in  paragraph  one,  and  of  any  subsequent  grantees  thereof, 
shall  be  duly  conveyed  by  deeds  of  usual  and  proper  form  to  the 
Philippine  government,  and  no  part  of  the  purchase  price  shall  be 
paid  until  this  provision  is  complied  with. 

(b)  That  all  members  of  the  four  religious  orders  of  Dominicans, 
Augustinians,  Recoletos,  and  Franciscans  now  in  the  Philippines  shall 
withdraw,  one-half  within  nine  months  after  the  date  of  the  first  pay- 
ment and  one-half  within  eighteen  months  thereafter,  and  meantime 


252  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

they  shall  not  teach,  preach,  do  parish  work,  or  work  of  inspection  in 
the  parishes  of  the  archipelago;  except  that  for  a  period  of  two  years 
after  the  first  payment  a  sufficient  number  of  such  members  may 
remain  to  conduct  the  schools,  university,  and  conventual  churches 
now  conducted  by  them,  withdrawing,  however,  from  the  islands  at 
the  close,  of  such  period;  and  except,  further,  that  any  such  member 
who  shall  have  continuous^  discharged  his  duty  as  parish  priest  in 
any  parish  outside  of  Manila,  from  August,  1898,  to  the  date  hereof, 
may  continue  as  such  and  not  withdraw  from  the  islands;  and  that  no 
Spanish  members  of  said  four  orders  shall  hereafter  be  sent  to  the 
islands. 

(c)  Except  as  provided  in  (b)  and  in  missionary  parishes  now  con- 
ducted by  Jesuits,  only  secular  priests  or  non-Spanish  members  of 
religious  orders  whose  presence  in  the  parishes  will  not  disturb  the 
peace  or  order  thereof  shall  be  appointed  as  parish  priests.  The  term 
"secular  priests"  as  used  in  this  paragraph  shall  not  include  secular- 
ized Spanish  members  of  religious  orders. 

His  Holiness  on  his  part  hereby  agrees  to  the  stipulations  and  con- 
ditions hereinbefore  set  forth,  and  contracts  that  the  four  religious 
orders  herein  named,  and  their  members,  shall  comply  with  the  stipu- 
lations and  conditions  on  their  part  to  be  performed. 


[Translation.] 

Answer  to  communication  from,  Governor  Taft  of  July  3. 

Mr.  the  Governor-General:  I  have  the  honor  to  acknowledge 
the  receipt  of  the  letter  which  you  were  kind  enough  to  address  to  me 
on  the  3d  of  this  month  with  a  scheme  of  agreement  which  the  Ameri- 
can  Government  would  desire  to  arrange  with  the  Holy  See,  to  regu- 
late, in  the  Philippine  Archipelago,  the  situation  on  certain  points 
which  touch  the  Catholic  Church.  I  hasten  to  thank  you  for  the  two 
documents,  and  in  my  turn  I  permit  myself  to  transmit  to  you  inclosed 
a  counter  project,  which  expresses  the  intentions  and  the  point  of  view 
of  the  Holy  See  on  these  same  points,  and  in  adding  to  it  in  this  letter 
certain  explanations. 

By  the  simple  reading  of  the  counter  project  you  may,  Mr.  the 
Governor-General,  observe  that  on  the  economical  points  the  views  of 
the  Holy  See  accord  almost  entirely  with  those  of  the  American  and 
Philippine  governments.  The  modifications  which  have  been  intro- 
duced, and  which  }rou  will  observe,  only  complete  and  make  more  pre- 
cise, it  seems  to  me,  the  text  of  the  convention.  If,  in  your  opinion, 
any  point  may  be  made  still  more  clear,  I  should  be  happy  to  consider 
your  views.  The  principal  difference  between  the  two  projects  is  in 
relation  to  the  religious  of  Spanish  nationality  in  the  archipelago. 
The  Holy  See  finds  it  impossible  to  admit  that  which  is  proposed  under 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  253 

the  letters  B  and  C  at  the  end  of  the  project.  To  begin  with,  the  Holy 
See  can  not  admit  that  there  is  a  connection  between  the  stipulation 
of  the  first  articles  of  the  convention  and  the  measures  which  it  (the 
Holy  See)  proposes  to  take  in  order  to  cooperate  in  the  pacification  of 
the  archipelago.  In  reality,  these  measures  are  part  of  the  mission  of 
the  church  in  the  world  and  arc  independent  of  the  solution  of  eco- 
nomic questions.  This  solution  must  be  inspired  solely  by  the  princi- 
ples of  natural  justice. 

If  we  now  pass  to  an  examination  of  the  difficult}'  itself,  it  is  very 
easy  to  prove  that  the  Holy  See  can  not  accept  the  proposition  of  the 
Philippine  government  to  recall  from  the  archipelago  in  a  fixed  time 
all  the  religious  of  Spanish  nationality — Dominicans,  Franciscans, 
Augustinians,  Recoletos,  and  to  prevent  their  return  in  the  future. 
In  effect  such  a  measure,  not  justified  by  a  reason  of  force  majeure, 
would  be  contrary  to  the  positive  rights  guaranteed  by  the  Treaty  of 
Paris,  and  would  put,  consequently,  the  Holy  See  in  conflict  with 
Spain,  who  would  have  every  reason  to  protest.  Much  more,  such  a 
measure  would  be,  in  the  eyeti  of  the  Filipinos  and  of  the  entire  Cath- 
olic world,  the  explicit  confirmation  of  all  the  accusations  brought 
against  the  said  religious  by  their  enemies,  accusations  of  which  the 
falsity,  or  at  least  the  evident  exaggeration,  can  not  be  disputed. 

Finally,  if  the  American  Government,  respecting  as  it  does  individ- 
ual rights,  does  not  dare  interdict  the  Philippine  soil  to  the  Spanish 
religious  of  the  four  orders  above  named,  how  could  the  Pope  do  it, 
he,  the  common  father  of  all,  the  support  and  born  defender  of  the 
religious?  On  the  other  hand,  without  having  recourse  to  this  violent 
and  extremely  odious  measure,  the  means  which  the  Holy  See  counts 
upon  taking  are  sufficient  to  set  aside  any  fear  or  any  preoccupation. 
The  number  of  the  Spanish  religious  remaining  in  the  archipelago  has 
much  diminished,  and  as  I  had  the  honor  to  say  to  you,  Mr.  Governor- 
General,  in  my  memorial  of  the  21st  of  June,  the  Holy  See  will  try  to 
introduce  therein  religious  of  other  nationalities,  and  particularly,  as 
much  as  possible,  of  the  United  States  of  America,  and  to  confide  to 
them  the  parochial  ministry,  hardly  will  they  be  sufficiently  instructed 
in  the  language  of  the  country.  Besides,  the  representative  of  the 
Holy  See  will  carefully  see  that  all  the  religious  of  no  matter  what 
nationality,  order,  or  congregation  consecrate  themselves  exclusively 
to  their  spiritual  work,  without  inserting  themselves  in  any  way  in 
political  questions,  and  in  abstaining  from  any  opposition  to  the  estab- 
lished power. 

This  result  will  be  all  the  more  easy  to  attain  since  the  resources  of 
the  religious  will  remain  under  the  control  of  the  supreme  authority, 
to  be  devoted  also  to  the  spiritual  needs  of  the  church  in  the  archi- 
pelago, besides  which  the  representative  of  the  Holy  See,  in  accord 
with  the  diocesan  authorities,  will  not  permit  the  return  of  the  Spanish 


254  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

religious  of  the  above-named  orders  in  the  parishes  where  their  pres- 
ence would  provoke  troubles  or  disorders;  that  if  in  such  and  such 
parishes,  the  totality  or  the  great  majority  of  the  population  desiring 
the  return  of  the  religious,  certain  disturbers  should  seek  to  create 
obstacles  and  difficulties,  the  Holy  See  again  expresses  its  confidence 
that  the  American  authorities  will  know  how,  by  the  ordinary  means 
of  justice,  to  protect  the  rights  of  the  religious  and  the  will  of  the 
population.  Finally,  not  to  retard  the  execution  of  this  convention, 
the  Holy  Father  consents  that  the  school  question  in  the  Philippines 
be  not  insisted  upon  for  the  moment,  but  His  Holiness  hopes  that  his 
representative  in  the  archipelago  may  have  an  understanding  with  you, 
Mr.  the  Governor-General,  on  this  point  of  an  importance  so  capital 
in  a  country  almost  exclusively  Catholic. 

Please  accept,  Mr.  the  Governor-General,  the  assurance  of  my  high 
consideration,  with  which  I  am  of  your  excellency  the  very  devoted 
servant. 

M.  Card.  Rampolla. 

Rome,  July  9,  1902. 


Counter  Project  of  Convention. 

Article  I.  The  Philippine  government  buys,  and  the  religious 
orders  Dominican,  Augustinian,  and  Recoleto,  owners,  sell,  by  the 
intermediary  and  authority  of  the  Holy  See,  the  lands  to  them  belong- 
ing in  the  Philippine  Archipelago. 

Art.  II.  This  contract  comprehends  all  agricultural  lands  in  Spanish 
haciendas,  with  houses,  irrigation  works,  machinery  for  various 
industries  thereon  owned  by  the  three  above-mentioned  orders,  but 
does  not  comprehend  houses  and  churches,  parochial  or  conventual, 
with  or  without  garden,  nor  country  houses,  with  or  without  annexed 
property,  which  these  orders  may  own  outside  of  towns  for  their  per- 
sonal use. 

Art.  III.  If  the  ownership  of  those  haciendas  has  been  transferred 
by  shares  to  industrial  corporations  constituted  for  the  exploitation 
thereof,  then  the  object  of  this  contract  shall  be  all  the  shares  retained 
by  the  three  orders;  and  therefore  such  shares  shall  be  passed  over 
to  the  Philippine  government. 

Art.  IV.  The  equitable  price  for  these  lands  shall  be  fixed  by  a  tri- 
bunal of  arbitration  composed  of  five  members,  of  which  two  shall  be 
named  by  the  Holy  See,  two  by  the  Philippine  government,  and  the 
fifth  bv  the  common  accord  of  the  other  four;  and  if  such  accord  can 
not  be  reached,  His  Holiness  the  Pope  and  the  President  of  the  United 
States  shall  come  to  an  understanding  as  to  the  choice  of  said  fifth 
arbiter. 


REPORT  OF  THE  8ECRETARY  OF  WAR.  255 

Art.  V.  The  .tribunal  of  arbitration  shall  begin  its  sessions  the  first 
day  of  January,  1903;  shall  gather  more  information  as  to  the  value 
of  the  lands;  shall  even,  if  it  judges  proper,  inspect  personally  the 
lands,  and  afterwards  shall  remit  to  the  civil  governor  of  the  Philip- 
pines and  to  the  apostolic  delegate  a  documented  catalogue  of  the 
lands  with  their  respective  prices.  The  price  shall  be  fixed  by  a 
majority  of  the  tribunal,  and  such  decision  shall  be  without  appeal. 

Art.  VI.  The  shares,  or  the  title  deeds  of  the  lands  which  are  the 
object  of  this  contract,  shall  be  duly  transferred  according  to  the 
forms  used  in  American  jurisprudence  to  the  Philippine  government 
before  any  payment  therefor  is  made. 

Art.  VII.  The  price  shall  be  paid  by  the  Philippine  government  in 
Mexican  dollars  and  in  three  payments,  one-third  thirty  days  after 
notification  of  the  price  and  the  delivery  of  shares  and  title  deeds, 
one-third  nine  months  after  the  first  payment,  one-third  eighteen 
months  after  the  first  payment.  The  two  last  payments  shall  bear 
interest  at  4  per  cent,  dating  from  the  first  payment.  The  payments 
shall  be  made  to  the  representative  of  the  church  designated  by  His 
Holiness,  and  the  receipt  of  the  same  shall  )>e  to  said  the  Philippine 
government  a  receipt  for  the  sum  paid. 

Art.  V11I.  The  Philippine  government  by  legislative  act  shall 
transfer  to  the  person  designated  by  His  Holiness  as  representing  the 
church  full  ownership  of  lands  or  enclosures  on  which  are  churches, 
cemeteries,  or  conventos,  which  were  never  so  transferred  by  Spain 
formally  and  by  written  deed.  Remain,  however,  safeguarded  the 
rights  of  municipalities  in  the  premises,  which  shall  be  duly  proven  in 
the  ordinary  courts  of  law. 

Art.  IX.  The  Philippine  government  and  the  Holy  See  shall  come 
to  an  amicable  accord  as  to  existing  trusts  of  charity  or  education 
which  are  in  dispute,  and  shall  determine  which  hereafter  are  to  be 
administered  by  the  civil  power  and  which  by  the  church  or  its 
agents.  If  such  accord  should  not  be  reached  in  any  given  case,  the 
tribunal  of  arbitration  mentioned  in  Article  IV  shall  decide  the  ques- 
tion. Said  tribunal  shall  be  competent,  especially  in  the  question  rela- 
tive to  the  San  Jose  trust  now  pending  in  the  supreme  court  of  the 
islands. 

Art.  X.  The  same  tribunal  of  arbitration  shall  fix  the  equitable  rent 
for  conventos  and  other  religious  buildings  that  were  occupied  by  the 
American  troops  during  the  insurrection.  It  is  understood  that  such 
rent  shall  comprehend  a  just  compensation  for  the  deteriorations 
caused  to  said  buildings  by  the  American  troops.  In  doubtful  cases  the 
tribunal  shall  decide  whether  the  rent  and  the  compensation  are  due. 
The  Secretary  of  War  will  present  to  the  Congress  the  conclusions  of 
this  investigation  and  ask  the  authorization  and  the  funds  to  pay  the 
jsums  fixed  by  the  tribunal. 


256  REPORT  OF  THE  8E0RETARY  OF  WAR. 

Art.  XL  An  equitable  salary  to  the  members  of  _ the  tribunal  of 
arbitration,  as  well  as  all  expenses  of  the  same  in  the  execution  of  the 
above  articles,  shall  be  paid  by  the  Philippine  government. 

Art.  XII.  The  Holy  See,  in  that  sphere  of  action  which  is  of  its 
competence,  shall  use  all  its  influence  in  the  pacification  of  the  archi- 
pelago and  in  favor  of  adhesion  to  the  established  government,  and 
shall  prevent  all  political  opposition  on  the  part  of  the  clergy,  regular 
and  secular. 


Governor  Taft\s  response  to  Cardinal  Rampolltfs  communication  of 

July  9. 

Rome,  Italy,  July  15r  1902. 
Your  Eminence:  I  have  the  honor  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of 
Your  Eminence's  communication  of  July  9th  and  to  say  that  I  have  sub- 
mitted the  same  in  full  by  cable  to  the  Secretary  of  War.  His  reply 
is  so  full  upon  the  points  touched  upon  in  Your  Eminence's  letters  of 
June  22d  and  Julv  9th  that  I  venture  to  transmit  the  same  to  Your 
Eminence  in  the  language  of  the  Secretary's  dispatch  to  me,  which 
is  as  follows: 

[Telegram.] 

War  Department, 
Washington,  July  lh  1902. 
Taft,  Hotel  Quirinal,  Rome: 

I  am  much  gratified  by  the  expression  of  intention  on  the  part  of 
the  Holy  See  to  take  the  measures  which  are  indicated  by  Cardinal 
RampollVs  memoranda  of  the  22d  of  June  and  of  the  10th  of  July  to 
recall  the  religious  in  the  Philippine  Islands  to  the  life  proper  to  their 
institutes,  and  to  an  exclusive  devotion  to  spiritual  ministry,  abstaining 
from  any  kind  of  interference  with  things  appertaining  to  the  civil 
authority,  and  to  introduce  as  much  as  possible  the  religious  of  nation- 
alities other  than  Spanish,  and  particularly  the  religious  of  American 
nationality,  and  to  concede  to  them  the  parochial  ministry  as  soon  as 
they  shall  be  sufficiently  instructed  in  the  languages  of  tne  country. 
These  measures,  so  plainly  indicated  as  wise  by  tne  recognized  facts 
in  the  Philippine  Archipelago,  are  quite  independent  of  any  business 
or  monetary  consideration,  and  I  feel  that  such  contribution  as  you 
have  been  able  to  make  to  a  full  understanding  of  the  facts,  and  the 
development  of  the  purposes  described,  is  sufficient  compensation  for 
your  visit  to  Rome.  It  is  believed  that  there  will  result  a  sure  basis  of 
mutual  consideration  and  just  treatment  in  the  future  relations  between 
the  church  and  state  in  the  Philippines  in  regard  to  all  specific  ques- 
tions which  will  have  to  be  settlea  there. 

Regarding  the  withdrawal  of  the  members  of  the  religious  orders 
from  the  Philippines,  it  should  not  be  understood  that  the  Philippine 
government  is  asking  to  modify  or  in  any  manner  affect  the  conduct  of 
religious  matters  on  tne  part  of  the  Holy  See,  or  on  the  part  of  the  heads 
of  the  orders,  or  for  any  compulsory  exclusion  or  proceeding  whatever. 
It  is  rather  that  the  Philippine  Government,  desires  social  results  which 
it  deems  of  great  importance  to  the  welfare  of  the  Philippine  people, 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  257 


and  which  can  be  accomplished  only  by  the  withdrawal  of  this  class  of 
persons  who  have  fortuitously  been  thrown  into  special  and  antago- 
nistic political  relations  with  the  people.  That  government  has  pro- 
posed an  arrangement  which  it  supposed  to  be  very  advantageous  to 
the  church,  and  worth  its  own  while  to  carrv  out,  if  the  ecclesiastical 
authorities  having  the  direction  of  the  religious  orders  should  see  lit 
voluntarily  to  withdraw  them  from  the  islands.  Such  a  voluntary 
withdrawal  can*  not  be  considered  a  violation  of  any  rights  under  the 
treaty  of  Paris  or  otherwise,  or  any  reflection  either  upon  the  nation 
or  upon  the  orderts  to  which  the  persons  withdrawing  happen  to  belong. 

The  reasons  making  the  withdrawal  desirable  are  not  religious  or 
racial,  but  arise  from  the  political  and  social  relations  which  existed 
under  the  former  government,  and  which  have  created  personal  antip- 
athies menacing  to  the  peace  and  order  of  the  community.  Such  a 
voluntary  withdrawal  would  not  involve  any  confirmation  of  anv  accu- 
sations against  the  persons  withdrawing  or  the  orders  to  which  they 
belong;  and  it  is  to  be  observed  that  we  have  made  no  such  accusations. 
It  would  simply  recognize  the  existence  of  the  conditions  which  for  sev- 
eral years  past  have  been  and  now  are  preventing  these  particular 
agents  from  serving  the  church  in  the  stations  to  which  they  were 
assigned  and  which  would  make  their  reemployment  injurious  to  the 
community.  In  this  matter  the  United  States  representatives  in  the 
Philippines  are  merely  endeavoring  to  meet  the  wishes,  as  well  as 
the  needs,  of  the  Philippine  people. 

It  is  not  the  United  States  Government  which  objects  to  the  presence 
of  the  friars;  it  is  the  Catholic  population  of  the  Philippine  Islands. 
The  lay  Catholic  population  ana  the  parish  priests  of  native  and  non- 
Spanish  blood,  are  practically  a  unit  in  desiring  both  to  expel  the  f  rial's 
and  to  confiscate  their  lands  out  of  hand.  This  proposed  confiscation 
without  compensation  of  the  church  lands  was  one  of  the  fundamental 
policies  of  the  Insurgent  Government  under  Aguinaldo.  Recogniz- 
ing the  intensity  and  practical  unanimity  of  this  feeling  among  the 
Filipinos,  and  at  the  same  time  desiring  to  avoid  causing  loss  to  the 
church,  the  United  States  Government  representatives  proposed  to  pay 
for  the  lands  out  of  the  public  funds  if  the  friars  would  retire  from  the 
islands  and  give  place  to  other  religions  of  their  own  faith  who  might 
be  able  to  accomplish  for  their  religion  what  they  themselves  had  so 
signally  failed  to  accomplish.  In  making  this  proposal  the  United 
States  representatives  were  well  aware  that  financially  it  was  only  of 
benefit  to  the  church,  for  the  lands  are  unproductive  and  held  in  adverse 
possession  by  the  natives,  who  refuse  to  pay  rent,  while  the  former 
congregations  of  the  objectionable  friars  now  refuse  to  receive  them, 
and  they  could  only  be  henceforth  restored  to  their  parishes  by  such 
affirmative  governmental  action  as  under  our  Constitution  can  not  be 
taken. 

It  is  the  desire  to  accomplish  the  removal  of  this  cause  of  disturb- 
ance and  discord  that  has  led  me  to  approve  that  clause  of  your  pro- 
posal which  would  involve  the  government  of  the  Philippines  in  a 
targe  and  undefined  obligation,  for  the  purchase  of  lands  in  advance 
of  a  specific  ascertainment  of  their  values,  and  of  the  estimated  prices 
which  we  can  reasonably  expect  to  receive*  from  them  when  we  in  turn 
offer  them  for  sale;  and  to  the  clauses  which  would  anticipate  the 
authority  of  Congress  in  regard  to  the  ascertainment  of  rentals  and 
damages  in  the  course  of  occupation,  and  the  conveyance  of  church 

war  1002— vol  1 17 


258  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

lands  provided  for  in  your  proposal.  If  this  object  is  not  to  be 
assured,  then  the  arrangement  sought  should  be  quite  different  in  form, 
and  should  more  closely  follow  the  suggestions  of  Cardinal  Rampolla 
in  his  memorandum  of  June  22d,  wherein  he  says  that  an  estimate  of 
the  value  of  the  lands,  conformable  with  the  principles  of  justice  and 
equity,  is  a  complicated  question,  requiring  special  study  of  the  facts 
ot  the  case,  and  can  not  be  solved  with  precipitation,  and  declares  the 
disposition  of  the  Holy  See  to  furnish  the  new  Apostolic  Delegate,  who 
is  to  be  sent  to  the  Philippines,  with  necessary  and  opportune  instruc- 
tions, in  order  to  treat  amicably  this  affair  in  understanding  with  the 
American  Government  and  the  parties  interested,  and  so  to  arrive 
at  fixing  a  satisfactory  accord  whether  on  the  value  of  the  lands  or  the 
conditions  of  the  sale;  and  wherein  he  further  says  that  the  Apostolic 
Delegate  will  be  instructed  upon  all  the  matters  touched  upon  in  the 
memorandum  to  come  to  an  understanding  with  the  American  authori- 
ties and  secure  a  just  settlement. 

Following  the  course  thus  proposed  by  His  Eminence  and  having 
secured  a  full  and  definite  enumeration  of  the  various  parcels  of  prop- 
erty in  which  the  religious  orders  are  interested,  and  which  they  are 
willing  to  sell,  it  will  be  the  duty  of  the  Philippine  government  to 
determine  for  itself  what  price  it  is  willing  to  pay.  That  price  will  of 
course  be  largely  affected  by  the  practical  benefits  to  be  derived  from 
the  purchase  in  view  of  all  the  facts  then  existing.  This  course  also 
makes  it  possible  to  take  into  due  consideration  the  fact  which  now 
appears,  that  contrary  to  our  former  supposition  the  real  and  substan- 
tial title  to  the  lands  in  a  great  measure  has  passed  out  of  the  religious 
orders  and  is  vested  in  corporations  which  they  can  not  entirely  control, 
and  which  hold  the  lands  for  the  purpose  of  lawful  gain  and  are  alone 
competent  to  sell  them.  It  may  well  be  that  the  prices  which  you  will 
feel  justified  in  offering  for  the  lands  will  be  acceptable. 

The  whole  matter  may  thus  be  disposed  of  by  friendly  agreement, 
in  conformity  with  the  ordinary  methods  pursued  in  business  affairs. 
I  believe  that  the  good  understanding  which  has  been  reached  between 
you  and  the  ecclesiastical  authorities  in  Rome  can  not  fail  to  do  away 
with  the  probability  of  friction  or  difficulty.  In  the  same  manner  I 
will  direct  the  General  Commanding  in  the  Philippines  to  ascertain,  by 
the  customary  methods,  what  buildings  belonging  to  the  church  have 
been  occupied  by  American  troops,  and  for  what  periods;  what  dam- 
age has  been  done,  and  in  each  case  what  reasons,  if  any,  exist  for 
denying  an  obligation  to  pay  rentals  and  damages;  and  I  shall  hope 
that  the  conclusions  thus  reached  will  be  satisfactory  to  the  church. 

A  similar  treatment  of  all  the  subjects  mentioned  in  your  propo- 
sition may  with  equal  readiness  be  followed. 

While  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  authorities  having  control  of  the 
religious  orders  do  not  now  see  their  way  to  make  a  definite  agree- 
ment for  the  withdrawal  from  Manila  of  the  friars  formerly  in  the 
parishes,  yet  it  is  hoped  that  pending  the  settlement  of  these  various 
matters  they  will  reach  the  conclusion  that  it  is  wise  to  do  the  same 
thing  of  their  own  motion  and  irrespective  of  any  agreement  to  that 
effect.  However  that  may  be,  you  should  assure  the  authorities  of 
the  church  that  we  shall  at  all  times  do  all  in  our  power  to  continue 
the  good  understanding  already  reached  and  to  agree  upon  such  action 
as  shall  be  for  the  benefit  of  all;  and  further  assure  them  of  our  high 
appreciation  of  the  courtesy  and  consideration  with  which  the  expres- 
sion of  your  views  and  wisncs  has  been  received. 


REPORT  OK  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  259 

As  preliminary  to  the  treatment  now  proposed  it  is  desirable  that 
the  authorities  of  the  church  should  arrange  to  forward  to  vou  as  soon 
as  practicable  full  and  definite  lists  (a)  of  the  property  which  they  are 
willing  to  sell,  and  of  the  precise  relations  which  they  hold  to  the  title 
of  those  properties.  If  tneir  relation  to  the  title  is  by  ownership  of 
the  stock,  then  the  total  stock  of  corporation,  amount  of  stock  which 
they  hold,  and  the  officers  of  the  corporations,  (b)  Of  the  churches, 
convents,  etc.,  which  they  claim  to  have  been  occupied  by  American 
troops,  and  for  which  rentals  or  damages  are  claimed,  and  with  the 
details  of  the  claim,  (c)  Of  the  chur<*h  properties,  formal  title  to 
which  remained  in  the  Spanish  Crown  at  the  time  of  cession,  and  formal 
conveyance  of  which  from  the  Government  is  desired.  It  should  be 
observed  as  to  these  that  no  authoritv  has  been  granted  bv  Congress 
to  make  such  conveyance  unless  it  be  as  a  part  or  a  general  settlement, 
including  purchase  of  the  lands,  (d)  A  statement  of  the  various  char- 
itable and  educational  trusts  which  the  authorities  of  the  church  con- 
sider should  be  regarded  as  devolved  upon  the  church  rather  than 
upon  the  state. 

Root,  S,<ntar;f  *»f  War. 

I  have  much  pleasure,  Your  Eminence,  in  accordance  with  the 
instructions  of  the  Secretarv  of  War.  to  assure  vou.  and  through  vou 
the  Holy  See,  that  the  officers  of  the  Philippine  government  and  of  the 
United  States  Government  in  the  Philippines  will  at  all  times  do  all  in 
their  power  to  continue  the  good  understanding  already  reached,  and 
to  agree  upon  such  action  as  shall  be  for  the  benefit  of  all.  I  desire 
sincerely  to  express  my  high  appreciation  of  the  courtesy  and  consid- 
eration with  which  the  IIolv  See  has  received  mv  communications,  and 
the  promptness  with  which,  in  order  to  accommodate  my  early  official 
engagements  in  Manila,  they  have  been  considered  and  answered  on 
subjects  that  might  reasonably  have  occupied  a  longer  time. 

In  compliance  with  the  suggestion  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  1  have 
the  honor  to  request,  if  it  is  in  accord  with  the  wish  of  the  Holy  See, 
that  negotiations  concerning  the  various  subjects  touched  upon  in  the 
proposals  and  counter  proposals  be  continued  in  Manila  between  the 
Apostolic  Delegate  and  myself  on  the  broad  lines  indicated  in  this  cor 
respondence,  after  the  information  under  the  four  heads  referred  to 
by  the  Secretary  shall  be  secured  and  presented.  I  much  regret  that 
we  can  not  now  reach  a  more  precise  agreement  under  which  less 
should  be  left  to  future  adjustment ;  but  I  venture  to  concur  in  the 
expression  of  satisfaction  by  the  Secretary  that  we  have  reached  a 
general  basis  for  solution  of  so  many  of  the  questions  awaiting  settle- 
ment in  the  Philippines  between  the  Church  and  the  State. 

I  have  the  honor  to  assure  Your  Eminence  of  mv  most  distinguished 
consideration,  and  to  subscribe  myself, 

Your  Eminence's  obedient  servant, 

W.  II.  Taft. 

His  Eminence  Cardinal  M.  Kampolla  del  Tindaro, 

Secretary  of  State  to  //is-  //rV/we&v. 


260  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

Cardinal  RampollcPs   reply    to    Governor   Taffs  communication   of 

July  15. 

Mr.  the  Governor-General:  I  hasten  to  acknowledge  the  receipt 
of  the  letter  by  which  you  have  kindly  communicated  to  me  the  cable- 
gram which  the  Secretary  of  War  of  the  United  States,  Mr.  Root, 
has  sent  in  answer  to  my  last  note  of  the  9th  instant,  which  accom- 
panied and  explained  a  counter  project  of  the  Holy  See  for  the  regu- 
lation of  the  religious  affairs  of  the  Philippine  Islands.  While  thank- 
ing you,  Mr.  Governor-General,  for  this  important  communication,  I 
am  happy  to  be  able  to  assure  you  that  the  Holy  See  has  learned  with 
the  most  lively  satisfaction  the  high  consideration  by  which  Mr.  Root, 
in  the  name  of  the  Government  of  the  United  States,  recognizes  the 
fitness  of  the  measures  which  the  Holy  See,  independently  of  the  solu- 
tion of  an}T  economic  question,  designs  taking  to  ameliorate  the  religious 
situation  of  the  archipelago  and  to  cooperate  in  the  pacification  of  the 
people  under  the  American  sovereignty — measures  indicated  in  my 
memoir  of  the  21st  of  June  and  in  my  letter  of  the  9th  of  July. 

These  declarations  of  the  Secretary  of  War  do  honor  to  the  deep 
political  wisdom  of  the  Government  of  the  United  States,  which  knows 
how  to  appreciate  the  happy  influence  of  the  Holy  See  for  the  religious 
and  civil  elevation  of  peoples,  especially  of  Catholic  peoples.  With 
equal  satisfaction,  the  Holy  Father  has  taken  into  account  the  assur- 
ance given  by  Mr.  Root  that  the  American  authorities  in  the  Philip- 
pine Islands  and  the  Government  of  the  United  States  will  put  forth 
all  possible  efforts  to  maintain  the  good  understanding  so  happily 
established  with  the  authorities  of  the  Catholic  Church.  On  his  part 
the  sovereign  Pontiff  will  not  fail  to  give  to  the  Apostolic  Delegate  who 
will  be  soon  sent  to  the  Philippine  Islands  the  most  precise  instruc- 
tions conformable  to  my  memoir  of  the  21st  of  June  and  my  letter  of 
the  9th  of  July. 

The  main  lines  for  future  negotiations  indicated  in  the  views  of 
these  two  documents  having  been  accepted  by  the  Secretary  of  War, 
the  representative  of  the  Holy  See  in  the  archipelago  will  enter  into 
relations  with  the  American  authorities  in  the  Philippines  on  the  four 
points  indicated  by  the  Secretary  of  War  at  the  close  of  his  cablegram. 
The  Holy  See  does  not  doubt  that  the  mutual  confidence  and  the  com- 
bined action  of  the  representatives  of  the  Holy  See  and  the  American 
Government  will  easily  produce  a  happy  solution  of  the  pending  ques- 
tions and  inaugurate  for  that  noble  country  a  new  era  of  peace  and 
true  progress. 

It  is  to  me,  Mr.  the  Governor-General,  an  agreeable  duty  to  be  able 
in  ending  this  letter  to  render  homage  to  the  very  great  courtesy  and 
high  capacity  with  which  you  have  filled  the  delicate  mission  that  the 
Government  of  the  President  of  the  United  States  had  confided  to 


REPORT   OF   TlfE   SECRETARY    OF    WAR.  201 

you  and  willingly  do  1  add  that  the  favorable  result  of  the  negotiations 
must  be  attributed  in  very  large  part  to  your  high  personal  qualities. 
While  flattering  myself  with  the  hope  that  this  first  success  will  bo  a 
guaranty  for  the  happy  issue  of  the  ulterior  negotiations  in  Manila,  I 
have  the  honor  to  renew  the  homage  of  the  high  consideration  with 
which  I  am  of  Your  Excellencv  the  most  devoted  servant. 

M.  Card.  Rampolla. 
Rome,  July  18th,  1902. 


APPENDIX  P. 


PHILIPPINE   IMPORTS    DURING   THREE   CALENDAR  TEARS  OF 

AMERICAN  OCCUPATION. 

The  following  is  a  comparative  statement  of  the  commerce  of  the 
Philippine  Islands  during  three  calendar  years  of  American  occupation 
ended  December  31,  1901,  showing  the  imports  from  the  United  States 
and  leading  countries  arranged  under  twelve  distinct  groups  and  a 
miscellaneous  group;  similar  comparison  of  the  principal  articles  of 
exportation  is  shown. 

Gboui*  1. — Animals  and  animal  products. 


Imported  from — 


1899. 


United  States 

Hongkong"  

United  Kingdom . . 

Germany 

France 

Spain 

China 

Japan 

British  East  Indie* 
All  other  countries 

Total 


$5,408 


16,906 
22,586 

7,263 

158,264 

21, 706 

1,156 
60,697 
33,622 

327.548 


1900. 


1901. 


!Total3years,! 

Jan.  1, 1899- 

Dec.31,1901, 

inclusive. 


Ratio 
per  cent. 


$19,041 

$74,451 

$98,900 

7 

31,091 

42,490 

73,581 

5 

20, 525 

31,406 

68.837 

5 

74,254 

57,192 

153,982 

11 

27,721 

33,127 

68,101 

5 

106,953 

187,305 

452, 522 

31 

8,270 

55,080 

85,056 

6 

5,671 

8,142 

14,969 

1 

97,164 

166,510 

324,371 

23 

19, 107 

36, 606 

89,335 

6 

409,797 

692,309 

1,429,654 

100 

«  Hongkong  trade  included  under  China  prior  to  Jan.  1,  1900;  subsequent  to  that  date  it  is  shown 
separately,  although  the  country  of  origin  in  the  case  of  importations  is  not  definitely  known.  It  is 
lair  to  presume,  however,  that  a  large  i>ortion  of  this  trade  should  bo  credited  to  the  United  States. 

(  t ro i'p  2. — Foodxt uffx. 


Imported  from— 


1S99. 


1900. 


United  States $232,080        $267,762 

Hongkong  a 2,136,079 


United  Kingdom 99,490 

Germany 14, 176 

France 20,737 

Spain 320,190 

China !  4,458,819 

Japan 7, 564 

British  East  Indies 375, 43 1 

All  other  countries 53, 490 


124,731 
71,738 
42,259 

179,629 

2, 648, 692 

11,371 

355,221 

876,278 


1901. 


$638,367 

484.801 

200, 148 

76,586 

32,592 

236, 451 

2,228,205 

29,589 

955.986 

ft  3, 114, 164 


Total  3  years, 

Jan.  1,  1899- 

Dec.  31, 1901, 

inclusive. 


$1,138,209 

2,620,880 

424,369 

162,500 

95,588 

736,270 

9,735,716 

48,524 

1,686,641 

ft  1,043.932 


Ratio 
per  cent. 


5 

13 

2 

1 


4 

47 


8 
20 


Total '    5,581,980  1    6,713,760  I    7,996,889 

i  I 


20,692,629 


100 


a  Hongkong  trade  included  under  China  prior  to  Jan.  1, 1900;  subsequent  to  that  date  it  is  shown 
separately,  although  the  country  of  origin  in  the  case  of  importations  is  not  definitely  known.  It  is 
fair  to  presume,  however,  that  a  large  portion  of  this  trade  should  be  credited  to  the  United  States. 

ft  Including  1685,801  worth  of  rice  from  Si  am  and  $3,025,202  worth  from  French  East  Indies. 

263 


264 


REPORT   OF    THE    SECRETARY    OF    WAR. 


Group  3. — Liquors  and  beverages. 


Imported  from— 


I       1899. 


United  States $394, 97C 

Hongkong"  

United  Kingdom 54,827 

Germany 21 ,  915 

France 28, 495 

Spain 354,  111 

China 130, 415 

Japan 15, 675 

British  East  Indies 12,607 

AH  other  countries 14, 455 

Total 1, 027, 476 


1900. 


$1,067,102 

202,474 

69,046 

47,690 

84,365 

161,344 

2,886 

5,468 

44,391 

26,477 


1901. 


$899,655 

36,793 

108,538 

33,501 

124,577 

193,680 

28,975 

11,379 

49,225 

73,098 


1,711,243 


1,559,421 


Total  3  years, 

Jan.  1,  1899- 

Dec.  31, 1901, 

inclusive. 


Ratio 
per  cent. 


$2,361,733 
239,267 
232,411 
103,106 
237,437 
709,185 
162,276 
32,522 
106,223 
114,030 


55 

6 

5 
•> 

5 
17 
4 
1 
2 
3 


4,298,140 


100- 


<«  Hongkong  trade  included  under  China  prior  to  Jan.  1,  1900:  subsequent  to  that  date  it  is  shown 
separately,  although  the  country  of  origin  in  the  case  of  importations  is  not  definitely  known.  It  is 
fair  to  presume,  however,  that  a"  large  portion  of  this  trade  should  be  credited  to  the  United  States. 

Group  4.— rColton,  silk,  and  vegetable  fibers. 


Imported  from- 


$27, 492 


United  States 

Hongkong  « 

United  Kingdom 2, 226, 215 

Germany 317, 905 

France 00. 995 

Spain 1 ,  304, 194 

China 742, 672 

13, 678 
141,751 
355,323 


Japan  

British  East  Indies . 
All  other  countries. 

Total 


5, 190, 225 


1900. 


$109, 
997, 

4,250, 
739, 
218, 

1,281, 
235, 
136, 
757, 

1,006, 


074 
823 
653 
141 
907 
842 
459 
449 
732 
060 


9, 733, 140 


Total  3  years, 

1901. 

Jan.  1,  1899- 

Ratio 

Dec.31,1901, 

per  cent. 

inclusive. 

$152,816 

$289,382 

1 

20,841 

1,018,664 

4 

3,637,345 

10,114,213 

43 

883,146 

1,9-10,192 

8 

430, 327 

710,229 

3 

900,640 

3,486,676 

15 

696, 646 

1,674,777 

7 

291,160 

441,287 

2 

765, 683 

1,665,166 

7 

1,074,878 

>>  2, 436, 261 

10 

8,a")3,482 

23,776,847 

100 

"Hongkong  trade  included  under  China  prior  to  Jan.  1.  1900;  subsequent  to  that  date  it  is  shown 
separately,  although  the  countrv  <  f  origin  in  the  case  of  importations  is  not  definitely  known.  It  is 
fair  to  presume,  however,  that  a  large  portion  of  this  trade  should  be  credited  to  the  United  States. 

*> Including  $1,487,225  from  Switzerland. 

Group  5. — Metals  and  manufactures. 


Imported  from — 


1899. 


United  States |  $57,646 

Hongkonga 

United  Kingdom 303, 402 

Geimany 118, 102 

France 65, 755 

Spain 49, 864 

China 108, 672 

Japan 6, 468 

British  East  Indies 15,247 

All  other  countries ]  28, 686 

Total 783, 842 


1900. 


$266, 
159, 
756, 
327, 
388, 
31, 
17, 

7, 

58, 

96, 


080 
248 
183 
941 
360 
259 
184 
113 
632 
571 


2, 108, 571 


Total  3  years, 
1Qn1         1  Jan.  1,  1899- 
,W1,         Dec.  31, 1901. 

1    inclusive. 

Ratio 
percent. 

$741,920 

29.086 

868, 385 

549.1M2 

951,415 

32,038 

81,643 

22,190 

$1,065,646 

188,334 

1,927,970 

1,025,985 

1,405,590 

113, 161 

207,499 

85,771 

367,643 

245,451 

16 

3 

£9 

16 

21 

2 

3 

293,764 
120, 194 

6 
4 

3,690,577  |        6,582,990 

100 

"Hongkong  trade  included  under  China  prior  to  Jan.  1,  1900:  subfequcrt  to  that  date  it  is  shown 
separately,  although  the  countrv  of  origin  in  the  case  of  importations  is  not  definitely  known.  It  is 
fair  to  presume,  however,  that  a  large  portion  of  this  trade  should  be  credited  to  the  United  States. 


RKPOBT   OF  THE   SECRETARY   OF   WAR. 


265 


Group  6. — Chemicals,  drug*,  dye*,  paints,  etc. 


Imported  from— 


1900. 


United  States 

Hongkong  a 

United  Kingdom 

Germany 

France 
In. 


1901. 


Total  3  years. 

Jan.  1,  1899- 

Dec.  31,1901, 

inclusive. 


Ratio 
per  cent. 


Spain. 
China 


Japan , 

British  East  Indies  4 
All  other  countries . . 


388,353 

140,394 

33.299 

65,384 

534,550 

5.286  i 

33.860 

8,088  ' 


$46,546 

454,482 

137,553 

84,030 

31,360 

24,238 

111,558 

12,141 

133,886 

14,407 


Total i    1,234,440       1,053,201 


$57, 222 

$128,994 

3 

46,323 

500,805 

13 

1*7,823 

7  J  3, 729 

19 

99,845 

324,269 

8 

38,961 

106,620 

3 

18,397 

108,019 

3 

351,043 

997,151 

26 

9,411 

26,868 

1 

690,964 

858,710 

23 

16,000 

38,495 

1 

1,516,019 

3,803,660 

100 

a  Hongkong  trade  included  under  China  prior  to  Jan,  I.  1900;  subsequent  to  that  date  it  in  shown 
separately,  although  the  country  of  origin  in  the  case  of  importations  is  not  definitely  known.  It  is 
fair  to  presume,  however,  that  a  large  portion  of  this  trade  should  be  credited  to  the  united  States. 

Gboup  7. — Clays,  earths,  and  manufactures. 


Imported  from— 


United  States 

Hongkong a  

United  Kingdom . . 

Germany 

France 

Spain 

China 

Japan 

British  East  Indies . 
All  other  countries. 


1899. 


1900. 


$85 


Total 


12,239 

8,711 

1,380 

2,638 

121,819 

1,789 

116 

36,779 


$1,215 

86,017 

12, 375 

9,864 

2,354 

4.930 

18,468 

18,942 

9,113 

13,057 


1&S556  !        126,335 


1901. 


$11,989 

20,020 

63,808 

29,057 

7.280 

3,399 

66,432 

5, 608 

16, 542 

21,599 

2 15, 734 


Total  3  years, 

Jan.  1,1899- 

I)ec.31,  1901, 

inclusive. 


Ratio, 
per  cent. 


$13,289 
r*>,037 
W.422 
•47,632 
11,014 
10.967 

206,719 
26,339 
25, 771 

ft  71, 435 


2 

10 

16 

8 

2 

2 

37 

5 

5 

13 


557, 625 


100 


a  Hongkong  trade  included  under  China  prior  to  Jan.  1. 1900:  subsequent  to  that  date  it  is  shown 
separately.  Although  the  country  of  origin  in  the  case  of  importations  is  not  definitely  known,  it  is 
fair  to  presume,  however,  that  a  large  portion  of  this  trade  should  be  credited  to  the  United  states. 

&  Including  $31,402  from  Belgium  and  $27,339  from  Netherlands. 

Group  8. — Afarble  arid  stone. 


Imported  from— 


United  States 

Hongkong  a 

United  Kingdom . . 

Germany 

France 

Spain 

China 

Japan 

British  East  Indies , 
All  other  countries , 


1899. 


Total 


$611 

5, 185 

829 

714 

9,537 


2,855 
11,459 


I 


31,190 


1900. 


$332 

2,342 

1,619 

1,014 

169 

230 

2,318 

277 

332 

9,946 


18,579 


1901. 


17,441 


Total  3  years, 
.  Jan.  1,1899- 
j  Dee.  31, 1901, 
inclusive. 


Ratio, 
per  cent. 


$3,058 

320 

1,341 

2-,  100 

964 

2,602 

4,682 

41 

89 

2,244 


$3,390 

5 

2,662 

4 

3,571 

5 

8,299 

12 

1,962 

3 

3,546 

5 

16,537 

25 

318 

1 

3,276 

5 

&23,649 

35 

67,210 


100 


a  Hongkong  trade  included  under  China  prior  to  Jan.  1, 1900;  subsequent  to  that  date  it  is  shown 
separately.  Although  the  country  of  origin  in  the  case  of  importations  is  not  definitely  known,  it  is 
fair  to  presume,  however,  that  a  large  portion  of  this  trade  should  be  credited  to  the  United  States. 

t>  Including  $7,680  from  Switzerland  and  $11,000  from  Netherlands. 


266 


REPORT   OF   THE    8E0RETARY    OP   WAR. 


Group  9. — Glass  and  glassware. 


Imported  from— 


1899. 


1900. 


United  States 

Hongkong  a 

United  Kingdom .. 

Germany 

France  .* 

Spain 

China 

Japan  

British  East  Indies 
All  other  countries 


9294,264 


Total 


10,385 
58,580 

7,022 

31,439 

122,856 

22,942 

1,582 
30,150 

679,220 


$201,349 

48,592 

24,197 

54,190 

8,371 

18,977 

2,172 

4,020 

10,486 

27,419 


399,773 


1901. 


$303,413 
5,708 
52,997 
124,088 
22,113 
40,702 
13,899 
14,374 
11,222 
36,185 


624,701 


Total  3  years, 

Jan.  1, 1899- 

Dec.31,1901, 

inclusive. 


9799,026 
54,300 
87,579 

236,858 
37,506 
91,118 

138,927 
41,336 
23,290 
93,754 


Ratio, 
per  cent. 


50 
3 
f» 

15 
2 
6 
9 
3 
1 
6 


1,603,694 


100 


a  Hongkong  trade  included  under  China  prior  to  Jan.  1, 1900;  subsequent  to  that  date  it  is  shown 
separately,  although  the  country  of  origin  in  the  case  of  importations  is  not  definitely  known.  It  is 
fair  to  presume,  however,  that  a  large  portion  of  this  trade  should  be  credited  to  the  United  States. 

Group  10. — Paper  and  manufactures. 


Imported  from — 


United  States 

Hongkong  a 

United  Kingdom . . 

Germany :.. 

France 

Spain 

China 

Japan  

British  East  Indies 
All  other  countries 


1899. 


$215,631 


Total 


37,955 

105,155 

33,542 

273,603 

87,623 

3,752 

804 

64,691 


822,756 


1900. 


$62,764 
24,407 
16,049 
84,168 
73,421 

103,855 

19,408 

4,773 

3,156 

71,104 


1901. 


$299,541 

1,951 

23,385 

103,911 

75,614 

143,212 

42,138 

9,788 

5,985 

73,068 


Total  8  years, 

Jan,  1, 1899- 

Dec.31,1901, 

inclusive. 


$577,936 

26,358 

77,389 

293,234 

182,577 

520,670 

149, 169 

18,313 

9,945 

b 208, 863 


463,105  778,593 


2,064,454 


Ratio, 
per  cent. 


28 
1 
4 

14 
9 

26 
7 
1 


10 


100 


a  Hongkong  trade  included  under  China  prior  to  Jan.  1,  1900;  subsequent  to  that  date  it  is  shown 
separately,  although  the  country  of  origin  in  the  case  of  importations  is  not  definitely  known.  It  is 
fair  to  presume,  however:  that  a  large  portion  of  this  trade  should  be  credited  to  the  United  States. 

b  Including  $160,887  from  Austria-Hungary  and  $37,131  from  Belgium. 

Group  11.  —  Wood  and  manufactures. 


Imported  from — 


United  States 

Hongkong  a , 

United  Kingdom . . . 

Germany 

France 

Spain 

China 

Japan  

British  East  Indies . 
All  other  countries. 


Total 


1899. 


$4,617 


4,182 
11,629 

3,601 
20, 522 
65,663 

1,841 
48,014 
34,532 


194,601 


1900. 


$10, 692 

36,030 

8,557 

56,171 

11,042 

16,198 

8,604 

4,180 

43,563 

28,462 


223,504 


1901. 


$81,716 
14,932 
14,905 
86,237 
23,556 
14,614 
41,643 
26,973 
123,917 
104,079 


532,572 


Total  3  years, 
Jan.  1, 1899- 

Dec.31,1901, 
inclusive,    i 


997,025 
50,962 
27,644 

154,037 
38,199 
51*334 

115,910 
32,994 

215,499 
M67,073 


950,677 


Ratio, 
per  cent 


10 
5 
3 

16 
4 
5 

12 
4 

28 

18 


100 


a  Hongkong  trade  included  under  China  prior  to  Jan.  1.  1900;  subsequent  to  that  date  it  is  shown 
separately,  although  the  country  of  origin  in  the  case  of  importations  is  not  definitely  known.  It  'a 
fair  to  presume,  however,  that  a  large  portion  of  this  trade  should  be  credited  to  the  United  Suites. 

^Including  $34,104  from  Australasia,  $36,131  from  Dutch  East  Indies,  and  922,721  from  Canada. 


BEPOET   OK   THE   SECRETARY    OF    WAR. 


267 


(iw)ri'  12.— Oi7*.« 


Imported  from — 


United  States 

Hongkong  & 

United  Kingdom... 

Germany 

France 

Spain 

China 

Japan 

British  East  Indies . 
All  other  countries. 


Total 


1899. 


$37,710 


16, 150 

654 

144 

7,811 

36,914 

310  . 
14,671 
116,573 


16,066 
258,573 


1900. 


$12,003  ! 

71,609 

58,528 

4,337 

260 

2,005 

5,830 


1901. 


$124,342 

10,589 

10,587 

10,459 

1,860 

40,662 

61,237 

10 

14,423 

285,146 


Total  3  years,. 
Jan.  1,1899-  !    Ratio, 
Dec. 31, 1901,    percent, 
inclusive.    . 


230,937 


429,211 


559, 315 


$174,055 

82, 198 

85,265 

15,450 

2.261 

50, 478 

103.981 

320 

45,160 

<*  660, 292 

1,219.4m 


14 
7 
7 
1 


4 
9 


4 
54 


100 


a  Exclusive  of  olive  oil  and  linseed  oil,  which  are  grouped  with  foodstuffs  and  with  chemicals, 
drugs  and  dyes,  respectively.  . 

&  Hongkong  trade  included  under  China  prior  to  January  1,  1900;  subsequent  to  that  date  it  i*. 
shown  separately  although  the  couutrv  of  origin  in  the  cose  of  importations  is  not  definitely  known. 
It  is  fair  to  presume,  however,  that  a  'large  portion  of  this  trade  should  be  credited  to  the  United 


States. 
c  Including  $653,947  from  Russia. 


MISCELLANEOUS. 


Imported  from — 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


$57,951 


United  States 

Hongkong"  

United  Kingdom 

Germany 

France 

Spain 

China j    1,892,197 

Japan 103,937 

British  East  Indies 76,?25 

All  other  countries 588, 314 


73,394 

67,902 

29,371 

113,424 


Total 3,003,215 


$89,238 

5145,765 

$292,954 

410,719 

451,884 

862, 003 

96,915 

191.911 

062, 220 

77,278 

1 49, 631 

291,. si  1 

86,506 

104. 6«8 

280, 565 

57. 775 

120,549 

291,748 

46,720 

213,343  • 

2,152,260 

230,914 

632, 436 

967, 287 

215. 377 

289.755  | 

581,857 

162, 1 18 

435,456  ! 

f>  1,185,888 

1,473.560 

3,095,418 

7, 572, 193 

Total  3  years.' 
I  Jan.  1. 1899.  to.  Ratio  per 
Dec.  31.1901.!     cent, 
inclusive.    ' 


4 

11 
9 
4 
4 
4 

28 

13 
8 

15 


100 


a  Hongkong  trade  included  under  China  prior  to  January  1,  1900;  subsequent  to  that  date  it  is 
shown  separately,  although  the  country  of  origin  in  the  case  of  imputations  is  not  definitely  known. 
It  is  fair  to  presume,  however,  that  a  large  portion  of  this  trade  should  be  credited  to  the  United 
States. 

t>  Including  $911,531  worth  of  coal  and  coke  from  Australasia. 


RECAPITULATION. 


Articles  imported. 


Animals  and  animal  products. . . 

Food  stuffs 

Liquors  and  beverages 

Cotton,  silk,  and  vegetable  fibers 

Metals  and  manufactures 

Chemicals,  drugs,  dyes,  etc , 

Clays,  earths, and  manufactures. . 

Marble  and  stone [ 

Class  and  glassware 

Paper  and  manufactures 

Wood  and  manufactures i 

Oils 

Miscellaneous 


Total 


Jan.  1, 1899,  to  Dec.  31, 1901. 


United 
States. 

Hongkong.'' 
$73,581 

United 
Kingdom. 

$68, 837 

Germany. 
$153,982 

France. 

$98,900 

$68,101 

1,138,209 

2,620,880 

424,309 

162,500 

95. 588 

2,361,733 

239,267 

232,411 

103. 106 

237, 437 

289,382 

1,018,664 

10,114.213 

1.940,192 

710.229 

1,065,646 

188,334 

1,927,970 

1.025,985 

1,405,530 

128,994 

500,805 

713, 729 

324.269 

106, 620 

13,289 

56, 037 

88, 422 

47, 632 

11,014 

3,390 

2, 602 

3, 571 

8.299 

1,962 

799,026 

5-1,300 

87, 579 

236,858 

37, 500 

577,936 

26, 358 

77, 389 

293,234 

182, 577 

97,025 

50,962 

27.614 

154,037 

38,119 

174,055 

82, 198 

85, 265 

15.450 

2. 264 

292,954 

862, 003 

602, 220  • 

291,811 

280, 565 

7,040,539 


5,776,651  !      14,513,619 


4,760,355  i      3,177,512 


a  Hongkong  trade  included  under  China  prior  to  January  1,  1900;  subsequent  to  that  date  it  is 
shown  separately,  although  the  country  of  origin  in  the  case  of  importations  is  not  definitely  known. 
It  is  fair  to  presume,  however,  that  a  large  portion  of  this  trade  should  be  credited  to  the  United 
States. 


REPORT    Ob'   THE    SECRETARY    OV    WAR. 
Group  12.— OUt— Continued. 


Jli 

.  1. 1599.  k 

Dec  31.  IB 

Article*  lmp..ri.-.I. 

—■ 

<»,„, 

Japan. 
(11,  WW 

::■<',  ,W2 
::■:,.  771 
■jti!  pi 
11.  Ski 
112!  ww 
967.2*7 

dies. 

.-.  .m,i  rL1.— . 

tmssw 

l,0i:l,932 

UK,  4 SIT. 
71.43.1 
2S,  649 
93.754 
■J*,  -17,1 
h;7,ii7:i 
MO,  i»U 
1,185.8*8 

„.,., 

Ani nulls  Hi?-'  animal  ;— Kin ■■"  . . 

so.  270 

.09.13.". 
ik,;,67U 
IIS, 161 
08.019 

io.w; 

9l!'llK 

h'.xa 

■*.  -17*1 

791, 74S 

i.i-i.;;; 

.117.  IJfl 

■ji^71'.' 
16,637 

HiV'ii'ii 
103, 9K1 

SfeJ.;|7i 

;■>.;.  t;.w 

'i\  771 
3. -2711 

iB.  2-jtl 

KM 

215.  499 
111.160 

UUj 

Uitiun,itlk.iii»lvFK>>bibli-  >U«. 

M.'Ih1*U11(I  lunQahrt'.irva 

Cimmtenls.  .!nur»,dye*.et« 

:;!v_:,i;,Vji 

I'nper  ana  mBnulartUTH 

j.'i-i.i.i 

Total 

■      ■.'.-..  r;  11 

i...;i.-..'.v> 

1.686,848 

V.'l-i.'"J 

'.'.  :17V  l.'i.- 

71, 619,  IM 

mportatlon  nf  gold  and  silver  amounted  lo  ni.174.200  and  Is  not  i) 


Exported  to— 

urn. 

1900.        '        1901. 

Jan.  1,  IBM-' 
Inclusive. 

Ratio  per 

13,015,726 

$2,796,668 

i,  osa,  :m 

$4,167,313 

217^722 
126,864 
213,392 

(9.  969,707 
2, 715, 170 

27 

2,  574,  ;«1 

£ 
IS* 

'Si 

48! 

121 
500 
754 

749 

3,600 

58,460 

1,  972,  175 

22.  095 

224| 44S 

lie!  254 

215^ 932 
82ft[l38 

China 

6 

Total 

7,993,574 

13,290,400 

15,976,640 

37,260,614 

loo 

SUGAR. 

(S3.525 

1.U07.97I 

(1,276,334 

2,319,280 

742,232 

15 

III 

167 

12 

1,163,096 

2,  7S£>,  501 

40 

127,857 

102 

....         978.958 

oi,  m 

is 

137,  sn 

33 

1 . 

Total 

3,460,743 

A  397, 213 

"*"l 

8,414,506 

100 

TOBACUO. 

1         ».» 

(5,669 
3(3.674 

187,72s 
5.1.324 
52,748 

646.649 
36,177 
14.993 

1W,  672 

(984 

607] 169 
2ft!043 
99!  335 

57l!  144 

(10,058 
792.599 
1.152,018 
98,239 
102,230 

335,729 
4*.  124 

636,747 

PC-::::::::::::::::: 

602,039 

,.|        700,217 

12 
1 

**" 

...    j     1.931.2M 

2.261,232 

2,  631,  941 

9,834,4311 

100 

k  HimfFkonjt  trade  imluded  under  China 
BrliaraMv.  AILiiijIlKii  tin- I'lumtty (if  llltliu 
ills  luir  id  presume,  however,  that  a  large  [ 


1.  1.  1900.    Subsequent  to  that  date  It  la  shown 

1  .rit,.|t,a  exported  li  not  definitely  known. 

shun  Id  beeredttcd  lo  the  United  State*. 


BKPOBT  OK   THE   SECRETARY   OK   WAR. 


260 


Philijtpim  exjunis  during  three  tttlendnr  yearn  of  American  fjccupation — Continued. 

COPRA. 


Exported  to— 


"UOQ 


United  States 

Hongkong  a 

United  Kingdom.. 

Germany 

France 

Spain 

China 

Japan 

British  East  Indies , 
All  other  countries , 


930,976 


1900. 


1901. 


Total  3  years, 

Jan.  1,  1899- 

I>ec.  81, 1901, 

inclusive. 


Ratio  per 
cent. 


494,111 

156,115 

2,818 

1,514 


Total 


41,119 


14,450 

5,574 

$537 

103,950 

36,888 

480 

4,8X2 

2,364,736 

1,1  IK,  576 

471,494 

340, 452 

13,263 

184 

50 

45,000 

92,023 

54,344 

127,461 

10,975 

726, 653       3. 182, 4*1       1 ,  61 1 ,  838 


94,450 

6,111 

171.814 

5,362 

3.  977, 423 

965,061 

16,265 

46,564 

145,357 

179,555 

5,520,972 


United  States 

Hongkong a 

United  Kingdom. 

Germany 

France 


HIDES  AND  SKINS. 


9990 


914,625 
595 


307 


976, 945 
1, 139 


9990  . 
121,570  , 
1,734  ' 
307  . 


3 


72 
1H 


1 
3 
3 


100 


23 
1 


Spaii 
Chin 


lina 

Japan 

British  East  Indies . 
All  other  countries. 

Total 


22,542 


690 
30 
26.20S  '        265.243 


78. 623 


23, 232 

30 

370,074 


50.047 


311,183 


159,707 


j: 


520,937 


METALS  AND  MANUFACTURES. 


United  States 

Hongkong"  

United  Kingdom . . 

Germany 

France 

8pain 

China 

Japan  

British  East  Indies 
All  other  countries 


920,935  j 
""7,"506"! 


9620 

17, 128 

5.940 


9670 

56, 359 

5, 560 


922, 225 
73,487 
19,000 


Total 


5,750  I 
47,367  I. 
37,328  ' 
10,224 

3,000 
650 


250 
219* 


1,797 
510 


1,511  i 
3,713  | 


6,000 

47,367 

37,554 

10,224 

6,308 

4,903 


132, 754  26. 032 


68, 282 


227,068  | 


SHELLS.* 


United  States 

Hongkong a 

United  Kingdom. 

Germany 

France 


Spaii 
Chin 


92,715  . 

10,307  I 
4,872 
2,239 
1,500  | 


92,599  I 

13,264 

9,053 

5,090 

4, 625 

372 


95,314 

23,571  ■ 

13,925  i 

7,329 

6,125 

372  .. 


lina 

Japan 

British  East  Indies . 
All  other  countries. 


71 


100 


10 

33 


3 
21 
16 
4 
3 
2 


100 


2 
11 
6 
3 
3 


46,909  ; 
1,320  , 


Total 


69,862 


20 

117.959 

537 

153,519 


20  .. 
164,868  ! 
1,857 


223,331 


(SUMS  AND  RESINS.& 


United  States 

Hongkong" 95,090 

United  Kingdom ! 18,071 


Germany 
France . . 


Spa 
Chii 


in. 


1,968 
1,900 


91,170 

10,625 

31,227 

2,585 

1.758 


91, 170 

15, 715 

49,298 

4,553 

3,658 


71 
1 


100 


1 

8 

25 

2 

2 


lina 

Japan 

British  East  Indies . 
All  other  countries. 


16,879 


Total 


43,908 


«  Hongkong  trade  included  under  China  prior  to  Jan.  1,  1900.  Subsequent  to  that  date  it  is  shown 
separately.  Although  the  country  of  ultimate  destination  of  articles  exported  is  not  definitely  known. 
It  isfair  to  presume,  however,  that  a  large  portion  of  this  trade  should  be  credited  to  the  United  States. 

*In  1809  these  articles  were  included  under  "  Miscellaneous"  in  the  schedule  of  classification. 


270 


REPORT   OF   THE   SECRETARY    OF   WAR. 


Philippine  exjxjrtat  \luring  three  calendar  years  of  American  occupation — Continued. 

STRAW  MANUFACTURES,  HATS,  ETC.* 


Exported  to 


1899. 


United  States. . . . 

Hongkong  ft 

United  Kingdom 

Germany 

France 

China 


1900. 


$1, 100 
2,605 
1,925 


1901. 


Total  3  years, 
Jan.  1,1899- 
!  Dec.  31, 1901, 
i    inclusive. 


27, 107 


British  East  Indies . 
All  other  countries . 


7,870 
10 


Total 


40, 617 


OILS. 


United  States.... 

Hongkong  ft 

United  Kingdom 

Germany 

France 

8 


&>,  982 


250 
15,930 


)am. 


pa 
China 

Japan  

British  East  Indies 

Total 


$1,923 


$62,353  ; 

9,482  ! 

8,763 

414 

62,383 

770 

2,752 


146,917 


$3,638 

6,810 

225 

2,943 

61,323 
1,213 


$63,453 

12,087 

10,688 

414 

89,490 

770 

10,622 

10 


Ratio  per 
cent. 


34 

6 
6 


48 


187,534 


100 


114 


800 
1,150 


4,923 


25,276 


78,102 


$3,638 

3 

13,792 

13 

225 

3, 193 

3 

77,253 

73 

1,213 

1 

4,923 

5 

800 

1 

1,264 

1 

106,301 

100 

MISCELLANEOUS. 


United  States 

Hongkong  ft 

United  Kingdom  . . . 

Germany 

France 

Spain 

China 

Japan  

British  Ea«t  Indies. 
All  other  countries. 


Total 


$4,744 

$56,104 

191,207 

106, 518 

392, 306 

20,247 

66,468 

50,033 

55, 186 

117,823 

332,575 

186,607 

5,686 

1,039 

12, 072 

36, 268 

169, 253 

23,356 

63,312 

546,635 

1,344,169 

$24,211 

$85,059 

3 

511,379 

702,586 

24 

(3,229 

562,053 

20 

1,228 

87,943 

3 

28,143 

133,362 

6 

223,422 

673,820 

24 

9,080 

201,373 

7 

39,618 

52,729 

2 

58,978 

264,499 

9 

5,769 

92,437 

3 

965,057 

2,855,861 

100 

RECAPITULATION. 


Articles  exported. 


Hemp 

Sugar 

Tobacco  and  manufactures 

Copra 

All  other  articles 


Total 


January  1,  1899,  to  December  31,  1901. 

United 
States. 

Hongkong,  ft 

United  King- 
dom. 

Germany. 
$25,121 

France. 

$9, 969, 707 

1,276,334 

10,058 

4,450 

181,849 

$2,715,170 

2,319,280 

792,599 

6,111 

962,808 

$20,037,454 

742,232 

1,152,018 

171,814 

659,923 

$36,500 
12 

98,299 

5,362 

103,739 

102,226 

3,977,423 

315,888 

11,442,398 

6, 795, 968 

22,763,441 

232,621 

4,432,049 

Articles  exj>ortcd. 


January  1, 1899,  to  December  31, 1901. 


Hemp 

Sugar 

Tobacco  and  manufactures. 

Copra 

All  other  articles 


Total. 


Spain. 


China. 


$186,754 

353 

1,929,288 

968,061 

722,772 


3,807,228 


$2,087,394 

1,163,096 

835,729 

16,265 

267,852 


4,370,336 


Japan. 


British 
East  In- 
dies. 


$455,749 

2,785,301 

49, 124 

46,564 

63,953 


$483,787 

40 

536,747 

145,367 

939,955 


All  other  |     T_f_| 
countries       louu- 


$1,262,978  $37,260,614 

127,857  8,414,506 

1,318,338  6,824,426 

179,565  6,520,972 

101,052  04,319,791 


3,400.691  .  2,105,896     2,989,780  i  62,840,308 


aln  1899  these  articles  were  included  under  "Miscellaneous"  in  the  schedule  of  classification. 

ft  Hongkong  trade  included  under  China  prior  to  January  1,  1900;  subsequent  to  that  date  it  i» 
shown  separately,  although  the  country  of  ultimate  destination  of  articles  exported  fa  not  definitely 
known.  It  is  fair  to  presume,  however,  that  a  large  portion  of  this  trade  should  be  credited  to  the 
United  States. 

<?The  exportation  of  gold  and  silver  amounted  to  $9,663,302  and  is  not  included  in  these  figures. 


APPEHDIX  G. 


Revenues  and  exjtenditure*  in  the  Philippine  Archijteleujo  from  dale,  of American  omifnition, 

AuguM  20,  1898,  to  June  SO,  1902. 


Fiscal  year  cimIcmI  Juno  30— 


1W*9.  1900.  1901.  1««. 


—  ■        Total. 


CuHtomH !•»,  tw7,  hm.  in  j$r>,  7:?.»,  297.  40    f j,  io5,  7.M.  67  $*,  550,  7:*.  19    $26,  493.  674. 71 

Portal I        42, 954.  87         101, 2*2. 51           122,  K16.  S3  1  37,  *\  1 .  99  |          407.  mi.  23 

Internal '      '240.7M.00        561.993.1*          966,400.47  225,  505.  09  '      1,994,652.74 

Provincial 1,993,270.97        1.993.270.97 

City  of  Manila 1.199,590.01        1,199.590.01 

Miscellaneous 127, 109.  xl        357.9M.A1          491, 217.  (JO  521.4K2.97        1 .  500, 7fi4.  39 


Total 3,508.682.83     6,  76:*,  527. 73     10,6X6,188.97     12.  631,  119.52       3X.5Kg.Kl9.05 

EXPENDITURE*. 


Customs 28,817.90         100,194.09           267, 446. W  490,126.40  8X6,58.*).  27 

Postal 30,410.75          H9.149.51           155,347.77  175,156.57  450.064.60 

Provincial ' <  716,5X6.80  |  746,5K6.K0 

Refund*  to  provinces ' 321,479.35  324.479.35 

City  of  Manila ; 1. 744, 341. 56  1. 714, 344. 56 

Other  expenditure* |  2, 316, 779. 97  '  4, 569, 334. 15      5. 650, 971 .  79  (J,  564, 426. 64  19. 101 ,  512. 55 


Total I  2, 376, 008. 62     4, 758, 677. 75       6, 073, 766. 4 1     10.  045, 120. 32       23. 253. 573. 13 

I  I 


These  figures  represent  the  revenues  and  expenditures  expressed  in 
United  States  currency  values,  transactions  in  Mexican  currency  being 
reduced  to  American  currency  values  at  the  uniform  rate  of  exchange 
of  $2  Mexican  for  $1  United  States  currency  up  to  and  including 
December  81,  1901;  and  at  the  current  rate  of  exchange  which  pre- 
vailed from  Januar}7  1  to  June  30,  1902,  which  was  for  the  first  three 
months  $2.10  Mexican  to  $1  American  currency,  and  $2.27  Mexican 
to  $1  American  currency  in  the  last  three  months. 

In  addition  to  the  expenditures  shown  in  the  foregoing  statement 
there  has  been  expended  by  the  insular  purchasing  agent  for  supplies  the 
sum  of  $1,058,037.30  under  reimbursable  appropriations,  and  there  has 
actually  been  reimbursed  to  this  fund  from  sales  the  sum  of  $835,81)8.40, 
the  difference  representing  the  stock  now  in  the  hands  of  the  purchas- 
ing agent.  Also  under  reimbursable  appropriations  there  has  been 
spent  for  commissary  supplies  for  the  insular  constabulary  the  sum  of 
$105,726.97,  to  which  fund  there  has  been  reimbursed  from  sales  the 

sum  of  $75,072.72,  the  difference  in  this  case  also  representing  stock 

271 


272  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

on  hand.  There  was  a  net  shrinkage  in  gold  values  on  funds  in  the 
hands  of  the  treasurer  of  the  sum  of  $592,691.38  by  the  changes  in  the 
ratio  between  insular  and  United  States  currency. 

The  city  of  Manila  was  incorporated  by  an  act  of  the  Philippine 
Commission  approved  on  July  31,  1901.  The  provincial  revenues  to 
June  30,  1901,  are  included  in  internal  revenues. 

The  accounts  are  audited  for  the  period  from  the  date  of  American 
occupation  to  June  30,  1901,  and  estimated  by  the  auditor  for  the  last 
fiscal  year.  In  submitting  the  report  the  auditor  states  that  the  fig- 
ures are  "  subject  to  change  by  audit  nearing  completion."  As  far  as 
possible,  these  figures  have  been  verified  by  other  reports  received  in 
the  Bureau  of  InsularAffairs,  with  the  result  that  it  is  believed  no 
material  changes  will  be  made.  The  total  revenues  for  the  current 
year  have  increased  over  those  for  any  previous  year,  but  there  is 
shown  a  decrease  in  receipts  from  customs.  On  March  17,  1902,  quar- 
antine was  declared  against  vessels  coming  from  Hongkong,  and  the 
importation  of  green  fruits  and  vegetables  therefrom.  The  prevalence 
of  cholera  in  China,  and  subsequently  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago, 
affected  the  commerce  generally. 


APPEHDIX  E. 


CUBAN  IMPORTS  DURING  AMERICAN  OCCUPATION. 

The  following  is  a  comparative  statement  of  the  comnie,  ui-4&uh& 
during  the  period  of  American  occupation,  showing,  by  groups,  the 
imports  from  the  United  States,  as  against  all  other  countries,  and  a 
similar  comparison  of  the  principal  articles  of  exportation: 

Group  1. — Animals  and  animal  products. 


Imiiorted  from— 


Live  stock. 


R/ivItw.         Horses. 

vltrli        mules,  and        Hokh.         All  other. 

tame.        donkeys. 


Hides  and 
skins. 


I 


United  States $6,324,916     $1,363,7x9        S6.tO.9M'      $353,759,       8170,2X3 

All  Other  countries 22, 578. 015  803. 502  23. 79:3  I  1M,  783  \  IMS,  1H1 


Total 28,902,931       2.167.291 


674. 747 


372,512 


358,461 


Imported  from— 


United  States 

All  other  countries 


Total 


■  —  Tor* !  y  HEr. :  A»»r 

i  anots-     ,  saddlerv.        ♦  """         products. 


$81,087     $1,742,823  £19,283         $211,739  $197,893 

162.761       5,069.194  '  13,517  265.118  95,320 


243,851       6.812.017 


62, 830 


476.857 


293,213 


Group  2. — FoodMuff*. 

Cereals  and  products. 


Imported  from — 


Wheat  ,.„__  M_.  ij.,pi..i-        Bran  and 

flour.  (orT1-  °ats-  Bor,,,>-       mill  feed. 


United  States 87, 612, 955  '  $2,467,205  '      $446,317  i        812,932  $119,563 

All  other  countries 19,075  15,016  16,680  75,977 


Total -    7,632,030       2.182.221  463.027 


88. 909 


119,563 


Imported  from — 


Cereals  and  products. 

Macaroni    «r<Mu1  nml    Table  food 
andvermi-      >!<"', ,?,         prepara-  Rice, 

eelli.       ,     t,lS(Ult-     ,      tions. 


I 


United  State* 

All  other  countries. 


$1 8, 567  '.        $59.  179    $1 1 3, 489  .   $111, 790 
13,792  ,    51.273     122,681  11,623,030 


Total. 


32.359  110.752  236.173     11.734.820 


All  other. 


$71,890 
63. 572 

135,462 


WAR  1902— VOL  1 


273 


18 


274 


BEPOBT   OF   THE   SECRETARY    OF    WAR. 


Group  2. — Foodstuffs — Continued. 


Imported  from— 


United  States 

All  other  countries. 


Total. 


Meat  and  meat  products. 


Fresh 
meat. 


9552,460 
218 


552,678 


Bacon, 
hams,  and 
shoulders. 


91,220,812 
85,901 


1,306,713 


Canned 
meats. 


912,426 
956 


13,382 


Jerked 
meat. 


97,515 
5,014,581 


5,022,096 


Salted  and 
pickled. 


93, 975, 332 
392, 40J 


4,367,732 


Imported  from — 


Uni 
All 


Total. 


Imported  from — 


United  States 

All  other  countries. 


Total 


Meat  and  meat  products. 


Mutton. 


934,349 


v4,  «$4" 


Poultry  and 
game. 


9232,983 
3,416 


236,399 


Lard,  tallow, 
etc. 


99,350,756 
55,277 


9,406,033 


All  other. 


92,493,950 
2,288,674 

4,782,624 


Fish. 

%  Butter 
and  oleo- 
marga- 
rine. 

Imported  f  rom— 

Dried  cod, 
hake,  etc. 

Allother 
dried. 

Canned. 

Shell- 
fish. 

All  other 
products. 

United  States 

9435,767 
1,285,735 

954,527 
26,317 

99,453 
304,784 

918,357 
3>826 

9412,231 
386,091 

9428,479 

All  other  countries 

359,889 

Total 

1,721,492 

80,844 

314,237 

22,183 

798,322 

788,368 

Cheese. 

Con- 
densed 
milk. 

Fruits. 

Imported  from— 

Apples. 

Raisins. 

Canned 
and  pre- 
served. 

All  other, 

green  or 

dried. 

United  States 

9304,297 
1,321,489 

9791,486 
145,956 

952,625 
8,001 

95,596 
108,195 

984,731 
209,635 

9249,041 

All  other  countries 

527,777 

Total 

1,625,786 

937,442 

60,626 

113,791 

294,366 

776,818 

Vegetables. 


Beans 
and 
peas. 


9833,962 
663,299 


1,497,261 


Onions. 


941,690 
489,297 


Potatoes. 


91,507,769 
873,464 


530,987  ;  2,381,233 


Dried 
pulse. 

Canned. 

931,971 
582,149 

935,242 
277,400 

614,120 

312,642 

All  other, 

including 

pickles  and 

sauce. 


9807,575 
1,343,312 

2,150,887 


Imported  from— 


United  States 

All  other  countries. 

Total 


Sugar. 


977,971 
2,878 


80,849 


Molasses 
and  sirup. 


'9632 
9 


641 


Candy  and 
confec- 
tionery. 


9123,547 
295,801 


419,348 


Cocoa. 


995,646 
31,673 


127,918 


Coffee. 


93,269,481 
a  2, 191.804 


5,461,285 


Imported  from— 


United  States 

All  other  countries. 


Total. 


Eggs. 


91,979,936 
24,201 


2,004,137 


Nuts. 


94,196 
60,447 


64,643 


Olive  oil. 


934,362 
2,851,038 


2,885,400 


8pices. 

Tea. 

949,775 
846,341 

91,306 
18,580 

396,116 

14,886 

All 
other. 


95 
9C 


101 


a  Of  this  91,984,112  worth  is  from  Porto  Rico. 


REPORT   OF   THE   SECRETARY    OF    WAR. 

% 


275 


Group  3. — Liquors  and  beverage*. 


Imported  from— 


United  States 

All  other  countries . 


Total 


Malt     |  WranHv  !  Whi«-  , Wines  and' A,J1,{i|lcr 
liquors.   !  Brandy>     ky.       cordials.      tid  £ 


tilled. 


Miner- 
al 
waters, 
etc. 


I. 


$1,160  $1,668,242  $104,419  $12,661    $63,K43   $4,145  I  $47,636 
138,128  1   847,559  j  285,808  ;  6,424  6,719.498  j  2X6, 794  I  217,690 


139,278  I  2,515,801  |  390.227  19,085  6,783,341  i  290,939  j  295,326 


Group  4. — Cotton,  silk,  ve-gftahle  filters,  wool,  etr. 


Imported  from — 


All  other  countries. 
Total 


Cotton. 


Raw. 


Cloths. 


i 


Closely       Loosely 
woven.       woven. 


Ill  ' 

Velvet-  I  w 

cSdHu-l^n!r|      ^it      ''in" 
(n^U   ,    laces.        fabri^     »PR"- 
etc.  I 


el. 


United  States $10,073'    $185,277!    $442,281  :  $6,045       $3,164,      $28,385     $6X,273 


41,2-17  ,  1,737,475     4,815,573   108,057     611,709  I  1,172,878     213,685 


51,320     1,922,752  |  5,257,854   114,102     614,873  '  1,201,263     281,958 

ill  i 


Imported  from— 


Cotton. 


Silk. 


Yarn  i 

and      j  All  other.  , 
thread.  ' 


Raw 


Yam 

and 

thread. 


Tulles  and 
laces. 


All  other 
manufac- 
tures. 


I 


United  States I    $93,559    $1,583,913 

All  other  countries I    860,293!    8.415,919 


i 


$1,663       $10,028 
2,543  I        6.907 


$236 
49,533 


Total. 


953,852  ;    9,999.832 


4,206  i       16.935 


49, 769 


$105,232 
1,483,615 


1.588,817 


Imported  from— 


Vegetable  fibers. 


I 


Esparto,     rlothH  '    Yarn, 
Raw    i    cane,     '     £££       twine, 


Sugar 


Wear- 
ing 


flax  and'   oziers,.       (f""     cordate.      V""1         '"* 

hemp.  ,    straw    i    255         ftn(*     I  ?l 

Ipalm.etc.     a8K"        ei* 


United  Stales 

All  other  countries. 

Total 


rope,    i 


I 


$214,922       $49,122,    $4,192  $120,674  I    $182,081     $5,381 
381,461  ,'      41,960     964,425  '  301,597  I  1,594.168     27,779 


596,383 


i 


91, 082  !  968, 617     422, 271  I  1 , 776, 249     33. 160 

_   _■     '        •_       l  _  ! 

Wool. 


All  other. 


$131,564 
4,606,664 


4,738,228 


Imported  from— 


Uiited  States , 

All  other  countries , 

Total 


Raw. 


$1,488 
2,177 


3,665 


Cloths 
spun  or 
twilled,    blank- 
i     ets. 


Flan- 
nels 
and 


$11,420 
299,097 


$5,735 
45.875 


310,517  51.610 


ap^rcT   ^nuta  Al1  oth^ 


$25,785       $5,826  '      $81,910 
103,868  ;    31,256  .  1,768,272 


129,653  '    37,082  ■  1,850,182 


Hats  and 
caps. 


$79, 983 
590. 5:53 


670.516 


Group  5. — Metal*  and  metal  manufactures. 


Imported  from— 


United  States 

All  other  countries. 


Total 


Copper. 


Gold  and  silver  and  manu- 
factures. 


nuS?ndlB^rdi 
iminufac-^"       Inputs, 
tures.        lurcs'     bars,  and 
I  sheets. 


Mann- 


'  ^haTI  AH  other 
factures.  Jewelr>-  deliers, '"J™'™" 
I  etc.        umHl 


$8,381       $44,826  ;    $66,110  $575,630       $6,792        $694 


1.788        69,698       138,574 


10,169       114,524  ,    204,684 


229, 158  :  200, 804 


289 


$40, 133 
292,972 


804,788  I  207,596 


983  I      833,105 


276 


REPORT   OF   THE    8ECRETARY    OF   WAR. 


Group  5. — Metals  and  metal  manufactures — Continued. 


Imported  from — 


Iron  and  steel. 


Pig 
iron. 


United  States 

All  other  countries 

Total 


$14,259 
5,416 


19,675 


Bars,  rods, 
sheets, 
plates. 


$1,668,257 
630,321 


2,298,578 


Hoops, 

bands, 

and 

scroll. 


$75,385 
112,340 


187,725 


Rails. 


$1,223,804 
695,158 


1,918,962 


Cutlery. 


Fire- 
arms. 


$108,595 
184, 116 


292,711 


$34,012 
50,188 


Nails, 

spikes, 

and 

tacks. 


$280,272 
140, 212 


84,200  !      420,484 


Imported  from— 


Iron  and  steel. 


Wire  and 
cables. 


Pipes 

and 

fittings. 


Safes. 


Scales 
and 
bal- 
ances. 


Needles, 

pins, 
pens,  sur- 
gical in- 
stru- 
ments, 
etc. 


Machinery 


Elec- 
trical. 


United  States 

All  other  countries 

Total 


$395,568     $198,476 
33,654         48,019 


429, 222       246, 495 


$21,828 
1,693 


$96,638  I  $100,421   $221,064 
8,034       286,888  |    19,588 


Metal 
working. 


$164,042 
22,300 


23,521  .  104,672  j    387,309     240,647         186,342 


Imported  from- 


Iron  and  steel. 


Machinery. 


Pumps  | 
ana     • 

pump     Sewing, 
machin- 
ery. 


United  States $117,629  $288,716 

All  other  countries ;    26,630      16,561 

Total 144,259  1305,277       936,273     2,278,206 


Locomo- 
tives, en- 
gines, 
and 
boilers. 


$918, 569 
17,704 


Sugar  and 
brandy. 


$1,924,063 
354,143 


Type- 
writers. 


$73,721 
813 


74,534 


All  other 

and  parts 

of. 


Cars, 

car- 
riages, 
and  ve- 
hicles. 


For 
steam 

rail- 
ways. 


$2,020,580 
369,039 


2,389,619 


$220,262 


220,262 


Iron  and  steel. 


Imported  from — 


(Tars,  carriages,  and 
vehicles. 


Tools  and  implements. 


For  oth- 
er rail-  [  Cycles, 
ways. 


All 
other. 


United  States $107, 157  $28, 353 

All  other  countries 415  |    1, 601 


Total 


107,572     29,954 


$254, 110 
32,742 


286,852 


Agricul- 
tural. 


$738,112 
299,602 


Builders' 
hard- 
ware. 


1,037,714 


$85,996 
70,673 


156,669 


All 
other. 


$358,014 
179,214 


537,228 


All  other 

and 
manufac- 
tures of. 


$1,367,227 
472,555 


1,839,782 


Imported  from — 


Lead 

and 

manu- 


Tin  and 
man  ii- 


Zinc 
and 
manu- 


factures.  faetures-  factum*. 


United  States. 


$56,292     $219,596 
All  other  countries i      47,298      213,878 


Total 103,590       433,474 


$22,109 
54,393 


76,502 


Clocks  I  Watches 


and 
parts. 


and 
parte. 


$54,517  i    $40,975 
21,290  I    190,142 


75,807  I    231,117 


Plated 
ware. 


$107,067 
89,191 


196,248 


All  other 

metal 
composi- 
tions and 
manu- 
factures. 


$429,260 
359,099 


788,359 


BEPOBT   OF  THE   SECRETARY   OK    WAR. 


277 


(tROl'l*  fi. — Chemical*,  t/rna*,  dye*,  jutintx,  tic. 


Imported  from — 


Aeids.    I  HlMckliiK.  ■  ''X1 


Inks. 


All  other  conntriew 40, 657 


11,940 


Total 12).  26U 


4h.  156 


Linseed 
oil. 


United  Btatea $84,612  '       836.216  '     $137,454      $ 10. 129      812,352 


3.637         20,733         97,21* 


Medicines, 
patent  and 
proprie- 
tary. 


8230,028 
298,222 


141.  (KM  37.162       109.570 


528,250 


Imported  from— 


1  PaintH  and         Hoot*.         Quinine 
opium.     ,a","JJ    l    herbs,  and    and  ein-    Varnish.    All  other. 
°°,,,|K  (writ*,         chona. 


United  state* 826,747       $335.0*0         $13,2*3      819,501      $lo»,689    $1,260,906 

All  other  countries 144,  :ifio         461 ,  6*5  *o.  o5i        ,V),  562        is,  600       1 .  190,  3*3 


Total 171,112 


796. 7tiT) 


93.331         75,063       127,2»9         2,751,289 


(iwui'  7.  —  ^  */«#/,  earth,  and  manufacture*. 


ImjMirted  from — 


Cement. 


I     Earthen, 
itriek.        '    stone,  and      Crockery 
i  ehina  ware. 


All  other. 


rnited  States 

All  other  countries , 

Total 


$292, 592 
84.512 

:r77, KM 


$256,6*2  ' 
35. 315 


881,111 
547, 192 


291,997  . 

I 


628,  :wt> 


870.617 

101,086 

174,  703 


818.313 
9*. 457 


116,  *00 


(iiion*  H. — Marble,  and  shtne. 


Imi>orted  from- 


Marblc. 


All  other 
stone. 


Lime. 


rnited  State* 

All  other  eonn tries , 

Total 


83,  :;o5 

30,  072 


816*.  6X] 
242.  US 


•  K>.  .W  t 


410.799 


86,  *56 
2.708 


9.  ."Hi  I 


(iKori*  *'. —  tila**  and  glaxxtran: 


Imported  from- 


Onited  State* 

All  other  countries 


Total. 


Window 
glass. 


Incandes- 
cent elec- 
tric lami>.M. 


<tlaxs  eover-  | 
ings  paying  i 

duty  Mpa-    I  All  other. 

rate  from 

eon  t  elite. 


83,  (lis  81  iit  :*35 

46.960  1.**! 


50.  57s 


21.219 


81  Oli.  115  8550,241 

1SM.579  922,725 


294,694         1,  ATI,  9m 


(iRorr   10. — Paper  and  manufacture*. 


Imfiorled  from — 


l»ulp 


For      Writing    {"""> 
print-  '   paper      ™»f 

]>osc.h.    velopes.  / 


Wrap- 
ping 

paper, 
bags, 
and 

Ijoxc.h. 


Straw 
pa[»er 
and 
straw 
lM»ird. 


Hooks. 

maps,  sci- 

entilie      .n    ♦».  _ 

iiihtrn-   ]A" «»lher 

ments, 
I       etc. 


Cnlted  State* :    8276, 084  $16,  893    841,140  $32. 101   $4*.  5*1     $24,170 

All  other  conn  tries 915,13M  I  29, 946       75,397     40.616     3s.il  19     175,025 


Total 1,191,222  j  46,839     116.537     72.747     87.230     199. 495 


$239, 9*9       8397,  133 
563.088  '       799,247 


*O3,077  .  1.195,380 


278 


REPORT    OF   THE   8ECRETARY   OF   WAR. 


Group  11. —  Wood  and  manufactures. 


Imported  from — 

Logs  and 
hewn  tim- 
ber. 

Pine  wood, 
unplaned. 

Boards, 

deals,  and 

planks. 

Shoots. 

All  other 
unmanu- 
factured. 

United  States 

$16,257 
423 

$2,372,086 
101,447 

$71,173 
55 

$158,316 
4,338 

$718,839 

All  other  countries 

39,037 

Total 

16,680 

2,473,533 

71,228 

162,654 

757,876 

Imported  from — 

Furniture 
and  cabi- 
net ware. 

Empty  bar- 
rels and 
hogsheads. 

Wood  cases 

containing 

imported 

goods. 

Wooden- 
ware. 

All  other 
manufac- 
tured. 

United  States 

$588,495 
158,802 

$414,600 
508,802 

$148,976 
201,919 

$135, 176 
34,867 

$740,535 

All  other  countries 

118,633 

Total 

747,297 

923,402 

350,895 

170,043 

859,168 

Group  12. — Oils. 


Animal. 

Mineral. 

Vegeta- 
ble oils.a 

Imported  from — 

Crude  pe- 
troleum. 

Illumi- 
nating. 

Lubricat- 
ing. 

All  other. 

United  States 

$176, 953 

$1,112,901 

$277,514 

$144,961 
1,800 

$282,930 
10,311 

$122,875 
163,621 

All  other  countries 

29,629 

251  |               2 

Total 

206,582     1.113.152 

277,516 

146,761 

293,241 

286,496 

«  Except  olive  and  linseed. 


MISCELLANEOUS. 


Imported  from — 


United  States 

All  other  countries . 

Total 


Brooms 

and 
brushes. 

Candles. 

Celluloid 
and  man- 
ufactures. 

Coal. 

Anthra- 
cite. 

Bitumi- 
nous. 

Coke. 

$37,763 
55,382 

$15, 937 
500,463 

$8,843 
54,275 

$246, 179 
a  435 

$2,063,025 
16,392 

$110,419 
23,787 

93, 145 

516,400 

63,118  >    249,614 

2,079,417 

134,206 

Imported  from — 


Cork  and 

manu- 
!  factures. 


Natural 
fertil- 
izers. 


United  States i    $24, 706 

All  other  countries 108, 057 

Total 132,763       506,703 


$19,415 

487,288 


Fans. 


$11,417 
78,293 


Gun- 
powder 
and  ex- 
plosives. 


89,710 


$209,233 
19,988 


Games 
and 
toys. 


$33,387 
150,466 


229,221 


183,863 


Hay  and 
fodder. 


$298,140 
28,965 

327,105 


Imported  from — 


United  States 

All  other  countries 

Total 


Scientific 
and  electri- 
cal instru- 
ments and 
apparatus. 


$87,691 
13,559 


Matches. 


$15,630 
39,437 


Musical  instru- 
ments. 


Pianos 

and 
organs. 


All 
other 


$32,286 
73,892 


101,250 


55,067 


106, 178 


$13,001 
70,406 


K3,407 


Oilcloths. 


$62,985 
10,  $69 


73,854 


Perfum- 
ery and 
cosmetics. 


$29,182 
321,440 

350,622 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OB 
Group  12.— Oibr-Contimtod. 
HISCELLAKEO  U8— Continued. 


1  Rubber  !                          *»P- 

a- 

TobaCCO. 

Imported  I rom— 

'  ™-  1  HWd"'  1    Com- 

All 

Cigem 
and  cig 

IE 

«H7  m  I 

$32,457  1  $46, 879 
109,931     777, 152 

822,394 

.                1     - 

(116,803 

|  121,045  | 

39,220     210,6TB       26,633 

142, »     822,831 

58,614     333,44*      22,330 

116,304 

Imported  from— 

'Tobacco. 
'All  other 

Vessels. 
Sti-nm.       Sailing. 

Walking 

umrllETl       Broom   1   All  other 

United  Btates 

1S1 

(91,249    (178,243 

816,180        (51,419        SB,  (181,106 
108,565           2,109  1        6,090,324 

All  other  countries 

;    u.928 

650,  MI   j     189,163 

119,7+5  j       63,628  I      15,171.432 

1         '     " 

RECAPITULATION. 


-mm, 

Articles  Imported. 

United 

""''■"• 

All.rtluT 

Percent. 

Total. 

1 

Animals  and  animal  products. 

(11,146,526 
40,656.444 
1,902,696 

14!777|W2 
2,281,297 

i.offiiavi 

iJ.Ji>t.4W 

a.  m  134 

13,434.766 

28 
64 

71 
46 
40 
29 

57 

S-JJ.aiK.ai; 

t,  S3U  901 

'  ft!  9S\  l* 

'U69!662 
1,163, 148 

v>,ia-i',2i:s 

90 

» 

54 
63 

43 

(40,364.743 

10,433,1197 

■ 

Cotton.  HU.  vegetable  Alien'. 

5 

a 

jHakatd  metal  man  ula.turr- 
Chemli»la,  drug",  dp*,  pulnw. 

20,  765,  690 

J 

Ctav.  earth,  and  :-■«■ -  ■■  r.-- 

'' 453' 740 

10 

u 

12 

Paper  and  m>nahuture> . 

Wood  and  maDulartur.*.    . .    . 
Oill 

3,71;, V-'7 
t.i, -W2.  77r, 
2,323.748 

Total 

97,790.1110 

43 

127,646,825 

67 

225,437,135 

of  gold  and  silver  amounted  to  (13,920.844,  and  is  ni 


d  En  these  figures. 


CTJBAK  EXPORTS  CUBING  AMERICAN  OCCUPATION. 


Exported  to— 

AnimalH, 

Including 

products. 

Asphal- 

Caran. 

<».«. 

8110  768 

(82.701 
8,437 

4,741  |         31,903 

18,171,        142,671 

91,138 

W*,H„ 

Tlntarron. 

drags,  and 

Fibers,  vegetable. 

All  other. 

Hemp. 

Alcoflber. 

Yarey. 

(2.039 
82,576 

24^770 

136,219 
8,(09 

122,200 
184,548 

84,615 

30,4«1 

44,828 

206,748 

280 


REPORT    OF   THE    SECRETARY    OF   WAR. 


('ulxin  exports  during  American  occupation — Continued. 


Exported  to 


Fibers,  vegetable. 


Fruits. 


Sisal  grass. 


United  States 

All  other  countries. 


Total 


$27,578 
20,016 


47,594 


Manufac- 
tures of. 


All  other. 


Bananas. 


Oranges 


f 


$564 
161 


$11,958  «  $1,165,987 
76,694  I  20 


725 


88,652       1,166,007 


an 
lemons. 


$3,730 


3,730 


Exported  to— 


Fruits. 


[Pineapples. 


United  States 

All  other  countries. 


Total 


$471,835 
270 

472, 105 


All  other. 


$389,391 
895 


390,286 


Exported  to 


Glass  and 
glassware. 


Hides  and 
skins. 


Nuts. 

Cocoanuts. 

i 

Copra,     j  All  other. 

$494,325 
2,643 

$22,079                     45 

496,968 

22,079  ,                   45 

Iron  and  steel. 

United  States 

All  other  countries. 


Total 


$12, 242 
250 


$310,089 
536,941 


12,492  j        847,030 


Honey 


$177, 726 
416,838 


594,564 


Iron  ore. 


$1,993,631 
70,608 


Manganese 
ore. 


$594,084 


2,064,239 


594,084 


Export ed  to 


United  States 

All  other  countries. 


Total 


Iron  and  steel. 

Leather 
and  manu- 
factures of. 

Metal  and  metal  com- 
positions. 

Scrap  iron. 

Manufac- 
tures of. 

$95,000 
39,498 

Copper  and 
manufac- 
tures of. 

All  other. 

$32,501 
1,299 

$9,921 
943 

$83,164 
10,028 

$4,706 
3,978 

33,800 

134,498 

10,864 

93,192 

8,684 

Exported  to — 

Oils. 

Paraffin, 
stearine, 
and  wax. 

Seeds. 

Shells. 

Tortoise. 

All  other. 

United  States 

$114,683 

$172, 359 
642,269 

$752 
645 

$4,323 
92,456 

$5 
90 

All  other  countries. 

Total 

114,683 

814,628 

1,397 

96,779 

95 

Distilled  spirits. 


Exported  to- 


United  States 

All  other  countries. 

Total 


Sponges. 


$346,290 
565,111 

911,401 


Rum. 


$86,102 
527,843 


All  other. 


Sugar  and  molasses. 


Sugar,  raw. 


$6,466 
200,584 


613,945 


207,050 


$75,077,645 
12,299 


75,089,944 


Sugar,  re- 


iigar,  i 
fined. 


$11,006 


11,006 


Sugar  and  molasses. 


Tobacco. 


Exported  to — 


Molasses    Candy  and 

and  K  I     confec-  Leaf' 

ana  sirup.      tionery_    , 


Other  un- 
manufac- 
tured. 


United  States $2, 540, 474 

All  other  countries 8, 978 


$30,700  $31,547,426 
18,539  |    8,883,521 


$30,380 
286,731 


Cigars. 


$13,636,649 
27,263,789 


Total 2, 549, 452 


49, 239     40, 430, 947 


316, 111 


40,900,438 


BEPOBT   OF  THE   SECRETARY    OF   WAR. 


281 


Cuban  exports  during  American  occupation — Continued. 


Exported  to 


I 


Tobacco. 


Cigarettes.    All  other. 


Vegetables. 


United  States 9109,572 

All  other  countries 914,272 


976,644 
249,131  ; 


9190,400 
87,194 


Total i    1,023,844  ■ 


325,775 


277,594 


Exported  to- 


United  States 

All  other  countries. 


Total 


Woods. 


Mahogany. 


Sapan. 


9488,401 
362,063 


931,195 
43,002 


850,464 


74,197 


Woods. 


Reexportation. 


Other  un- 
manufac- 
tured. 


Manufac- 
tures of. 


1  Miscellanc- 
\       ous. 


Provisions.    All  other. 


91,232,855 
861.451 


916,858 
2,917 


2,094,306 


19,775 


91,577,420 
2,021,649  I 


3,599,069 


966,286 
12,886 

79, 172 


9703,770 
258,986 

962, 762 


RECAPITULATION. 


Articles  exported. 


Tobacco  and  manufactures. 

Sugar  and  molasses 

Wood,  unmanufactured 

Iron  and  manganese  ore  . .. 

Fruits  and  nuts 

All  other  articles 


Total 


United  States.    Percent,   ^untile*    Percent. 


945,400,671 
77,648,819 
1,752,451 
2,587,715 
2,547,392 
5,479,092 


135,416,140 


Total. 


55  937, 596, 444  45     982, 997, 1 1  f> 

100  50,822  |    77.699.W1 

58  '     1,206,516  42  .      3.018,967 

97  i  70,608  3  I      2.658,323 


100 
47 


3,828 
6,204,709 


....I      2,551,220 
53    « 11, 683,  S01 


75  ,  45,192,927 


25 


180,609,067 


a  The  exportation  of  gold  and  silver  amounted  to  910,379,772  and  is  not  included  in  these  figures. 


REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 


283 


f 


ANNUAL  REPORT 


OF  TIIE 


ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 


War  Department, 
Adjutant-General's  Office, 

Waxhingtoni  Norvrnlxr  /,  1902. 

Sir:  The  following  returns  of  the  Army  for  the  fiscal  year  ended 
June  30,  1902,  are  respectfully  submitted: 

A. — Strength  of  the  Regular  Army  of  the  United  States,  June  30, 

1901,  and  June  30,  1902,  with  losses  from  all  causes  between  those 
dates. 

B. — Strength  of  the  Army  bv  divisions,  departments,  etc.,  between 
July,  1901,  and  June,  1902. 

C. — Statement  showing  the  monthly  strength  and  losses  from  all 
causes  in  the  armies  of  the  United  States  between  Julv  1.  1901,  and 
June  30,  1902. 

D. — Deaths  in  the  armies  of  the  United  States  between  Julv,  1901, 
and  June  30,  1902. 

E. — Dates  of  sailing,  and  troops  sent  to  the  Philippine  Islands. 

F. — Retirements,  resignations,  deaths,  etc.,  among  officers  between 
October  1,  1901,  and  October  1,  1902. 

THE   ARMY. 

Under  the  act  of  February  2,  1901,  to  increase  the  efficiency  of  the 
permanent  militanr  establishment  of  the  United  States,  the  enlisted 
maximum  strength  of  the  Army  (including  the  corps  of  Philippine 
scouts,  which  was  limited  to  12,000  in  number)  was  not  to  exceed 
100,000  men,  and  in  Mav  of  that  vear  the  President  authorized  the 
organization  of  the  Army  on  a  basis  of  77,287  enlisted  men.     July  1, 

1902,  the  maximum  strength  was  reduced  to  66,711,  and  October  24, 
1902,  it  was  further  reduced  to  59,866;  and  to  carry  out  the  orders  to 
reduce  the  army  to  the  strength  prescribed  bv  General  Orders,  No. 
108,  A.  G.  O.,  October  25,  1902  (59,866),  the 'following  instructions 
have  been  given  by  cable  to  the  commanding  general,  Division  of  the 
Philippines: 

To  reduce  the  enlisted  strength  of  the  cavalrv  and  infantry  of  his 
command  by  December  1  next  by  transferring  tneref rom  to  coast  and 
field  artillery  and  engineers  men  who  are  tit  and  willing,  so  as  to  bring 
the  artillery  and  engineer  company  organizations  to  the  strength 

285 


286  BEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 

authorized.  Of  the  enlisted  force  of  cavalry  and  infantry  remaining, 
2,000  to  be  discharged,  in  the  following  order  of  precedence: 

First.  Those  discharged  for  the  goc^d  of  the  service,  particularly  such 
as  are  serving  long  sentences  of  general  court-martial.  Of  this  latter 
class,  discretionary  authority  has  been  given  to  discharge  without 
honor  all  whose  service,  as  determined  under  A.  R.  162,  has  not  been 
honest  and  faithful,  without  requiring  proceedings  of  boards  to  be 
sent  to  the  Secretary  of  War. 

Second.  Those  wno  by  illness  or  climatic  influence  are  run  down 
and  out  of  condition.  Discharge  to  be  given  on  account  of  services 
being  no  longer  required  or  on  surgeon's  certificate,  as  justice  to  men 
and  interests  of  the  Government  demand;  and  if  necessary,  then 

Third.  Those  serving  in  last  year  of  enlistment  who  do  not  intend 
to  reenlist.  Discharges  to  be  on  account  of  services  being  no  longer 
required. 

Fourth.  Deserving  men  not  in  last  year  of  service  who  desire  dis- 
charge for  cogent  reasons.  Discharge  to  be  on  account  of  services 
being  no  longer  required. 

He  has  been  further  informed  that  the  reduction  of  the  enlisted 
strength  of  cavalry  and  infantry  of  his  command  should  continue  by 
ordinary  expirations,  etc.,  until  strength  of  65  enlisted  men  per  com- 
pany organization  is  reached. 

Instructions  have  also  been  given  to  the  several  department  com- 
manders in  the  United  States  that  all  organizations  of  infantry  and 
cavalry  in  their  respective  commands  shall  be  reduced  to  65  per  com- 
pany, in  a  very  short  time,  by  transfers,  and  through  discharges  in 
the  order  of  precedence  indicated  in  cablegram  to  tne  commanding 
general,  Division  of  the  Philippines. 

In  this  reduction  exception  nas  been  made  in  favor  of  the  organiza- 
tions stationed  at  Forts  Leavenworth  and  Riley,  Pekin,  and  in  Alaska. 

The  effect  of  these  instructions  will  be  to  make  the  enlisted  strength 
of  the  Army  at  an  early  date,  exclusive  of  the  Hospital  Corps,  Philip- 
pine scouts,  and  Porto  Rico  regiment,  as  follows: 

In  Philippines 13,480 

Coast  artillery  in  United  States,  Cuba,  and  Hawaii 13, 298 

Field  artillery  in  United  States 3,320 

Nine  bands  and  sergeants-major 300    t 

Cavalry  in  United  States  (including  bands,  regimental,  and  squadron 

noncommissioned  staff) 8, 460 

Infantry  in  United  States  (including  bands,  regimental  and  battalion 

noncommissioned  staff) 16, 646 

Infantry  in  Pekin 150 

Infantry  in  Alaska 624 

Engineers  in  United  States  ( including  band ) 866 

57, 143 

STAFF   DEPARTMENTS. 

U.  S.  Military  Academy 342 

Signal  Corps 810 

Oranance  Department  ( including  ordnance-sergeants) 700 

Post  commissary-sergeants 200 

Post  quartermaster-sergeants 150 

Electrician-sergeants 100 

Indian  scouts 75 

Recruiting  parties  and  recruits 500 

2,877 

Total 60,020 


REPORT   OK   THE   ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 


287 


The  excess  of  154  over  the  total  of  59,866  authorized  in  G.  O.  No. 
108  is  explained  as  follows: 

6  companies  in  Alaska  allowed  to  retain  temporarily  39  extra  men,  each 234 

Deduct  4  troops  of  cavalry  at  Fort  Riley,  not  yet  at  station,  at  20  extra,  each .        80 

154 

Under  restrictions  imposed  upon  the  recruiting1  service  by  General 
Orders,  108,  and  the  additional  contraction  thereof  resulting  from  the 
policy  of  reduction  as  directed  by  telegrams  and  circular  letters  to 
recruiting  officers,  the  enlistments  during  the  month  of  November  will 
be  no  more  than  necessary  to  keep  the  artillery  and  engineers  at  the 
proposed  strength.  As  soon  as  the  excess  in  the  Philippines  is 
absorbed  and  all  company  organizations  of  cavalry  and  infantry  there 
stationed  are  brought  down  to  65,  it  will  be  necessary  to  continue  the 
recruiting  service  as  organized  just  prior  to  this  reduction,  since 
experience  shows  that  the  results  thereof,  owing  to  the  system  of  care- 
ful selection  of  recruits,  will  only  be  to  produce  the  number  necessary 
to  keep  up  the  Army  to  the  enlisted  strength  authorized  (5J>,X66). 

The  actual  strength  of  the  Army  on  October  15,  11)02,  was  3,586 
officers  and  66,003  enlisted  men,  as  shown  by  the  following  table,  which, 
in  detail,  gives  the  strength  of  the  several  corps,  departments,  regi- 
ments, etc. : 


Department,  corps,  or  regiment. 


General  officer* 

Adjutant-General's  Department 

Inspector-General's  Department 

Judge-  Advocate  Oeneral's  Depa  rt  men  t 

Quartermaster's  Department 

Subsistence  Department 

Medical  Department 

Fay  Department 

Corps  of  Engineers 

Ordnance  Department 

Signal  Corps 

Record  and  Pension  Office 

Chaplains 

Electrician  sergeants 


First  Cavalry 

Second  Cavalry 

Third  Cavalry 

Fourth  Cavalry 

Fifth  Cavalry 

Sixth  Cavalry 

Seventh  Cavalry 

Eighth  Cavalry 

Ninth  Cavalry 

Tenth  Cavalry 

Eleventh  Cavalry 

Twelfth  Cavalry 

Thirteenth  Cavalry. . . 
Fourteenth  Cavalry . . 
fifteenth  Cavalry.... 


Total  cavalry. 


Artillery  Corps: 

30  field  batteries 

126  companies  coast  artillery. 

Sergeant-majors 

10  bands 


Total  artillery. 


First  Infantry.... 
8econd  Infantry.. 
Third  Infantry... 
Fourth  Infantry. . 
Fifth  Infantry.... 


112  ' 
527  i 


47 
47 
46 
46 
47 


Officers. 

'  Enlisted  ' 
mon.     ' 

Total. 

21 

, 

21 

27 

i 

27 

17 

17 

12 

12 

94 

149 

213 

44 

200 

2(1 

271 

»,  098 

3,869 

53 

53 

149 

1,167  ■ 

1,316 

58 

662 

720 

35 

697  . 

732 

•■> 

1 

2 

54 

• 

54 

61 

64 

49 

899 

948 

49 

911 

960 

47 

808 

850 

48 

775 

823 

50 

881 

931 

50 

856 

9(H) 

48 

876 

921 

47 

782 

829 

50 

1,074 

1,121 

47 

935 

982 

49 

1,019 

1,068 

49 

860 

909 

50 

850 

906 

50 

890 

940 

50 

1,0«5 

1,135 

733 

13, 502 

14,235 

3. 599 

13,011 

48 

253 


3,711 

13,538 

48 

253 


639  I      16,911 


17,650 


1,449 

1,496 

1.348 

1,395 

751 

797 

809 

856 

1,167 

1,214 

288 


REPORT   OF   THE    ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 


Department,  corps,  or  regiment. 


Sixth  Infantry 

Seventh  Infantry 

Eighth  Infantry 

Ninth  Infantry 

Tenth  Infantry 

Eleventh  Infantry 

Twelfth  Infantry 

Thirteenth  Infantry 

Fourteenth  Infantry 

Fifteenth  Infantry 

Sixteenth  Infantry 

Seventeenth  Infantry 

Eighteenth  Infantry 

Nineteenth  Infantry 

Twentieth  Infantry 

Twenty-first  Infantry 

Twenty-second  Infantry  . 
Twenty-third  Infantry  . . . 
Twenty-fourth  Infantry. . 

Twenty-fifth  Infantry 

Twenty-sixth  Infantry  . . . 
Twenty-seventh  Infantry 
Twenty-eighth  Infantry.. 
Twenty-ninth  Infantry. . . 
Thirtieth  Infantry 


Total  infantrv 


West  Point  detachment  — 

Recruits,  etc 

Discharge  camp,  California 
Indian  scouts 


Officers. 


44 
46 
44 
45 
50 
47 
44 
44 
44 
46 
47 
45 
44 
48 
49 
44 
46 
43 
44 
43 
45 
48 
47 
49 
48 


Enlisted 
men. 


Total. 


780 

824 

909 

955 

879 

923 

834 

879 

1,284 

1,334 

1,444 

1,491 

814 

858 

756 

800 

908 

952 

967 

1,013 

863 

910 

823 

868 

868 

912 

430 

478 

765 

814 

707 

751 

872 

918 

714 

757 

1,126 

1,170 

1,187 

1,230 

1,157 

1,202 

1,412 

1,460 

1,278 

1,325 

1,499 

1,548 

1,257 

1,305 

1,377  |      30,057  i        ol,434 


409  | 

409 

,899  • 

1,899 

225 

225 

61 

61 

Total 

2,594 

066,003 

1 

2,594 

/ 

Grand  total 

3. 586 

69,589 

«  Enlisted  men  of  the  Hospital  Corps  not  included  in  the  grand  total. 

In  addition,  there  are  in  the  service  the  following: 

Enlisted  men  of  the  Hospital  Corps,  not  included  as  part  of  the  enlisted  force  of  the  Army  under 

the  provisions  of  the  act  of  March  1, 1887  (3,598  men) 3,598 

Porto  Rico  regiment  (29  officers,  840  men) 869 

Philippine  scouts  QOO  officers,  4.978  men ) 5, 078 

Medical  officers,  volunteers  (182  officers) 182 

Total  (311  officers,  9,416  men) 9, 727 


Distribution  of  the  Army,  October  IS,  1902. 


Country. 


United  States 

Philippine  Islands 

Cuba 

Porto  Rico 

Hawaiian  Islands. 

China 

Alaska 

Total 


Officers. 

Enlisted 
men. 

Hospital 
Corps. 

Total. 

2,476 

44,163 

1.868 

48,507 

1,039 

19,800 

1,694 

22,433 

26 

819 

39 

884 

11 

228 

37 

276 

9 

198 

15 

222 

2 

131 

5 

138 

23 

664 

40 

727 

3,586 

66,003 

3,596 

73,187 

In  addition  to  the  above  there  are  serving — 

In  United  States,  24  medical  officers,  volunteers.  All  volunteer 
medical  officers  are  under  orders  for  honorable  discharge  on  account 
of  service  being  no  longer  required.  This  will  be  accomplished  as 
fast  as  they  reach  the  United  States. 

In  Porto  Rico,  29  officers  and  840  enlisted  men,  Porto  Rico  regi- 
ment. 

In  Philippine  Islands,  158  medical  officers,  volunteers;  100  officers 
and  4,978  enlisted  men,  Philippine  scouts. 


REPORT   OF   THE    ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 


289 


The  total  numl>er  of  the  losses  in  the  Army  during  the  year  ended 
June  30,  190:2,  was  47,727,  as  follows: 

Officers: 

Killed  in  action,  died  of  wounds  or  disease,  etc 

Resigned,  etc 

Retired 


:iri 

21 


Enlisted  men: 

Killed  in  action,  died  of  wounds  or  disease,  etc 1, 227 

Discharged  upon  expiration  of  term  of  service 35,  S0f> 

Discharged  for  disability,  bv  sentence  of  court-martial,  and  bv  order    5,  (>9H 

ed ." .* 4,W>7 

2 


124 


Deserted 
Missing. 
Retired. 


Total 

Seventeen  officers  and  172  men  were  wounded. 


47, 603 
47,  727 


The  partial  increase  of  the  Annv  in  1N1*8  by  reason  of  the  breaking 
out  of  hostilities  with  Spain  and  its  reorganization  with  increased 
numbers  on  the  disbandment  of  the  large  Volunteer  Army  called  into 
service  during  the  Spanish- American  war  necessitated  the  appointment 
of  a  large  number  of  officers.  Of  the  1,740  appointments  made  since 
January  1,  1898,  as  shown  by  the  following  table,  276  were  of  gradu- 
ates of  the  Military  Academy,  376  were  of  enlisted  men  of  the  Army, 
477  from  civil  life,  and  615  from  ex-officers  and  enlisted  men  of  volun- 
teers. All  appointments  were  made  to  the  grade  of  second  lieutenants, 
except  216  of  those  made  from  ex-officers  and  enlisted  men  of  volun- 
teers, which  were  to  the  grade  of  first  lieutenant — 65  in  the  cavalry, 
82  in  the  artillerv,  and  69  in  the  infantrv. 


Whence  made. 


Year  ending  December  31, 1898: 

Military  Academy 

Enlisted  men,  17.  S.  Army  . 
Civil  life 


Total 


Year  ending  December  31,  1X99: 

Military  Academy 

Enlisted  men,  U.  S.  Arm  v. . . 
Civil  life 


Total 


Year  ending  December  81. 1900: 

Military  Academy 

Enlisted  men,  U.  H.  Army  . 
Civil  life 


Total. 


Year  ending  December  31. 1901: 

Military  Academy 

Enlisted  men.  U.  S.  Army 

Volunteer  officers  and  enlisted  men 
Civil  life 


Total. 


Six  months  ending  June  30,  1902: 

Military  Academy 

Enlisted  men,  IT.  8.  Army 

Volunteer  officers  and  enlisted  men 
Civil  life 


Total 

(trand  total 


WAB  1902— VOL  1 


19 


Cavalry.  "Artillery.  Infantry.  Total. 


12 
10 

2* 


50 


22  I 

2  i. 


30 


34 

102 
7 


209 


12 
12 
50 


SO 


15 


15 


IT 
1 


IX 


2* 

2X 

135 

11 


2X  , 
135 


202  . 


24 
4 

17 
3 


13 
•> 

73 

I 


IK 


95 


397 


410 


40 

15 

148 


203 


39 
44 

152 


330 


52 

27 

204 


2*3 


00 

54 

1X0 


235 

300 

10 
59 
17 

49 
ft> 
19 

XG 

13-1 

02 

121 

199 

10 

215 
490 

2X 

X01 


10 

X 

29 

32 


47 

14 

119 

42 


79 


222 


933    1,740 


290  REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 

The  probable  number  of  enlisted  men  in  the  Army  during  the  fiscal 
year  ending  June  30,  1904,  who  will  be  entitled  to  increased  pay  under 
the  acts  of  August  4,  1854,  and  May  15,  1872,  is  as  follows: 

Under  act  of  August  4,  1854.  ,' 

5  years*  continuous  service  ($2  per  month) 5, 618 

10  years'  continuous  service  ( $3  per  month ) 2, 068 

15  years'  continuous  service  ($4  per  month) 1, 387 

20  years'  continuous  service  ($5  per  month) 851 

25  years'  continuous  service  ($6  per  month) 333 

30  years*  continuous  service  ($7  per  month ) 43 

Under  act  of  May  15,  1872. 

$1  per  month  for  third  year  of  service 15, 570 

$2  per  month  for  fourth  year  of  service 7, 320 

$3  per  month  for  fifth  year  of  service 6, 260 

Showing  the  presence  in  the  ranks  of  19,181  men  who  have  served 
more  than  three  years  and  4,682  men  who  have  a  continuous  service 
of  five  years  and  upward. 

The  probable  number  of  men  who  will  be  entitled  to  discharge  by 
reason  of  expiration  of  term  of  service  is  14.119. 

CHINA. 

Companv  B,  Ninth  Infantry,  has  been  retained  in  China  as  guard  to 
the  Unitecf  States  legation,  to  be  governed  in  all  except  strictly  pro- 
fessional and  administrative  matters  by  the  wishes  and  desires  of  the 
United  States  minister.  The  instructions  to  the  commanding  officer 
of  the  guard  state  that  his  force  will  be  used  to  repel  attacks  made 
on  the  American  legation  or  its  own  position,  and,  it  necessary  to  do 
so,  may  fire  upon  the  assailants,  but  must  not  be  used  aggressively 
unless  in  defense  of  the  American  legation  or  of  persons  or  property 
of  American  citizens  in  its  immediate  vicinity.  The  guard  may  coop- 
erate with  other  foreign  troops  for  defense  of  the  legations  in  event 
of  attack  being  made  on  same. 

CUBA. 

On  the  withdrawal  of  the  army  from  Cuba,  May  20,  1902,  a  small 
force,  consisting  of  eight  companies  of  the  coast  artillery,  remained 
on  the  island  for  temporary  purposes.  Four  companies  are  stationed 
at  Habana,  two  at  Cienf  uegos,  and  two  at  Santiago.  The  total  strength 
there  now  is  26  officers  and  858  enlisted"  men. 

PORTO   RICO. 

In  addition  to  the  Porto  Rico  native  regiment  which,  October  15, 
1902,  numbered  29  officers  and  840  enlisted  men,  there  were  on  duty 
in  that  island  two  companies  of  coast  artillery,  11  officers  and  265 
enlisted  men. 

THE   PHILIPPINES. 

Under  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  July  1,  1902,  "  temporarily  to 

Provide  for  the  administration  of  affairs  of  civil  government  in  the 
hilippine  Islands,"  the  commanding  general  of  the  Division  of  the 


REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT-GENERAL.  291 

Philippines  was  relieved  from  the  further  performance  of  the  duties 
of  military  governor  of  the  archipelago  and  that  office  discontinued. 

July  1,  1902,  201  stations  in  the  islands  were  occupied  by  the  troops, 
and  50  companies  of  Philippine  scouts  were  in  service. 

The  following  troops  are  now  serving  in  the  Philippines: 


Officers   iEl,li»twl 


Second  battalion,  United  State*  Engineers 27 

248 
12 


412 
4,740 

358 


First,  Fifth,  Sixth,  Eleventh,  and  Fifteenth  regiment*,  cavalry  . 

Fourteenth.  Fifteenth,  and  Twenty-fifth  batteries,  field  artillery 

Twenty-fifth,  Twenty-seventh,  Thirty-first,  and  Thirty-sixth  companies,  coast 

artillery 15  !           423 

First,  Second,  Fifth.  Tenth,  Eleventh.  Twenty-sixth,  Twenty-seventh,  Twenty-  ■  j 

eighth.  Twenty-ninth,  and  Thirtieth  regiments,  infantry 175         13, 295 

General  and  staff  officers,  en  1  feted  men,  Signal  Coqw,  Hospital  Corps,  noncom-  i 

missioned  staff,  band,  etc 262  '        2,166 

1 i 

Total 1.039  j       21,394 

The  total  number  of  troops  that  served  in  the  Philippine  Islands 

between  June  30,  1898  (date  of  first  arrival  of  troops),  and  July  4, 
1902,  the  ending  of  the  insurrection,  was: 


Regulars... 
Volunteers. 

Total. 


Officers.  '  K"J!rned 
men. 

i 

1,882  !        74,634 
2, 1X5  j        47, 867 

4.067  |      122,401 

Of  this  number  about  1,135  officers  and  28,000  men  served  there  more 
than  once. 

The  maximum  strength  there  at  an v  one  time  was  in  December, 
1000,  69,420  officers  and  men. 

The  average  monthly  strength  was  approximately  40,ooo. 

The  casualties  during  this  period  were  as  follows: 


l  Regulars.  Volunteers.  Total. 

1  <\m,..,~     Enlisted    r\<n™~,     Enlisted    f%mnt%WHl     Enlisted 
i  Officers.       men>     ,  Officers.       men>       Officers.       mc|1> 


Killed 32  353  '  22  ■  388 

Died  of—  I 

Wounds 10  96  7  129 


54  741 


1 7  225 

Disease 26  1.673  21  ,        1,028  47  2,701 


Accident. 

Drowning. 

Buicide. 


2  96  4  3X  6  134 

2  202  4  ,  61  6  263 

3  58  6  15  9  73 
Murder  or  homicide 1  69   28  l  97 


Total  deaths 
Wounded  


76  2.547  64  1  6X7  140  '  4.234 

71  .        1.165  133  1,653  20-1  2.818 


In  this  are  included  18  enlisted  men  killed;  1  officer  and  14  enlisted 
men  died  of  wounds;  2  officers  and  174  enlisted  men  died  of  disease, 
etc.,  and  11  officers  and  100  enlisted  men  wounded  during  the  war  with 
Spain,  or  up  to  February  4,  1899. 

The  total  contacts  with  the  enemv  between  Februarv  4,  1899,  and 
July  4,  1902,  were  2,811.  The  larger  proportion  of  these  tights  were 
attacks  from  ambush  on  the  American  troops.     In  almost  no  case  in 


292  REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 

these  engagements  did  American  troops  surrender  or  retreat  or  leave 
their  dead  and  wounded  in  the  possession  of  the  enemy,  notwithstand- 
ing that  in  many  cases  the  percentage  of  loss  was  high. 

The  number  of  killed  of  the  enemy  was  in  many  cases  estimated. 
As  a  rule  no  estimate  was  made  in  reports  of  the  enemy's  wounded. 
His  wounded,  and  often  his  dead,  were  carried  off  before  the  Ameri- 
cans occupied  the  hostile  positions.  The  killed  of  the  enemy  being,  as 
a  rule,  overestimated,  and  the  wounded  not  reported,  by  the  Americans, 
gave  rise  to  an  erroneous  impression  that  the  wounded  were  dis- 
patched, which  never  happened. 

List  of  Principal  Combats   during  the  Philippine   Insurrection,  Febriary  4, 

1899,  to  July  4,  1902. 

Engagements  around  Manila,  1899. 

Feb.  4, 5, 1899 Battle  of  Manila.    Thirteen  regiments  engaged,  Maj.  Gen.  E.  S. 

Otis,  commanding.  United  States  loss,  238 — 44  killed,  194 
wounded;  insurgent  loss,  700  killed,  many  wounded.  Occa- 
sion, insurgent  attack  on  our  lines.  Includes  combats  at 
Chinese  Hospital,  La  Loma  Church,  Pasay,  San  Juan  Hill, 
Santa  Mesa,  Singalon,  Pumping  Station,  Santa  Ana,  and  San 
Pedro  Macati. 

Feb.  10, 1899 Battleof  Caloocan.     Seven  regiments  engaged,  Maj.  Gen.  Arthur 

MacArthur,  commanding.  United  States  loss,  50 — 5  killed,  45 
wounded;  insurgent  loss,  200  killed,  800  wounded.  Occasion, 
rectification  of  United  States  lines  around  Manila. 

Feb.  23, 1899 Battle  of  Tondo.     Seven  regiments  engaged,  Maj.  Gen.  Arthur 

MacArthur,  commanding.  United  States  loss,  39 — 5  killed,  34 
wounded;  insurgent  loss,  500  killed  and  wounded.  Occasion, 
uprising  in  barrio  of  Tondo,  Manila,  in  rear  of  our  lines,  parti- 
cipated in  by  insurgent  army.  Fighting  extended  to  Caloo- 
can.   This  includes  actions  at  Tondo  and  Caloocan. 

Mar.  13, 1899 Battle  of  Guadaloupe  Church.     Five  regiments  engaged,  Brig. 

Gen.  L.  Wheaton,  commanding.  United  States  loss,  28 — 3 
killed,  25  wounded;  insurgent  loss,  200  killed  and  wounded. 
Occasion,  rectification  of  United  States  lines  around  Manila. 

Mar.  15, 1899 Battle  of  Pasig.  Three  regiments  engaged,  Brig.  Gen.  L.  Whea- 
ton, commanding.  United  States  loss,  4—1  killed,  3  wounded; 
insurgent  loss,  1,000  killed,  wounded,  and  prisoners.  Occa- 
sion, capture  of  city  of  Pasig. 

Mar.  18, 1899 Battle  of  Taguig.      One    battalion    Twenty-second    infantry, 

engaged,  Brig.  Gen.  L.  Wheaton,  commanding.  United  States 
loss,  20 — 3  killed,  17  wounded;  insurgent  loss  not  reported. 

Mar.  31, 1899 Combat  of  Nanca  River  (near  Mariquina).     Two  regiments 

engaged,  Brig.  Gen.  R.  H.  Hall,  commanding.  United  States 
loss,  18 — 1  killed,  17  wounded;  insurgent  loss  not  reported. 
Occasion,  abortive  advance  toward  San  Mateo. 

Apr.    9, 1899 Combat  of  Santa  Cruz.     Twenty  companies  engaged,  Maj.  Gen. 

H.  W.  Lawton,  commanding.  United  States  loss,  7  wounded; 
insurgent  loss,  93  killed,  many  wounded.  Occasion,  expedi- 
tion to  Santa  Cruz,  on  Laguna  de  Bay. 

June  13, 1899 Zapote  River.  Four  regiments  engaged,  Maj.  Gen.  H.  W.  Law- 
ton,  commanding.  United  States  loss,  45—8  killed,  37 
wounded;  insurgent  loss,  150  killed,  375  wounded. 

Aug.  12, 1 899 ( 'ombat  of  San  Mateo.     Seven  companies  engaged,  Capt.  James 

Parker,  Fourth  Cavalry,  commanding.  United  States  loss, 
20 — 4  killed,  16  wounded;  insurgent  loss,  24  killed,  wounded 
not  reported.  Occasion,  capture  of  town  of  San  Mateo. 
Town  evacuated  by  United  States  forces  next  day. 

Dec.  19,1899 Combat  of  San  Mateo.     Two  regiments  engaged.    Mai.  Gen. 

II.  W.  I^awton,  commanding.  United  States  loss,  14 — I  killed, 
13  wounded.  General  Lawton  killed.  Insurgent  loss,  40 
killed ,  1 25  wounded .    Occasion,  capture  of  town  of  San  Mateo. 


REPORT   OF   THE   ADJUTANT-GENERAL.  2t>3 

Advance  u>  Malolos,  Maj,  Gen,  Arthur  Mac  Arthur,  commanding. 

General  MacArthur  estimates  1,000  insurgents  kilted  and  many 
wounded  in  thin  advance. 

Mar.  25, 26, 1899 Battle  of  Tuliahan  River.    Ten  regiments  engaged.    United 

States  lose,  29  killed,  200  wounded,  including  Col.  II.  C. 
Egbert,  Twentv-second  Infantry,  U.  S.  A.  Insurgent  loss  not 
reported.  Includes  attack  of  entrenchments  at  Caloocan  and 
San  Francisco  del  Monte,  March  25,  and  assault  of  entrenched 
defenses  of  town  of  Melinto  and  action  at  Meycauayan, 
March  26. 

Mar.  27, 1899 Battle  of  Marilao  River.    Seven  regiments  engaged.     United 

States  loss,  79 — 14  killed,  65  wounded;  insurgent  loss  not 
reported.  Main  action,  crossing  Marilao  River  under  fire  ami 
assault  of  intrenchments  on  other  side  of  river. 

Mar.  29-30, 1899 Battle  of  Malolos.     Eight  regiments  engaged.     United  States 

loss,  il3 — 8  killed,  105  wounded;  insurgent  loss  not  reported. 
Main  actions,  the  crossing  under  fire  of  the  Bocaue  River  and 
of  the  Guiguinto  River,  and  engagements  in  front  of  Malolos 
and  at  Melinto. 

Advance  to  San  Fernando,  Maj.  Gen.  Arthur  MacArthur,  commanding. 

Apr.  23-27, 1895) Battle  of  Calumpit.     Eight  regiments  engaged.     United  States 

loss,  149—22  killed,  127  wounded.  Col.  J.  M.  Stotsenburg, 
•  First  Nebraska,  killed;  insurgent  loss,  200  killed,  many 
wounded.  Main  actions,  crossing  under  fire  of  Bagbag  River, 
April  23  and  24;  crossing  under  fire  of  Rio  Grande,  April  27; 
includes  actions  at  Buingua,  Norzagary,  Pulilan,  Angat,  and 
Apalit.  Notable  exploits,  Col.  F.  Funston's  passage  by 
swimming  of  Bagbag  River  under  fire  April  25;  forcing  pass- 
age of  Rio  Grande  under  fire  April  27. 

May  4,1899 Combat  of  Santo  Tomas.     Five  regiments  engaged.     United 

States  loss,  32 — 5  killed,  27  wounded;  insurgent  loss  not 
reported. 

Advance  to  Tarlac,  October  and  Xoremfjer,  1899,  Maj.  (leu.   Arthur  MacArthur,  com- 
manding. 

Oct.  16, 1899 Combat  of  Angeles.    Three  regiments  engaged.     United  States 

loss,  10* — 1  killed,  9  wounded;  insurgent  loss  not  reported. 

Nov.  11, 1899 Combat  of  Bamban.     Four  regiments  engaged.     United  States 

loss,  2 — 2  wounded ;  insurgent  loss  not  reported. 

General  Wheaton'*  expedition  to  Dagvpan,  1899. 

Nov.  11,1899 Combat    of   San    Jacinto.      Thirty-third    Infantry    engaged. 

United  States  loss,  22 — 7  killed,  15  wounded.  Insurgent  loss, 
134  killed;  wounded  not  reported.     Maj.  J.  A.  Logan  killed. 

General  Young's  raid  to  the  north,  November  and  December,  1899. 

Nov.  14, 1899 Combat  of  Manoag.    Three  troops  Third  Cavalry  engaged. 

Brig.  Gen.  S.  B.  M.  Young,  commanding.  United  States 
loss,  none;  insurgent  loss  not  known.  Occasion,  charge  of 
cavalry,  totally  dispersing  1,300  men  of  Aguinaldo's  army. 

Nov.  19, 1899 Combat  of  Santa  Tomas.    Two  troops  Third  Cavalry  engaged. 

Maj.  S.  M.  Swigert,  commanding.  United  States  loss,  8 — 1 
killed,  7  wounded;  insurgent  loss,  9  killed. 

Dec.    2,1899 Combat  of  Tila  Pass.     One  battalion,  Thirty-third  Infantry, 

engaged,  Maj.  P.  C.  March,  commanding.  United  States 
loss,  11 — 2  killed,  9  wounded;  insurgent  loss,  52  killed  and 
wounded. 

Dec.    4, 1899 Combat  of  Tangadan  Mountain.    Two  lmttalions,  Thirty-third 

and  Thirty-fourth  Infantry,  engaged,  Brig.  Gen.  S.  B.  M. 
Young,  commanding.  United  States  loss,  13;  insurgent  loss, 
115—35  killed,  80  wounded. 


294  REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 

Dec.    4, 1899 Combat  of  Vigan.     One  company  and  detachment,  Thirty-third 

Infantry,  engaged,  Lieut.  Col.  J.  Parker,  commanding. 
United  States  loss,  11 — 8  killed,  3  wounded;  insurgent  loss, 
100  killed.     Attacked  in  barracks  at  night  by  superior  force. 

Occupation  of  southern  provinces  of  Luzon,  January  and  February,  1900. 

PRINCIPAL  COMBATS. 

Jan.    6,1900 Binang.    Brig.  Gen.  Theodore  Schwan's  expedition.     United 

States  loss,  2 — 1  killed,  1  wounded;  insurgent  loss,  46  killed, 
wounded,  and  missing. 

Jan.  7,  1900 Imus.  Thirty-eighth  Volunteers,  Col.  W.  E.  Birkhimer,  com- 
manding. United  States  loss,  8 — 8  wounded;  insurgent  loss, 
245  killed  and  wounded. 

Jan.  19, 1900 Taal.     Battalion  Thirty-eighth  Infantry,  Maj.  E.  M.  Johnston, 

jr.,  commanding.  United  States  loss,  6  wounded;  insurgent 
loss,  15  killed  and  wounded. 

Jan.  21, 1900 San  Pablo.    Brig.  Gen.  Theodore  Schwan's  expedition.    United 

States  loss,  14 — 1  killed,  13  wounded;  insurgent  loss,  37  killed; 
wounded  unknown. 

Jan.  23,1900 Legaspi,    Province  of  Albay.      Forty-seventh  Infantry,   Brig. 

Gen.  W.  A.  Kobbe\  commanding.  United  States  loss,  7 
wounded;  insurgent  loss,  50  killed  and  wounded. 

Feb.  20, 1900 Libmanan,   Province  of  Camarines.     Fortieth  Infantry,  Col. 

E.  A.  Godwin,  commanding.  United  States  loss,  9  killed 
and  wounded;  insurgent  loss,  85  killed,  wounded,  and 
prisoners. 

Isolated  engagements,  1900. 

Mar.  26, 1900 Near  Antimonan,  Tayabas.     Battalion  Thirtieth  Infantry,  Mai. 

J.  F.  Hartigan,  commanding.  Loss  of  insurgents,  133*killed, 
wounded,  and  prisoners. 

Apr.    7, 1900 Cagayan.    Garrisoned  by  battalion  Fortieth  Infantry,  Col.  E.  A. 

Goclwin,  commanding.  Attacked  by  large  body  of  insur- 
gents. United  States  loss,  4  killed,  9  wounded;  insurgent 
loss,  38  killed;  wounded  not  known. 

Apr.  15,1900 Catubig,  Samar.     Detachment  Forty-third  Infantry,  besieged 

by  large  force  of  insurgents.  United  States  loss,  23—-19  killed, 
4  wounded;  insurgent  loss,  200  killed. 

Apr.  15, 1900 Jaro,    Leyte.     Detachment   company,    Forty-third    Infantry, 

Lieut.  C.  C.  Estes,  commanding.  Attacked  in  barracks  by 
insurgents.  United  States  loss,  none;  insurgent  loss,  125 
killed. 

Apr.  15,1900 Cullambang,  Ilocos.      Troop  F,  Third  Cavalry,  Capt.  G.  A. 

Dodd,  commanding,  attacks  insurgents'  stronghold.  United 
States  loss,  none;  insurgent  loss,  97 — 53  killed,  44  captured. 

Apr.  16,  1900 Batac,  near  Laoag,  Ilocos.  Company  G,  Thirty-fourth  Infan- 
try, Capt.  C.  J.  Rollis,  commanding,  attacked  in  barracks. 
United  States  loss,  5 — 2  killed,  3  wounded;  insurgent  loss, 
265  killed,  wounded,  and  prisoners. 

Apr.  17, 1900 Laoag,  Ilocos.    Companies  F,  G,  and  H,  Thirty-fourth  Infantry, 

Lieut.  Col.  R.  L.  Howze,  commanding.  United  States  loss, 
none;  insurgent  loss,  152  killed,  wounded,  and  prisoners. 

Apr.  30,  1900 Catarman,  Samar.    Company  F,  Forty-third  Infantry,  attacked 

in  station  by  insurgents.  United  States  loss,  2  wounded; 
insurgent  loss,  154  killed,  many  wounded. 

May  1 4, 1900 Misamis,  Mindanao.     Detachment 25  men,  Company  C,  Fortieth 

Infantry,  Capt.  W.  McK.  Lambdin,  commanding.  Attacked 
by  200  insurgents.  United  States  loss,  12  killed  and  wounded; 
insurgent  loss,  77  killed  and  wounded. 

May  28, 1900 Labo,  province  of  Camarines.    Detachment  Forty-fifth  Infantry 

ambushed.  Capt.  A.  Stein hauser,  commanding.  United  States 
loss,  9 — 3  killed,  6  wounded;  insurgent  loss,  not  reported. 

July    4,1900 Ponoranda,    Gapan,   and   Maniclin,    Luzon.    Garrisoned  by 

detachments  of  Twenty-fourth  and  Thirty-fourth  Infantry. 
Attacked  by  insurgents.  United  States  loss,  4 — 1  killed,  3 
wounded;  insurgent  loss,  over  100  killed  and  wounded. 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT-GENERAL.  295 

July  12, 1900 Oroquieta,  Mindanao.    Company  I,  Fortieth  Infantry,  Lieut. 

K.  C.  Masteller,  commanding.  Garrison  attacked  oy  insur- 
gents. United  States  lose,  3—2  killed,  1  wounded;  insurgent 
loss,  101  killed  and  wounded. 

Sept  14, 1900 Torrijos,     Mindoro.    Company    F,     Twenty-ninth     Infantry, 

engaged.  Capt.  Devereux  Shields,  commanding.  United 
States  loss,  6Cf— 4  killed,  6  wounded,  and  50  captured;  insur- 
gent loss,  not  known. 

Sept  16, 1900 Navitac,  Laguna  Province.    Company  L,  Fifteenth  Infantry, 

Company  L,  Thirty-seventh  Infantrv,  Company  K,  Fifteenth 
Infantry.  Cant.  D.  D.  Mitchell,  fifteenth  Infantry,  com- 
manding. United  States  loss,  killed  and  wounded  in  ambush, 
57;  insurgent  loss,  10  killed,  20  wounded. 

Oct  14,1900 Ormoc,   Leyte.      Troops  engaged,  Company- 1),    Forty-fourth 

Infantry,  Lieut.  R.W  .  Buchanan  commanding.  United  States 
loss,  none;  insurgent  loss,  116  killed,  wounded  not  reported. 

Oct  21, 1900 Looc,  Batangas.     Itetachment  20  men,  Twenty-eighth  Infantry, 

Capt. George  W.  Biegler  commanding,  defeated  400  insurgents. 
United  States  loss,  6  killed  and  wounded;  insurgent  loss,  75 
killed  and  wounded. 

Oct  24, 1900 Barrio  Casucos,  I  locos.    Detachments  Thirty-third  Infantry  and 

Third  Cavalry,  First  Lieut.  George  L.  Febiger  commanding, 
ambushed  by  400  riflemen.  United  States  loss,  Lieutenant 
Febiger  and  4  men  killed,  9  wounded,  5  missing;  insurgent 
loss,  150  killed  and  wounded. 

Oct  30,1900 Bugasan,  Panay.      Garrisoned    by    Company  E,   Nineteenth 

Infantry,  Capt.  F.  H.  French,  Nineteenth  Infantry,  command- 
ing, attacked  by  insurgents.  United  States  loss,  4  killed  and 
irounded;  insurgent  loss,  54  killed,  21  wounded,  21  captured. 

Isolated  engagement*,  1901. 

June  10, 1901 Near  Lipa.    Company  D,  Forty-fifth  Infantry,  ambushed  by 

500  insurgents.  Capt.  \V.  II.  wilhelm,  commanding.  Lieut. 
A.  M.  Springer,  Twenty-first  Infantry,  and  L»eut.  W.  II.  Lee, 
Corps  of  Engineers,  killed.  United  States  loss,  6  killed  and 
wounded;  insurgent  loss,  unknown. 

Sept.  28, 1901 Balangiga,  Samar.    Company  C,  Ninth  Infantry,  Capt.  Thomas 

W.  Connell,  commanding.  Attacked  by  400  natives.  United 
States  loss,  3  officers,  32  men  killed,  24  wounded,  8  missing; 
officers  killed,  Captain  Connell,  Lieut.  E.  A.  Bumpus,  and 
Maj  .R.  S.  Griswold,  surgeon.  Insurgent  loss,  140  killed  and 
wounded. 

Oct  16,1901 Gandara  River.     Detachment   Company   B,    Ninth    Infantry, 

ambushed.  United  States  loss,  10  killed,  <>  wounded.  Insur- 
gent loss,  83  killed. 

Isolated  engagements,  11*02. 

May  2, 1902 Bayan,  Mindanao.  Twenty-seventh  Infantry,  Col.  F.  D.  Bald- 
win, commanding.  United  States  loss,  51 ;  8  killed,  48 
wounded.     Moro  loss,  several  hundred  killed. 

List  op  Officers  Killed  and  Died  of  Wounds  or  Disease,  etc,  in  the  Philip- 
pine Islands,  to  October  1,  1902. 

killed  (54). 

Adams,  Frank  rL,  first  lieutenant,  First  South  Dakota  Volunteer  Infantrv,  in 
action  at  Marilao,  March  27,  1899. 

Alford,  Alfred  C,  second  lieutenant,  Twentieth  Kansas  Volunteer  Infantry,  in 
action  near  Caloocan,  February  7,  1899. 

Bean,  Robert  R.,  second  lieutenant,  Philippine  Scouts,  in  action  at  Mount  Malary, 
October  8,  1901. 

Boutelle,  Henry  M.,  second  lieutenant,  Third  Artillery,  in  action  near  Aliaga, 
November  2,  1899. 

Brown,  William,  captain,  Forty-fifth  Infantry,  United  States  Volunteers,  in  action 
at  Guidiang,  August  17,  1900. 


296  REPOKT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 

Bumpus,  Edward  A.,  first  lieutenant,  Ninth  Jnfantrv,  in  action  at  Balangiga,  Sep- 
tember 28,  1901. 

Cheney,  Ward,  first  lieutenant,  Fourth  Infantry,  in  action  at  Puente  Julien, 
January  7,  1900. 

Connell,  Thomas  W.,  captain,  Ninth  Infantrv,  in  action  at  Balangiga,  September 
28,  1901. 

Cooper,  George  A.,  second  lieutenant,  Fifteenth  Infantry,  in  action  at  Mavitac, 
September  17,  1900. 

Crockett,  Allen  T.,  second  lieutenant,  Twenty-first  Infantry,  in  action  at  Candela- 
ria,  September  24,  1901. 

Davis,  Julian  L.,  second  lieutenant,  Thirty -sixth  Infantry,  United  State*  Volun- 
teers, in  action  at  Bamban,  November  11,  1899. 

Downes,  Edward  E.,  first  lieutenant,  First  Infantry,  in  action  near  Salcedo,  June 
23,  1901. 

Drew,  Alfred  W.,  first  lieutenant,  Twelfth  Infantrv,  inaction  near  Angeles,  August 
19,  1899. 

Egbert,  Harrv  C,  colonel,  Twentv-second  Infantrv,  in  action  at  Melinto,  March 
26,  1899. 

Eldridge,  Bogardus,  captain,  Fourteenth  Infantry,  in  action  near  Bacoor,  October 
2,  1899. 

Elliot,  David  S.,  captain,  Twentieth  Kansas  Volunteer  Infantrv,  in  action  at  C'aloo- 
can,  February  28,  1899. 

Evens,  John  II.,  first  lieutenant,  Forty-third  Infantry,  United  States  Volunteers, 
in  action  near  Matignac,  May  11,  1900. 

Febiger,  George  L.,  first  lieutenant,  Thirty-third  Infantry,  United  States  Volun- 
teers, in  action  near  Narbacan,  October  24,  1900. 

Fortson,  George  H.,  captain,  First  Washington  Volunteer  Infantrv,  in  action  at 
Pasig,  March  26,  1899. 

French,  Eugene,  second  lieutenant,  First  Montana  Volunteer  Infantrv,  in  action 
at  Caloocan,  February  23,  1899. 

Godfrey,  George  J.,  captain,  Twentv-second  Infantrv,  in  action  at  Bulacan  Moun- 
tain, June  3,  1900. 

Gregg,  John  C,  captain,  Fourth  Infantrv,  in  action  in  Mariguina  Valley,  March 
31,  1899. 

Griswold,  Richard,  major.,  surgeon,  United  States  Volunteers,  in  action  at  Balan- 
giga, September  28,  1901. 

Grubbs,  Hayden  Y.,  first  lieutenant,  Sixth  Infantry,  in  action  near  Tabuan,  Octo- 
ber 1,  1899. 

Hartshorne,  Benjamin  M.  J.,  captain,  Seventh  Infantry,  in  action  near  Lanang, 
January  2,  1902. 

Hincken,  Elias  J.,  second  lieutenant,  Forty -fourth  Infantry,  United  States  Volun- 
teers, in  action  near  Santa  Lucia,  January  29,  1901. 

Howard,  Guv,  major,  quartermaster,  United  States  Volunteers  (captain,  quarter- 
master, U.  S.  Army),  in  action  at  Rio  Grande,  October  22,  1899. 

Keyes,  Maxwell,  second  lieutenant,  Third  Infantry,  in  action  at  San  Ildefonso, 
November  24,  1899. 

Koehler,  Edgar  F.,  first  lieutenant,  Ninth  Infantrv,  in  action  at  Barrio  Tinuba, 
March  4,  1900. 

Koontz,  Howard  M.,  first  lieutenant,  Forty-fourth  Infantry,  United  States  Volun- 
teers, in  action  at  Bugason,  October  30,  1900. 

Krayenbuhl,  Maurice  G.,  captain,  commissary  of  subsistence,  United  States  Volun- 
teers (first  lieutenant,  Third  Artillery),  in  action  at  Maycanayan,  March  26,  1899. 

Lawton,  Henry  W.,  major-general,  United  States  Volunteers  (colonel,  Inspector- 
General's  Department),  in  action  at  San  Mateo,  December  19,  1899. 

Ledvard,  Augustus  C.,  first  lieutenant,  Sixth  Infantrv,  in  action  at  La  Granja, 
Decembers,  1899. 

Lee,  Walter  II.,  second  lieutenant,  Engineer  Corps,  inaction  near  Li  pa,  June  10, 1901. 

Lien,  Jonas  S.,  first  lieutenant,  First  South  Dakota  Volunteer  Infantry,  in  action 
at  Marilao,  March  27,  1899. 

Logan,  John  A.,  major,  Thirty-third  Infantry,  United  States  Volunteers,  in  action 
at  San  Jacinto,  November  11,  1899. 

McConville,  Edward,  major,  First  Idaho  Volunteer  Infantry,  in  action  at  San  Pedro 
Macati,  February  5,  1899. 

McTaggart,  William  A.,  second  lieutenant,  Twentieth  Kansas  Volunteer  Infantry, 
in  action  at  Santo  Tomas,  May  4,  1899.  • 

Mitchell,  David  D.,  captain,  Fifteenth  Infantrv,  in  action  at  Mavitac,  September 
17,  1900. 

Morrison,  John,  jr.,  first  lieutenant,  Fourth  Cavalrv,  in  action  Rio  Corona,  Janu- 
ary 18,  1901. 


REPORT   OF   THE    ADJUTANT-GENERAL.  297 

Morrison,  Sidney  E.,  second  lieutenant,  Second  South  Dakota  Volunteer  Infantry, 
in  action  at  Marilao,  March  27,  1899. 

Murphy,  William  L.,  captain,  Thirty-ninth  Infantry,  United  States  Volunteer 
(first  lieutenant,  Twenty-fourth  Infantry),  in  action  at  Barrio  Natatas,  August  14, 
1900. 

Pasco,  William  D.,  second  lieutenant,  Eighteenth  Infantry,  in  action  near  Cuar- 
tero,  October  29,  1900. 

Saffold,  Marion  B.,  captain,  Thirteenth  Infantrv,  in  action  at  Novaleta,  Octobers, 
1899. 

Schenck,  William  T.,  first  lieutenant,  Twenty-iifth  Infantry,  in  action  near  Cae- 
tellejos,  January  29,  1900. 

Sisson,  Lester  E.,  second  lieutenant,  First  Nebraska  Volunteer  Infantry,  in  action 
at  Quingua,  April  23,  1899. 

Springer,  Anton,  captain,  First  Infantry,  in  action  near  Lipa,  June  10,  1901. 

Stewart,  John  S.,  captain,  First  Colorado  Volunteer  Infantry,  in  action  at  Mari- 
quina  road,  March  24,  1899. 

Stotsenburg,  John  M.,  colonel  First  Nebraska  Volunteer  Infantry  (captain,  Sixth 
Cavalry),  in  action  at  Quingua,  April  23,  1899. 

Tilly,  George  H.,  captain,  signal  officer,  United  States  Volunteers,  in  action  at 
Escalante,  May  27,  1899. 

Vicars,  Thomas  A.,  first  lieutenant,  Twenty-seventh  Infantrv,  in  action  at  Kay  an, 
Mav  2,  1902. 

Wagner,  Max,  second  lieutenant,  Twenty-sixth  Infantry,  United  States  Volun- 
teers, in  action  near  Pavia,  October  1,  1900.  * 

Warrick,  Oliver  B.,  captain,  Eighteenth  Infantrv,  in  action  at  Passi,  November  26, 
1899. 

Way,  Henry  N.,  second  lieutenant,  Fourth  Infantrv,  in  action  at  Villavieia, 
August  28,  1900. 

DIED   OK   WOUNDS    (17). 

Bentley,  George  H.,  captain,  Forty-seventh  Infantry,  United  States  Volunteers, 
August  28,  1900,  wounded  at  Cotinan,"  August  21,  1900. 

Crenshaw,  Frank  F.,«  captain,  Twenty-eighth  Infantry,  United  States  Volunteers, 
August  28,  1900;  wounded  at  Papaya  June  5,  1900. 

Higgles,  Arthur  M.,  captain,  Thirteenth  Minnesota  Volunteer  Infantry,  May  26, 
1899;  wounded  at  Maasin  May  8,  1899. 

Forby,  Lee,  captain,  First  Nebraska  Volunteer  Infantry,  March  28,  1899;  wounded 
at  San  Francisco  del  Monte  March  25,  1899. 

French,  Charles,  captain,  Thirty-sixth  Infantrv,  United  States  Volunteers,  October 
31,  1899;  wounded  at  Lubac  October  29,  1899. 

Galleher,  John  B.,  first  lieutenant,  Fortieth  Infantry,  United  States  Volunteers, 
February  23,  1900;  wounded  at  Libmanan  February  20",  1900. 

Geary,  Woodbridge,  captain,  Thirteenth  Infantry,  October  11,  1899;  wounded  at 
San  Francisco  de  Malabon  October  10,  1899. 

Jossman,  Albert  L.,  second  lieutenant,  Twenty-seventh  Infantry,  July  28,  1902; 
wounded  at  Bayan  May  2,  1902. 

McGrath,  Hugh  J.,  captain,  Fourth  Cavalry,  November  7,  1899;  wounded  at 
Noveleta  October  8,  1899. 

Mitchell,  James,  first  lieutenant,  Fourteenth  Infantry,  February  6, 1899;  wounded 
at  Pasay  February  5,  1899. 

Ramsay,  Charles  R.,  first  lieutenant,  Twenty-first  Infantry,  July  13, 1901;  wounded 
near  Lipa  June  10,  1901. 

Richter,  Reinhold,  *  captain,  First  California  Volunteer  Infantry,  August  4,  1898; 
wounded  near  Manila  August  1, 1898. 

Smith,  Charles  M.,  second  lieutenant,  Eighteenth  Infantry,  Novemt)er  22,  1899; 
wounded  near  I  lava  November  21,  1899. 

Smith,  Edmund  D.,  captain,  Nineteenth  Infantrv,  February  5,  1900;  wounded  at 
Fort  Amia  February  4,  1900. 

Wallace,  Robert  B.,«  colonel  Thirty-seventh  Infantry,  United  States  Volunteers 
(lieutenant-colonel  First  Montana  Volunteer  Infantry;  first  lieutenant,  Second  Cav- 
alry), March  13.  1900;  wounded  at  Caloocan  February  10,  1899. 

Wilhelm,  William  H.,  captain,  Twenty-first  Infantry,  June  12,  1901;  wounded 
near  Lipa  June  10,  1901. 

Williams,  W'illiam  H.,«  first  lieutenant,  Twelfth  Infantry,  November  25,  1899; 
wounded  at  Angeles  August  16,  1899. 

o  Died  in  the  United  States. 

&Died  of  wounds  during  the  war  with  Spain. 


298  BEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 

DIED   OP   DISEASE,   ETC.   (74).   • 

Anderson,  Robert  H.,  captain,  Ninth  Infantry,  November  7,  1901. 

Armstrong,  Frank  C,  major,  nurgeon,  Thirty-second  Infantry,  United  States  Vol- 
unteers, December  4,  1899. 

Belknap,  Hugh  R.,  major,  Pay  Department,  November  12,  1901. 

Blakeman,  Robert,  first  lieutenant,  Forty-ninth  Infantry,  United  States  Volun- 
teers, October  3,  1900. 

Bowman,  Daniel  T.,  first  lieutenant,  Thirty-seventh  Infantry,  United  States  Vol- 
unteers, January  9,  1900. 

Brereton,  John  J.,  lieutenant-colonel  Thirty-third  Infantry,  United  States  Volun- 
teers (captain,  Twenty-fourth  Infantry),  December 2,  1899. 

Carpenter,  Charles  E.,  second  lieutenant,  Eighth  Infantry,  February  9,  1902. 

Cilley,  Jonathan,  first  lieutenant,  Forty-third  Infantry,  United  States  Volunteers, 
June  13,  1900. 

Collins,  Charles  L.,  captain,  Twenty-third  Infantry,  September  7,  1899. 

Crawford,  Robert  T.,  first  lieutenant,  First  Infantry,  October  30,  1901. 

Danner,  James  D.,  second  lieutenant,  Twenty -eighth  Infantry,  United  States  Vol- 
unteers, September  27,  1900. 

Davis,  John  G.,  major,  surgeon,  United  States  Volunteers,  November  1,  1900. 

Draper,  Paul,  second  lieutenant,  Twenty-second  Infantry,  June  28,  1900. 

Drennan,  James  W.,  major,  First 'Montana  Volunteer  Infantry,  June  23,  1899. 

Edmonston,  Raphael  A.,  first  lieutenant,  assistant  surgeon  Thirty-fourth  Infantrv, 
United  States  Volunteers,  June  2,  1900. 

Fernald,  Roy  L.,  second  lieutenant,  Twenty -sixth  Infantry,  United  States  Volun- 
teers, September  1,  1900. 

Fiscus,  William  \V.,  jr.,  first  lieutenant,  Nineteenth  Infantry,  January  12,  1902. 

Foster,  Pierce  C,  second  lieutenant,  Third  Infantry,  May  22,  1899. 

Geiger,  William  C.,  captain,  Philippine  Cavalrv  (first  lieutenant,  Fourteenth  Infan- 
try), July  2,  1900. 

Grandy,  Luther  B.,  major,  surgeon,  United  States  Volunteers,  April  12,  1902. 

Gurowits,  Odon,  captain,  Eleventh  Infantry,  January  14,  1902. 

Hall,  William  R.,  major,  surgeon,  U.  S.  Army,  April  2,  1901. 

Harting,  Edwin  A.,  first  lieutenant,  First  South  Dakota  Volunteer  Infantry,  Feb- 
ruary 14,  1899. 

Hassaurek,  Frank,  second  lieutenant,  Seventeenth  Infantry,  May  19,  1899. 

Higley,  Brainard  S.,  jr.,  first  lieutenant,  assistant  surgeon,  U.  S.  Armv,  February 
3,  1900. 

Hollis,  Magnus  O.,  captain,  Fourth  Infantry,  November  15,  1899. 

Huston,  Robert  B.,  captain,  Forty-seventh  Infantry,  United  States  Volunteers, 
July  6,  1900. 

Jackson,  Frederick  C,  captain,  assistant  surgeon,  United  States  Volunteers,  Sep- 
tember 30, 1902. 

Jackson,  George  L.,  second  lieutenant,  Fortv-seventh  Infantrv,  United  States 
Volunteers,  May  21,  1900. 

Kennedy,  John,  second  lieutenant,  signal  officer,  United  States  Volunteers,  Novem- 
ber 24,  1900. 

Langworthy,  Samuel  R.,  captain,  Thirty-fifth  Infantrv,  United  States  Volunteers, 
February  21, 1900. 

Lee,  Orison  P.,  captain,  Forty-fifth  Infantry,  United  States  Volunteers,  June  10, 
1900. 

Leland,  Lewis  J.,  chaplain,  First  Tennessee  Volunteer  Infantry,  February  26, 1899. 

Luna,  Maximiliano,  first  lieutenant,  Thirty-fourth  Infantry,  United  States  Volun- 
teers, November  15,  1899. 

McClure,  Charles,  jr.,  first  lieutenant,  Thirtieth  Infantry,  July  1,  1901. 

McKinnon,  William  D.,  chaplain,  U.  S.  Army,  September  25,  1902. 

McQuiston,  Charles,  captain,  Fourth  Infantry,  September  15,  1900. 

McVay,  Harlan  E.,  captain,  assistant  surgeon,  U.  S.  Army,  January  4,  1899. 

Meade,  Francis  K.,  first  lieutenant,  Twenty-first  Infantry,  September  22,  1900. 

Merchant,  Bert  H.,  captain,  Fifteenth  Infantry,  April  2,  1902. 

Milev,  John  D.,  lieutenant-colonel,  inspector-general,  United  States  Volunteers 
(first  lieutenant,  Second  Artillery),  September  19,  1899. 

Monaghan,  William,  major,  quartermaster,  United  States  Volunteers,  April  13, 1901. 

Monday,  Oscar  C,  second  lieutenant,  Philippine  Scouts,  July  14,  1902. 

Moore,  John  L.,  first  lieutenant,  Fifty-first  Iowa  Volunteer  Infantry,  July  19, 1899. 

Morley,  Frank  A.,"  first  lieutenant,  Thirteenth  Minnesota  Volunteer  Infantry, 
August  30,  1898. 


"  Died  during  the  war  with  Spain. 


RKPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT-GENERAL.  299 

Morse,  Joseph  B.,  second  lieutenant,  Ninth  Infantry,  August  15,  1899. 

Mullay,  William  H.,  captain,  infantry,  unassigned,  March  23,  1901. 

Orr,  John  C,  captain,  assistant  surgeon,  United  States  Volunteers,  September  1 2,  1901. 

Parker,  Montgomery  D.,  captain,  Eighth  Infantry,  I)eceml>er  17,  1900. 

Pearce,  Fred  A.,  second  lieutenant,  Sixth  Artillery,  June  6,  1899. 

Pope,  Benjamin  F.,  colonel,  Assistant  Surgeon-General,  U.  S.  Aniiv,  February  14, 
1902. 

Rafferty,  William  A.,  colonel  Fifth  Cavalry,  September  13,  1902. 

Reader^  Odus  J.,  second  lieutenant,  Philippine  Scouts,  Decern ber  23,  1901. 

Russell,  Charles  E.,  captain,  Eighth  Infantry,  May  26,  1902. 

Ryan,  Thomas,  second  lieutenant,  Philippine  Scouts,  June  16,  1902. 

Shollenberger,  John  H.,  captain,  Tenth  Infantry,  July  4,  1902. 

Slack,  Walter  T.,  first  lieutenant,  Forty-seventh  Infantrv,  United  States  Volun- 
teers, December  25,  1900. 

Smith,  Louis  P.,  first  lieutenant,  assistant  surgeon,  IT.  S.  Army,  January  8,  1901. 

Smith,  William  C,  colonel,  First  Tennessee  Volunteer  Infantry,  February  f>,  1899. 

Spurgin,  David  G.,  first  lieutenant,  Twenty-first  Infantry,  July  29,  1900. 

Stuart,  Stanley  MacC.,  first  lieutenant,  assistant  surgeon,  Eleventh  Cavalrv,  United 
States  Volunteers.  November  6,  1900. 

Taylor,  Edward,  first  lieutenant,  Twelfth  Infantry,  December  26,  1899. 

Thompson,  John  P.,  chaplain,  First  Washington  Volunteer  Infantry,  February 

Toncray,  James  P.,  first  lieutenant,  Thirtieth  Infantrv,  United  States  Volunteers, 
February  7,  1900. 

Waugn,  John  R.,  second  lieutenant,  Thirtv-nintb  Infantrv,  United  States  Volun- 
teers, February  27,  1900. 

Weber,  Louis  P.,  second  lieutenant,  Fortv-second  Infantrv,  United  States  Volun- 
teers, March  9,  1900. 

Webster,  Horace,  first  lieutenant,  Fortv-seroiKl  Infantrv,  United  States  Volun- 
teers, July  7,  1900. 

Westnedge,  Richard  B.,  first  lieutenant,  assistant  surgeon,  U.  S.  Army,  June  10, 
1899. 

White,  Grant  A.,  first  lieutenant,  Thirtv-third  Infantrv,  United  States  Volunteers, 
April  10,  1900. 

Whiteley,  Rowland,  first  lieutenant,  Philippine  Scouts,  June  21,  1902. 

Whitney,  Folliot  A.,  major,  Sixth  Infantry,  August  11,  1900. 

Williams,  James  C,  second  lieutenant,  Twelfth  Infantry,  October  13, 1901. 

Wing,  Eugene  G.,  second  lieutenant,  Thirty-sixth  Infantry,  United  States  Volun- 
teers, January  24,  1900. 

Wood,  Palmer  G.,  second  lieutenant,  Twelfth  Infantry,  November  16,  1900. 

MOVEMENT   OF   TROOPS. 

The  following  is  a  summary  of  the  movements  of  troops  from  and  to  extra- 
territorial stations  since  September  18,  1901 : 

Cuba. 
1902. 

January  18. — Headquarters  and  Second  Squadron,  Second  Cavalry,  sailed  from 
Havana  for  New  York. 

February  25. — Headquarters  and  Thin!  Squadron,  Eighth  Cavalry,  sailed  from 
Nuevitas,  en  route  to  Fort  Riley,  Kans. 

March  6. — Third  Squadron,  Eighth  Cavalry,  arrived  at  Fort  Riley  from  Cuba. 

April  IS. — Troop  C,  Seventh  Cavalry,  sailed  from  Cuba  for  the  United  States. 

AprU  17. — Troop  D,  Seventh  Cavalry,  sailed  from  Cuba  for  the  United  States. 

April  19. — Troops  A  and  B,  Seventh  Cavalry,  and  Third  Field  Battery,  sailed 
from  Cuba  for  the  United  States. 

April  28. — Troops  A,  C,  L,  and  M,  Tenth  Cavalry,  sailed  from  Culm  for  the  United 
States. 

April  24' — Headquarters  and  First  Squadron,  Second  Cavalry,  sailed  from  Cuba 
for  the  United  States. 

April  26. — Troops  F  and  G,  Eighth  Cavalrv,  sailed  from  Cuba  for  the  United 
States. 

April  SO. — Third  Squadron,  Second  Cavalrv,  sailed  from  Cul>a  for  the  United 
States. 


300  REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 

May  f>. — Troops  B,  D,  I,  and  K,  Tenth  Cavalry,  sailed  from  Cuba  for  the  United 
States. 

May  20. — General  Wood  and  staff,  headquarters,  and  Second  and  Third  Squad- 
rons, Seventh  Cavalry,  and  Troops  E  and  H,  Eighth  Cavalry,  sailed  from  Cuba  for 
the  United  States. 

Porto  Rico. 

1902. 

April  4- — Steamer  Maricibo  sailed  from  San  Juan,  P.  R.,  with  Second  Battalion, 
Eleventh  Infantry,  and  arrived  at  Newport  News,  Va.,  April  8. 

Philippine  Islands. 
1901. 

September  26. — Transport  Sheridan  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  14 
officers. 

September  29. — Transport  Buford  sailed  from  Zamboanga,  P.  I.,  for  New  York  with 
headquarters  and  8  companies  Twenty-third  Infantry. 

October  1. — Transport  Hmicock  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  18  officers 
and  142  enlisted  men.     Maj.  R.  H.  Loughborough,  Sixth  Infantry,  commanding. 

October  1. — Transport  Meade  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  the  Six- 
tieth, Sixty-first,  Sixty-second,  Sixty-third,  Sixty-fourth,  Sixty-fifth,  Sixty-eighth, 
Seventieth,  and  Seventy-first  Companies,  Coast  Artillery. 

October  10. — Transport  Ingalls  arrived  at  Manila  from  New  York  with  4  officers 
and  26  enlisted  men. 

October  12. — Transport  Kilpatrick  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Iloilo  with  head- 
quarters and  8  companies  Eighteenth  Infantry. 

October  14. — Transport  Sumner  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  5  officers 
and  2  Hospital  Corps  men. 

October  16. — Transport  Thomas  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  17  officers 
and  19  enlisted  men.  Capt.  W.  M.  Coulling,  quartermaster,  U.  S.  Army,  com- 
manding. 

October  16. — Transport  Warren  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  9 
officers. 

October  16. — Transport  Sheridan  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  short- 
term  enlisted  men.  Vessel  disabled  and  docked  for  repairs  at  Nagasaki,  Jajwui, 
October  22. 

October  18. — Transport  McClellan  sailed  from  Manila  for  New  York  with  Companies 
B,  C,  and  D,  Engineers. 

October  25. — Transport  Hancock  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  18 
officers  and  142  enlisted  men. 

October  26. — Transport  Warren  sailed  from  Manila  to  take  the  sick  from  the  trans- 
port Sheridan  at  Nagasaki,  Japan;  disabled  and  returned  to  Manila. 

October  28. — Transport  Meade  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  S)  com- 
panies coast  artillery. 

November  1. — Transport  Kilpatrick  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  15 
officers  and  139  enlisted  men.  First  Lieut.  M.  R.  llilgard,  Sixteenth  Infantry,  com- 
manding. 

November  12. — Transport  Thomas  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  17 
officers  and  19  enlisted  men. 

November  15. — Transport  Grant  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  head- 
quarters, First  and  Third  Battalions,  Twenty -eighth  Infantry,  recruits,  etc.,  25  offi- 
cers and  946  enlisted  men.     Col.  Mott  Hooton,  Twenty-eighth  Infantry,  commanding. 

November  16. — Transport  Rosecrans  sailed  from  Portland,  Oreg.,  lor  Manila  with 
Second  Battalion,  Twenty-eighth  Infantry,  and  casuals;  10  officers  and  460  enlisted 
men.     Capt.  F.  E.  Bamford,  Twenty-eighth  Infantry,  commanding. 

November  16. — Transport  Meade  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  8  offi- 
cers and  21  enlisted  men.  Capt.  R.  McA.  Schofield,  quartermaster,  U.  S.  Army, 
commanding. 

November  20. — Transport  Thomas  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  dis- 
charged, sick,  and  short-term  service  men. 

December  1. — Transport  Buford  arrived  at  New  York  from  Manila  with  head- 
quarters and  8  companies,  Twenty-third  Infantry. 

December  2. — Transport  Kilpatrick  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  15 
officers  and  139  enlisted  men. 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT-GENERAL.  301 

Decembers. — Transport  Crook  sailed  from  New  York  for  Manila  with  Second 
Squadron,  Eleventh  Cavalry;  Third  Battalion,  Twenty-seventh  Infantry,  and  casuals; 
29  officers  and  784  enlisted  men.  Lieut.  Col.  A.  G.  Hennisee,  Eleventh  Cavalry, 
commanding. 

December  7. — Transport  Sheridan  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  short- 
term  enlisted  men. 

December  12. — Transport  Grant  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  25  offi- 
cers and  946  enlisted  men. 

December  12. — Transport  KUpatriek  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  dis- 
charged and  short-term  enlisted  men. 

December  16. — Transport  Hancock  Failed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  head- 
quarters, Second  and  Third  Squadrons,  Fifteenth  Cavalry,  and  recruits;  31  officers 
and  982  enlisted  men.    Col.  W.  M.  Wallace,  Fifteenth  Cavalry,  commanding. 

December  19. — Transport  Meade  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  trancisco  with  8  officers 
and  21  enlisted  men. 

December  19. — Transport  Thoma*  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  dis- 
charged, sick,  and  short-term  enlisted  men. 

J/ecember  22. — Transport  Rosecrans  arrived  at  Manila  from  Portland,  Oreg.,  with 
10  officers  and  400  enlisted  men. 

December  23. — Transport  McCUUmi  arrived  at  New  York  from  Manila  with  Com- 
panies B,  C,  and  I),  Engineers. 

December  24- — Transport  Grant  nailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  the 
Fourth  Infantry. 

1902. 

January  1. — Transport  Siieridan  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  head- 
quarters ami  First  Squadron,  Eleventh  Cavalry;  headquarters  and  First  Battalion, 
Twenty-seventh  Infantry,  recruits,  etc.;  45  officers  and  1,502  enlisted  men.  Col. 
F.  D.  Baldwin,  Twenty-seventh  Infantry,  commanding. 

January  9. — Transport  Kilfmtrick  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  dis- 
charged and  short-term  enlisted  men. 

January  11. — Transport  Hancock  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  31 
officers  and  982  enlisted  men. 

January  16. — Transport  KUpatriek  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with 
recruits,  etc.    Capt.  J.  A.  Penn,  Seventh  Infantry,  commanding. 

Jann  try  21. — Transport  Bn/ord  sailed  from  New  York  for  Manila  with  headquar- 
ters and  Third  Squadron,  Eleventh  Cavalry;  Second  Battalion,  Twenty-seventh 
Infantry;  casuals,  44  officers  and  798  men.  Col.  F.  Moore,  Eleventh  Cavalry,  com- 
manding. 

January  21. — Transport  Grant  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  the 
Fourth  Infantry. 

January  24' — Transport  Rosecranz  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  the 
Third  Battalion,  Twenty-second  Infantry. 

January  26. — Transport  Sheridan  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  45 
officers  and  1,502  enlisted  men. 

Februttry  1. — Transport  Thomas  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  22 
officers  and  1,513  recruits,  etc.     Maj.  W.  Paulding,  Third  Infantry,  commanding. 

February  1. — Transport  Hancock  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  head- 
quarters, First  and  Second  Battalions,  Twenty-second  Infantry. 

February  S. — Transport  Crook  arrived  at  Manila  from  New  York  with  29  officers 
and  784  enlisted  men. 

Februarys. — Transport  Grant  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  10  officers 
and  320 recruits,  etc.     Lieut.  Col.  C.  II.  Noble,  Sixteenth  Infantry,  commanding. 

February  16. — Transport  Warren  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  Second 
Battalion,  Fifteenth  Infantry,  and  recruits — 13  officers  and  783  enlisted  men.  Capt. 
S.  W.  Dunning,  Fifteenth  Infantry,  commanding. 

February  16. — Transport  Sheridan  sailed  from  Manila  foi  San  Francisco  with  head- 
quarters, First  and  Third  Battalions,  Twentieth  Infantry. 

February  17. — Transport  KUpatriek  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with 
recruits,  etc. 

February  IS. — Transport  Egbert  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  Second 
Battalion,  Twentieth  Infantry. 

Fefrrtiary  25. — Trans]K>rt  Roxeeraiix  arrive*  1  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  the 
Third  Battalion,  Twenty  -second  Infantry. 

February  25. — Transport  Hancock  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  head- 
quarters, First  and  Second  Battalions,  Twenty-second  Infantry. 


302  REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 

March  1. — Transport  Meade  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  13  officers 
and  794  recruits,  etc.,  but  returned  to  port  March  3  on  account  of  sickness  aboard. 

March  1. — Transport  Kilpatrick  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  head- 
quarters and  Second  Battalion,  Seventeenth  Infantry. 

March  8. — Transport  Thomas  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  22  officers 
and  l,51o  recruits,  etc. 

March  6. — Transport  Crook  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  Companies 
B,  I,  K,  and  M,  Seventeenth  Infantrv. 

March  10. — Transport  Grant  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  10  officers 
and  320  recruits. 

March  18. — Transport  Sheridan  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  head- 
quarters, First  and  Third  Battalions,  Twentieth  Infantry. 

March  15. — Transport  Hancock  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  head- 
quarters and  Second  Battalion,  Tenth  Infantry;  recruits,  etc.;  23  officers  and  812 
enlisted  men.    Col.  S.  H.  Lincoln,  Tenth  Infantry,  commanding. 

March  IS. — Transport  Thomas  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  the 
Twenty-third  Infantry. 

March  19. — Transport  Meade  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  15  officers 
and  752  recruits,  etc.    Lieut.  Col.  P.  H.  Ray,  Seventh  Infantry,  commanding. 

March  21. — Transport  Buford  arrived  at  Manila  from  New  York  with  headquarters, 
Third  Squadron,  Eleventh  Cavalry,  and  the  Second  Battalion,  Twenty-seventh 
Infantrv. 

March  27. — Transport  Egbert  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  Second 
Battalion,  Twentieth  Infantry. 

March  31. — Transport  Kilpatrick  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  head- 
quarters and  Second  Battalion,  Seventeenth  Infantry. 

March  81. — Transport  Grant  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  the  Twelfth 
Infantry. 

April  1. — Transport  Slieridan  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  the  Twenty- 
ninth  Infantry,  recruits,  etc.;  48  officers  and  1,652  enlisted  men;  also  7  officers  and 
149  men,  Marine  Corps.  Lieut.  Col.  T.  F.  Forbes,  Twenty-ninth  Infantry,  com- 
manding. 

April  2. — Transport  Crook  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  Companies 
B,  I,  K,  and  M,  Seventeenth  Infantrv. 

April  2. — Transport  Warren  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  Second 
Battalion,  Fifteenth  Infantry,  recruits,  etc. 

April  12. — Transport  Kilpatrick  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  15  offi- 
cers and  1 27  enlisted  men.     Maj.  Z.  W .  Torrey,  Twenty-fourth  Infantry,  commanding. 

April  18. — Transport  Hancock  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  head- 
quarters and  Second  Battalion,  Tenth  Infantry. 

April  15. — Transport  Thomas  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  the  Third 
Infantry. 

April  16. — Transport  Sherman  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manilawith  First  Bat- 
talion, Second  Infantry,  recruits,  etc. — 51  officers  and  514  enlisted  men — also  6  offi- 
cers and  100  men,  Marine  Corps;  Capt.  T.  H.  Wilson,  Second  Infantry,  commanding. 

April  21. — Transport  Meade  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  15  officers 
and  752  recruits. 

April  21. — Transport  Crook  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  Second  Bat- 
talion, Eleventh  Infantry,  recruits,  etc. — 22  officers  and  454  enlisted  men — Maj.  J. 
B.  Jackson,  Eleventh  Infantry,  commanding. 

April  22. — Transport  Buford  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  head- 
quarters and  Troops  E  and  F,  Third  Cavalry. 

April  26. — Transport  Grant  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  the  Twelfth 
Infantry. 

May  1. — Transport  Sheridan  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  the  Twenty- 
ninth  Infantry. 

May  1. — Transport  Logan  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manilawith  41  officers  and 
83  enlisted  men,  First  Lieut.  H.  Olin,  Thirtieth  Infantry,  commanding. 

May  6. — Transport  Meade  sailed  from  Batangas  for  San  Francisco  with  the  Twenty- 
first  Infantry. 

May  11. — Transport  Kilpatrick  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  15  offi- 
cers and  127  recruits. 

May  12. — Transport  Sherman  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  the  First 
Battalion,  Second  Infantry,  recruits,  etc. 

May  14. — Transport  Warren  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  Company 
I,  Ninth  Infantry. 

May  16. — Transport  Tliomas  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  13  officers 
and  92  enlisted  men,  Capt.  J.  Howard,  Nineteenth  Infantry,  commanding. 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT-GENERAL.  303 

May  20. — Transport  Crook  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  the  Second 
Battalion,  Eleventh  Infantry,  recruits,  etc. 

May  21. — Transport  KUpatrick  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  Troojw 
G  ana  H,  Third  Cavalry,  casuals,  and  marines. 

May  23. — Transport  Buford  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  headquar- 
ters and  Troops  E  and  F,  Third  Cavalry. 

May  26. — Transport  Logan  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  41  officers 
and  83  recruits. 

May  27. — Transport  Hancor k  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francis**)  with  headquarters 
and  10  companies,  Ninth  Infantry. 

May  28. — Transport  Sherman  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  Generals 
Wheaton,  Snyder,  and  the  Sixth  and  Nineteenth  Infantry. 

June  1. — Transport  Meade  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  the  Twenty- 
first  Infantry. 

June  2. — transport  Buford  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  13  officers 
and  70  recruits,  casuals,  etc.     Capt.  E.  (\  Carey,  Thirtieth  Infantry,  commanding. 

June  9. — Transport  Thomas  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  13  officers 
and  92  recruits,  etc. 

June  12. — Transport  Warren  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  Company 
I,  Ninth  Infantry. 

June  IS. — Transport  Ijogan  sailed  from  Aparri  for  San  Francisco  with  Companies 
C,  D,  H,  and  M,  Seventh  Infantry,  and  A,C,  I),  E,  F,  I,  K,and  L,  Sixteenth  Infantry. 

June  16. — Transport  Meade  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  5  officers  and 
84  enlisted  men.    Second  Lieut.  W.  J.  O'Loughlin,  Second  Infantry,  commanding. 

June  19. — Transport  Kiljxttrirk  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  Troops 
G  and  H,  Third  Cavalry,  casuals,  and  marines. 

June  HO. — Transport  Hancock  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  10  com- 
panies Ninth  Infantry. 

June  SI. — Transport  Sherman  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  the  Sixth 
and  Nineteenth  Infantry. 

June  £2. — Transport  Sheridan  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  the  Thir- 
teenth Infantry  and  the  First  Squadron,  Third  Cavalry. 

June  25. — Transport  Sumner  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  Companies 
A,  C,  D,  and  L,  Seventeenth  Infantry,  and  Companies  C,  D,  K,  and  M,  Twenty- 
fourth.  Infantry. 

July  1. — Transport  KUpatrick  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  the  Second 
8quadron,  fifth  Cavalry,  and  men  of  the  Hospital  Corps;  17  officers  and  350  enlisted 
men.     Col.  C.  G.  Penney,  Twenty-ninth  Infantry,  commanding. 

July  4' — Transport  Buford  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  13  officers 
and  70  enlisted  men. 

July  6. — Transport  Tliomas  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  the  Second 
Squadron,  Tenth  Cavalry;  headquarters  and  Companies  A,  B,  E,  F,  G,  H,  and  I, 
Twenty-fourth  Infantry,  and  the  First  Battalion,  Twenty-fifth  Infantrv. 

July  8. — Transport  Logan  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  4  companies 
Seventh  Infantry  and  8  companies  Tenth  Infantry. 

July  11. — Transport  Lauion  sailed  from  Aparri  for  San  Francisco  with  Third  Squad- 
on,  Third  Cavalry,  and  Companies  B,  G,  H,  and  M,  Sixteenth  Infantry. 

July  16. — Transport  Meade  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  5  officers 
and  84  enlisted  men. 

July  16. — Transport  Sherman  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  16  officers 
and  84  recruits  and  casuals.  Lieut.  Col.  S.  R.  Whitall,  Twenty-seventh  Infantry, 
commanding. 

July  17.— ^Transport  Crook  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  headquarters 
and  Companies  E,  F,  H,  I,  K,  L,  and  M,  Twenty-fifth  Infantrv. 

July  19. — ^Transport  Sheridan  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  "Manila  with  the  First 
Squadron,  Third  Cavalry,  and  the  Thirteenth  Infantry. 

July  22. — Transport  Sumner  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  4  compa- 
nies Seventeenth  Infantrv  and  4  companies  Twenty -fourth  Infantry. 

July  29. — Transport  Ktlpatrirk  arrived  at  Manila  from  San  Francisco  with  the  Sec- 
ond Squadron,  Firth  Cavalry,  and  Hospital  Corps  men. 

July  29. — Transport  Buford  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  headquarters 
Second  and  Thira  Battalions,  Eighth  Infantry;  Companies  E  and  F,  Fifteeuth 
Infantry,  and  Company  G,  Twenty-fifth  Infantry.  Col.  W.  E.  Dougherty,  Eighth 
Infantry,  commanding. 

August  1. — Transport  Thomas  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  headquar- 
ters and  7  companies Twentv-fourth  Infantry,  First  Battalion,  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 
and  the  Second  Squadron,  f  enth  Cavalry. 


804  REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 

Ainjunt  «s\ — Trans|>ort  Meade  Hailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  headquar- 
ter* and  Oon»|>aniea  A,  B,  C,  D,  G,  H,  I,  K,  L,  and  M,  Fifteenth  Infantry,  85  officers 
and  870  men.     Col.  H.  C.  Ward,  Fifteenth  Infantry,  commanding. 

Auyutt  12. — Transport  lAiuion  arrived  at  San-  Francisco  from  Manila  with  4  com- 
panies Sixteenth  Infantry  and  Third  Squadron,  Third  Cavalry. 

Augurt  IS. — Transport  trook  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  headquar- 
ters and  7  companies  Twenty-fifth  Infantry. 

August  17. — Transport  Kdpatrick  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  34 
officers  and  318  enlisted  men. 

Set*temf*er  1.—  Transport  Sheridan  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  18  offi- 
cers and  61  enlisted  men — Hospital  Corps,  recruits,  and  casuals. 

SefUember  ^.—Transport  Sherman  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  45 
officers  and  273  sick,  casuals,  and  discharged,  enlisted  men;  detained  at  Nagasaki, 
Japan,  until  September  20  on  account  of  sickness  aboard. 

September  6. — Transport  Buford  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila,  with  head- 
quarters, Second  and  Thin!  Battalions,  Eighth  Infantry;  Companies  E  and  F,  Fif- 
teenth Infantry,  and  Company  G,  Twenty-nfth  Infantry. 

Sefttember  11. — Transport  Meade  arrived  at  San  Francisco  with  headquarters  and  10 
companies,  Fifteenth  Infantry. 

Se^ember  14. — Transport  KUvatrick  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  34 
officers  and  318  sick,  discharged,  and  short-term,  enlisted  men. 

September  16. — Transport  Crook  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila  with  15  offi- 
cers and  20  enlisted  men. 

September  16. — Transport  Lopm  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  head- 
quarters and  Troops  F,  G.  H,  K,  L,  and  M,  Ninth  Cavalry — 19  officers  and  569  enlisted 
men — Brigadier-General  Grant  and  21  officers,  3  contract  surgeons,  and  360  Hospital 
Corps,  sick,  etc.,  enlisted  men. 

Sefttember  JO. — Transport  Sherman  sailed  from  Nagasaki.  Japan,  for  San  Francisco 
^For  troops  on  board,  see  entry  of  September  4. ) 

* ki^urr  L — Transpoit  Tbmto*  sailed  from  San  Francisco  for  Manila,  via  Honolulu 
and  Guam,  with  lieutenant-General  Miles  and  24  officers.  1  dental  surgeon.  27  Hos- 
pital Corps  men,  4  Signal  Corps  men.  and  29  casuals. 

(\ioher  6. — Transport  Sheridan  sailed  from  Manila  for  San  Francisco  with  Troops 
A,  B,  C,  IX  E,  and  1,  Ninth  Cavalry— 503  enlisted  men — 132  casuaK  sick,  etc., 
enlisted  men. 

tktohrr  IS. — Transport  Logan  arrived  at  San  Francisco  from  Manila  with  head- 
quarters and  6  troops.  Ninth  Cavalry:  Brigadier-General  Grant  and  21  officers,  3  con- 
tract surgeons,  and  360  Hospital  Corps,  sick.  etc..  enlisted  men. 

The  insular  service  of  all  the  organizations  of  the  Army  in  Cuba, 
Porto  Rieo,  and  the  Philippines,  from  June,  l*i*S,  to  October  1,  15**i 
with  dates  of  departure  from,  and  return  to,  the  United  States,  is 
shown  in  the  following  table: 


Onc*ttU*:;o* 


7tW«TV 


Ottb*.  FVrt*»  Rk*»».  PttilzpfiUtoKk  Total 

Ivp*rturv.       K«r«;irr.        IVptirturv.       K^turtr.       tVp*rtur*. 


» 


Inx.  JT. 

ii»ttti*ia>  V  J'uurJfc.**    Aug.  fcS.4t        $     2 

vVmp*uv  fc.  Jtiiy  i^»    £*«.  :&«       2     s 

Oiu^avv  *-:rrv*.i.^    Aug  >.'>■      V'Ht     !.<» *> 1      T 

vVmp*Xiv  L>  » Feb.  3k<K «i» It 


Si  •>•/*»/  tktCbti' 


n> 


-5>;/»>t».'- 


■» 


K.\*mp*&y  E  '-.n*  :*..•*    A-uc   >..«»•     Junv  .£><#t I  « 

Cwrtp*av  F.     .  >h» i  3 

^\huj.«a3y  *.; .  *&/ I  t 

l\Hti{Mav  H  <*> I  S 

t>\'%»f)>  A h*              ...  .{«'  .                                                                        .    -b* 


nc  * ..  «* 

v  »>r  :.\ 

K» 

.....b». 

fc> 

.  .  .       •!*•  . 

;♦' 

!«♦ 

h* 

b> 

.  .*»•  . 

Viwp  B -*»> •**• -      -to 

r?v*.»f>  v"         j«'        -I**  'i*p  — 


r*x>t>l»  h*  h> 'A> 

l>A»t*K  .  .-h*.  «i»» .l«.  Hit 

« «>r«*a^w»i  in  Ptulippm*?  !sum%h^  March.  1*J»L 


REPORT    OF   THE   ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 


305 


Organization. 


Fir  ft  CYimlru — Ton. 


Cuba. 


Porto  Rico. 


Philippines. 


i    Total 

— ; . ; t  ■-    insular 

Departure.     Return.      Departure.     Return,    i  Departure.     Return,    j  service. 


Troop  F. 
TroopG. 
Troop  II 
Troop  I  . 
Troop  K 
Troop L. 
Troop  M 


I  Aug.  16.02 

June  14, 98  j  Aug.  16, 98  , do 

I do.... 


June  14,98 
do 


Aug.  15,98, Aug.    7,00 

do ' do 

....do.... 


Second  (Jarulry. 

Headquarters Feb.  16, 99  !  Apr.  28, 02 

TroopA June  14,98    Aug.  28,98- 

Feb.    3,99,  Apr.  28,02 
Troop  B ,  Feb.  16, 99  '. . . .  .do 


.do 


Vrs.  M. 

1 

4 

1 

4 

4 

2 
•> 


Troop  C June  14,98 

Feb.    3,99 

Troop  D June  14,98 

Feb.    3,99 


Troop  E 
Troop  F 

TroopG 
Troop  H 
Troop  I 


Feb.  16,99 
June  14,98 
Feb.    3,99 

do 

Feb.  16,99 
do 


Troop  K ! do.... 

Troop  L ' do 

Troop  M Feb.    3, 99 


Third  Cavalru. 

Headquarters !une  14,98 

Troop  A 

Troop  B j  .1  line  14, 98 

Troop  C do 

Troop  D 

Troop  E |  June  14,98 

Troop  F do 

Troop  G do 

TnwpH do 

Troop  I do 

Troop  K do 

Troop  L  

Troop  M 


Aug.  28,98 
Apr.  28,02 
Aug.  28,98' 
Apr.  28,02 
Jan.  22,02 
Aug.  28, 98 
Jan.  22,02 

do.... 

do.... 

May    9,02 

do 

do.... 

do.... 


July  21,98    Dee.   1,98 


Aug.  14,98  Aug.  25,99 

do 

Aug.  13,98 Aug.    1,00 

Aug.  14,98  Aug.  25,99 

do 

.  ..^.do 

do.... 

Aug.    1,00 

do.... 

do 

Aug.  25, 99 

do.... 

do.... 


Aug.  14,98  1 

do 

Aug.  13, 98  i 

do . 

do 

Aug.  14,98  i. 


Fourth  CartUnj. 


Headquarters 

Troop  A 

Troop  B 

Troop  C  

rroop  D 

Troop  E 

Troop  F 

Troop  G 

Troop  H 

Troop  I 

Troop  K 

Troop  L 

Troop  M 


Fifth  Onralry 


Headquarters 

Troop  A 

Troop  B 

TroopC 

Troop  D 

Troop  E 

Troop  F 

Troop  G  

Troop  H 

Troop  I 

TroopK 

Troop  1/ 

Troop  M 


SiMh  (tamlry. 


Headquarters 

Troop  A 

TroopB 


May  23,02 
July  19,02 

do 

do 

do 

May  23,02 

do 

June  19,02 

do 

Aug.  12,02 

do 

do 

do 


Nov.  9,98 
July  25,98 
Nov.  9,98 
Feb.  1,99 
Nov.   9,98 

do 

Feb.  1,99 
Nov.  9,98 
Feb.    1,99 

do 

Nov.    9,98 

do.... 

Feb.    1,99 


Aug.  11,00 
Mar.  29,00 

do 

do.... 

do.... 

Dec.  4,00 
Dec.  21,00 
Dec.  4,00 
Dec.  21,00 
Aug.  11,00 

do 

do.... 

do.... 


June  28, 99 
June  24, 99 
June  28, 99 
July  15,98 
July  13,99 
July  15,98 
June  24, 99 
July  15,98 
July  13,99 
July  15,98 

do 

do.... 

June  28, 99 


Mar.  18,01 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

July    1,02 

do 

do.... 

do.... 

Mar.  18,01 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 


June  14,98 

do.... 

do.... 


Aug.  13,98 

do 

do.... 


July    3,00 

do 

do.... 


Aug.  28, 

do . 

Sept.  18. 
Aug.  28, 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 


01 

bV 

01 


2 
2 
2 
2 


3 
3 


3 
3 


2 
2 
3 
3 
3 


•j 

3 
2 
3 
2 
3 
2 
3 
3 
3 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
3 
3 
3 


2 
5 


7 
5 


3      5 


2  11 

3  2 


3      0 

2  11 

3  3 
3  3 
3  3 
3      3 


2  11 

2  11 
•>  •> 

3  1 
2  11 
2  11 
2  11 
2  1 


1 

2 

2 
o 


2 
2 
3 

1 

•> 

*0 

1 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 


3  4 

3  2 

2  11 

2  8 


11 
4 
2 
4 
2 
1 
4 
4 
1 


2  5 
2  5 
2      6 


WAR  1902— VOL  1 


20 


REPOBT   OF   THE    ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 


<*»,»,» 

Cu 

...do'... 

In. 

Porto  Rim. 
Departure.      Ri'lurn 

Phiiir 

plow            1     ToUl 
Rclurri,    '  «ervlrp. 

in.  M 

Sixth  fibm/.  j,-f.io 

TroopF.       . 

.  .do... 

*■ 

.  ..do... 

j      £ 

Troop  M     ...     . 

Headquaru-n-  .... 
Troop  D  

Jon.  13.99 
....do... 

....do.... 
.do... 

""do!"! 

"'do!!!' 

Alia!  18.1* 

May  32.09 
a;.:    .-j.ih 

Apr     IJ.fH 

*!■'   "■'>.«« 

July  at.SM 

".!!!d«!!! 

1    K 

2     i 

...       9      i 

2      t> 

1      i 

:::::::::::::::::::::::: 

s    a 

8     1 

::::::::::::    1  ! 

■  -■■ ;■--- 

8      t 

....do.... 

8      I 

troop  K 

Trot.;.  V 

Troop  r' 
Headiii 

Troop  I* 


'--     -  JJ2 

i 



v      ,...d.. 

i 

» do 

::::::::::::!:::::::::::: 

Nov.l3.9S  d.... 


16  OU 

do.  .. 

do.... 

....do.... 

' 

...do    .. 

3      4 

'      2     4 

9     4 

«9     4 

2     a 

June  14. Ml  Aug  -ai.w 

....do..  .  .  .  .do.  . 

....do   ... 

..  ..do.... 
Apr    If..  01 

2       1 

June  14  — 

May     .  — 
■lunt-  1 1  ■..» 
Mat    i:  ■-■ 
June  ii    - 
Miiy     .  -f 

May   ■     :r 
•  uoo    :    - 

j'irip  1 1    ■■ 

51 -y 

AUR.  20. 8S 

a;t    til  r« 
Aie  .■"  «. 
n.f  Ml  ...■ 

A  -.,<   .-:  i- 
M»>    1.'  If.' 

\-.t  .■<  — 

Apr    .«!  "-■ 

At:j      t.  -~ 

M».    U  ".■ 

V    „■     i    ■.» 

\  ■<    X  -I- 

i'i|t    X  ■." 
'n:.     10.1KI 

do.... 

1 

8     2 

wiuft 

AU*.    i.iH 

Apr.  14,  Ot 
Apr.  is!  01 
Apr.  lfc.01 

-- 

•»    a 



i    o 

srl.r-~r.ilK.cMI.  K.  I.,  and  M.  Ninth  <*„ 

flic  remaining  *ix  irtioiwtit IricreKlnien 

xpecled  to  arrive  there  about  November  1 


or  Haii  KnrjclacoOcIo- 


REPORT   OF  THE   ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 


307 


Organization. 


Tenth  Cavalry— 
Continued. 


Troop  I 


Cuba. 


Departure.  I    Return. 


June  14, 98 
May  17,99 

do 

May    1,99 


Troop  K 

Troop  L 

Troop  M i do 

Eleventh  (Cavalry.   ! 


Aug.  20,98 
May  12,02 

do 

Apr.  30,02 
do.... 


Headquarters 

Troop  A 

Troop  B 

Troop  C 

Troop  D 

Troop  E 

Troop  F 

Troop  G 

Troop  H 

Troop  I 

Troop  K 

Troop  L 

Troop  M 


Fifteenth  Cavalry . 


Headquarters 

Troop  A 

Troop  B 

Troop  C 

Troop  D 

Troop  E 

TroopP 

TroopO 

Troop  H 

TroopI 

Troop  K 

Troop  L 

Troop  M 


Artillery      (fcrpii. 
Field  Batteries. 


1st  Battery i  June  14, 98 

2d  Battery do.... 

8d  Battery 


4th  Batter>- 


do.... 

Jan.  21,99 
June  14, 98 
Jan.  21,99 


5th  Battery 

6th  Battery 

7th  Battery 

8th  Battery i  July    3,98 

9th  Batter>- 

10th  Battery |  July    3,98 

12th  Battery 

18th  Batten* i 

14th  Batter>* 

15th  Battery 

25th  Battery  n.... 


AriUtery  Corp*, 
Coast. 


13th  Company Dec.  29,98 

14th  Company do 


15th  Company 
16th  Company 

17th  Company 

18th  Company 

19th  Company 

20th  Company 

21st  Company 

22d  Company 

23d  Company 

24th  Company 

25th  Company 

27th  Company * 

29th  Company 

30th  Company 

81st  Company 


Jan.  21,99 
Deo.  29,98 
Jan.  21,99 
Jan.  11,99 

do.... 

Dec.  29,98 

do 

do.... 

Oct  22,99 
do 


Porto  Rico. 
Departure.      Return. 


Philippines. 
Departure.  ■    Return. 


Jan.  21,02 
Jan.  1,02 
....do.... 

i do.... 

1  ....do.... 
Dec.  5,01 
....do.... 
....do.... 
....do.... 
Jan.  21,02 
....do.... 
....do.... 
....do.... 


Aug.  25, 98 
Aug.  30,98 

do 

Apr.  22,02 
Aug.  23, 98 
Aug.  12,00 


Aug.  30,98 
Aug."  30, 98 


Dec.  10,01 
Mar.  18,01 

do.... 

Apr.    1.01 

, do 

i  Dec.  Hi,  01 

do.... 

j  Apr.    5, 01 
!  Dec.  16, 01 

I do.... 

i do.... 

I do.... 

I do.... 


Apr.  18,99!  July  16.01 


July    3,98 1  Dec.    1,98 

do do 

do do 


July    3,98,  Dec.    1,98 


July  23,98    June  27, 99 
do do 


Apr.  20,99 


Apr.  20,99 
July  14,98 
July  20,98 
Sept.  3,00 

do 

Sept.  26, 01 


June  29, 01 
Sept.  18, 01 
do 


Oct.   18,99 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 


Total 
insular 
service. 


Yr*.  M: 
3      2 


July  29,00 
do 

June  27, 98 
June  29, 98 
July  29,00 


July  16,01 
do   ... 


3  0 
3  0 
3      0 


8 

9 

9 

9 

9 

10 

10 

10 

10 

8 

8 

•  8 

8 


10 
1  6 
1      6 


July  28,01  .      2 


2 
3 
3 
3 
3 
1 


3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
2 


2 
3 
3 
2 


6 
6 
10 
10 
6 
'0 
10 
10 
10 
10 


2  ■> 
3 

3  6 


9 


5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
1 
2 
2 
0 
0 
0 


10 

10 
9 

10 
8 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 

11 


2    11 
2      2 


2 

I 

1 
•> 


a  Organized  in  Philippine  Islands. 


REPORT    OF   THE    ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 


(irganintion. 

nil*.                            Potto  Rim.                      Philippines.           |     Tola! 

I'l-pMrliin-. 

Rewm. 

Di'iwrllirc. 

Return . 

Departure.     Return,      nervier. 

Artillery  Curpf, 
Qw*— tkwit'rl. 

! 

29.98 -Jut)    i-  :■: 

Jr.    M 

,,:,  29.00 

Aug.  1.V9* 

AUR.    9.98 

901   29.99 

IX-i    2c  01 
do    .. 

....do.... 

do... 

V        f 

S,-    29.99 
Apt  'J0.W9 

...    :  to 

1  ,-  ,      i  ID 
lh-t.    *.U1 

fitrit  InjiHtry 
JIi-ni-i--.il---       ..  June  14.98 

Ana  -X98 
A  mi   IV  •» 
-ml-  .-.■*■ 

-1  1    1  !  M 

Auk  v-  ■>- 
isrpi   :■'-.') 
auk  v>  ■*■ 
s.-l  i   :  ■  ■/> 
\.gt    -  ■'- 
>.  |.i   I '.  n 
«n    !■■  ■-- 

toa  M  M 

A:i/    1.'  ill 
Aitr  J-  ■«- 

A-.l,-     IV.  HI 
Mi,;    1..  ■■■ 
An*   ■/•.■.- 
v.. K    IV  l>l 
V*.  >  ■-'■ 
A>j(t.  IV  mi 
-.  n     ..  .«■ 

AIIH-     '.HI 

AUB.  IS.* 
.Inly  VIM. 
v..-    Ifi  .- 

-■ill*    .1    HI 

*-.»  r-  -jf 

.1,1  1.     vi.  Of, 

\  „■  1  .  - 
w  1-  - 

l-.Sl     i    .. 
Ann  I..1* 

-.1.1  .-.  -. 
S.-pl  .-.  •■ 

Alls    IS  "H 
S.'p:    .'■  ■■■ 
A'Jit    1  ■  ^ 
Kept  V    — 
July  .'i  im 

tlept   1,00 

Company". June  14.90 

•  ■       1  TO 

Company  C June  14.08 

Jan     8.99 

Cuniixiiy  1)  .             June  14. 98 
Ilee.  10.98 

Coropm.y  r. May  10,9b 

June  14.93 
Jan     8.99 

Company! June  14.98 

Dec.  S0.9K 

li.n  i.   .       >•  .     10.98 

!'.."•:    ■  ■   .1           .      .',.■;■'.. 
t'ei-   29.08 

Company  1 do 

Company  K Jan.    8,09 

CnmpanyL Der.  80.08 

CompanyM I>ec  29,98 

JIi'ii  :..■■■   ■■ June  14.98 

Company  A June  14.98 

A>*.  13.99 

Company  B ...   .        'infli   c- 
A;.r.  1199 

-.,        1.00 
Hept.   1.00 

Sept    1.00 

-1     l.ttJ 

HcpV   1.00 

S    10 

Hept    1.00 

Apr    18.01 
Apr      M! 

\yi    16.01' 
Sept    1.00 

>       2 

t       I 

Apr   16.02 

Apr.  16.02 

1      11 

Apr    16.02 

J-l-14   - 
\-<     1..— 
J  -IT   II.— 

Vr    l/.M 

,'-.,  a  ■■' 

»fV  i;  " 

An:    .i.ft 
Mm  K* 

Apr    16.02 
AUM.  21,00 

....._.. 

Company  F 

Aii«  91,00 

i  ,  21.  au 

1     9 

Company  11 

Aug  m.ou 

cslft    1.00 

3     9 

do.... 
Ffh     8.09 

Apr    1MB 

Third  ly-inn* 

....do... 

t      I 

Company  B 

■--do 2° 

...  do.... 

do.... 

S     8 
t      S 

1      8 

s    s 

""do 

.....lo.... 

....do.... 

....do.... 

a  sine*  April  12, 1899. 


BKPOKT   OK   THK    A1MUTANT-0ENKRAL. 


UUU*. 

Orf»nf«».Uon.      1-           ■    — 

DepWttm.      Return. 

l'..rto  Kli-o. 

fliillupliiui. 

Tow] 

Departure. 

Jtcmrr^ 

Dvpartiirc. 

Renin 

Tktrd   AtAwtry-                       | 
Continued-        ( 

1V-.  M. 

.!■• 
.     .do 

dn 
.       ■!■■ 

limrtk  I1J10I;, 

June  u  > 

;       '              ! 

AOK.  19.*.  Jan.  19.99   Jan.  a 

w 

i     3 

Of..... do....  do 

rt> do do 

£ ; £•-■. *J 

Fifth  Ittfttalr* 

An*.  II. « 

j 

July  svoo1 sepi.  lf.au 

Aug    *.«» 

.  .  i  svoo 
juS  ».tw 

..  ,  an'.iw 

!..«      9.00 

. . .  .do . . . 
..  .do... 
do... 

At*.     l.U 

Compau  f  F 

....do... 

1      6 

A«K   £1.00 

Sixth  Jn/..«rru 

May  H.W 

Company  <" ■■> 

■- ' *>-■■■ 

do 

S     3 

.::::::::::::::::::::::: 

Seventh  l-/..i'': 

JaMM.M 

Aog.27.w- 

■. | 

Mar  36.01 

Mar.  2S.0I 

July    x.02 

July    K.Ot       11 
Sept.  *,0*       8      1 

Eighth  Infantry. 

June  14, 98 
Doc.  18,  n 
JuttH,! 
Dor.  18,98 
June  14,98 
Doc.  18,98 

Aog.a).** 

auk".  "-'    ■■ 
July  ..    ■■ 
Ana,  20,98 
July    *    ■■ 

Swpl  1R.0D 

>  » 

)    10 

REPORT   OK   THK    ADJUTANT-GENERA!.. 


Organ  Isn  linn. 

Cuba. 

Porto  Rieo. 

Philip 

plnsL 
Return. 

Tutsi 
ini'tllxr 
M>rvii-e. 

Deiwrturi'. 

June  14,  w 

J  line  11,11 
lh:i:  is, ft 

Remru, 

Ik-nurture. .     kelum. 

Departure. 

EigUli    Infantry— 

AllR.  ^l.l.V- 
Vis;     J.'!-'- 

.i.,l:  l'i.i"i 

Kr»  .V. 

Company  D 

*;pl. 111,00 

Sept.  6,02 

;v;,i'jiit- 

July  2-v.* 

D.-c.     1.1W 

Sept.  18,  00 

iit-i't.   (i.ii'a 

Ilec.  IS'.K-       "     "'  .1- 

Sept.lMH) 

Sept.  6,  OS 

rjept.  18,00 

Sept.   fi.W 

Company!,- 

A.w      1  ■■. 

Hep't.    t>,(H 

Ninth  Infantry. 

HendqtlSrterB 

rompany  A„ 

June  U.S.- 

Aug.  11,98 

Mar.  24,99 

June  20, 02 

Mar.  28,99 

JmiettUH 

....do.... 

M»r!'«;99 

do ... . 

JlLTLf  IK.O'J 

June  20, 02 
do.... 

Tenth  Infantry. 

June ii, «>   Aug.ifl.M 
Dee.  11, 90    Fi-t..  2H.01 

dop.  »!*«  m  rr.a 

June  14, 81    !■    M  ?- 
Der.  1?.»-    M    i:.»i 

lie.   17,' 1"     i.l.     '  '.' 

IH-C.   Jl!l'-      1  ■'"    .'-'. 

Deo.  Ilia    K-l..  &a 

Ilec.  ll|w   Feb,  10,01 

Use.  18, 02 

CompanyA 

Apr.    6,01 

Company  B 

Mar.  IB,  01 

Company'' 

Mar.  1«,  01 

S    11 

Company  I> 

Mar.  I;".,  01 

J    11 

Mar.  ir,,02 

Company*- 

-Mar.  10,01 

2    11 

Company** 

Mar.  l\ffi> 

Ma..  IIi.M 

S    11 

-,.:..■.■.■■■, 

Mar.  18,01 

ik'C.   IV,', 

Dec.  28,98 

Eleventh  Infantry. 

.Inly  iV* 

Jillv  ■.'-.■.'• 
-Illlv  'ii,'.i.t 

i.iiv  ■.'.'. JS 
lii'y  a,™ 

D,-       :'.,["■ 

Apr!  is!  01 

:;";'do:;; 

Apv.^i.CJ 

::;;:do!!! 

no... 

li.T.    ;;,  im 
li,..,..    :,,r..i 
do... 

Apr.    6,01 
Hay  '25,01 

Feb.   19.99 

-Pliiv   :TJ.l* 

nceyth  Infantrg. 

June  14,  UK '  Aiik.2S.9S 

Apr.  20,02 

do... 

KBPOBT   OK  THE   AIMUTANT-UKNKRAL. 


«11 


Organization. 


TweUth  Infantry— 
Con  tinned. 


Cuba. 


Porto  Rico. 


Philippine. 


Total 

innular 

Departure.      Return.     Departure.      Return.      Departure.      Return.      Herviee. 


Company  E June  14, 98   Aug.  23,98 

Company  F do do 

Company  O do do 

Company  H do do 

Company  I ' 

Company  K | 

Company  L ' I 

Company  M ' 


Thirteenth  Infantry} 

i 

Headquarter* June  14, 96 

Company  A | do 

Company  B do 

Company  C j do 

Company  D < do 

Company  E ' do 

Company  F | do 

Company  G ! do 


Feb.  19,99 

do 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 


Apr.  26, 

do . 

do  . 

do . 

do . 

do  . 

do  . 

do  . 


02 


Company  H 
Company  I. 
Company  K 
Company  L 
Company  M 


.do 


Aug.  14,98  i Apr.  28,99 


.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 


.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 


July  19 

do  . 

do  . 

do  . 

do. 

do . 

do. 

do. 

do  . 

do  . 

do. 

do  . 

do  . 


,02 


Fourteenth  Infantry, 

I                i                ! 
Headquarters j May  25,98   An*,  is,  01 

Company  A : \ do Apr.  26,00 

Company B June24.99  do. 

Company  C ' May  2ft, 98  do. 

do do  . 

do Vug.  18, 

do do. 

Aug.    4,98  do. 

June24,99  do. 

Aug.    4,98  do. 

do do. 

do do  . 

do do. 


Company  D. 
Company  E. 
Company  F. 
Company  G. 
Company  H 
Company  I . 
Company  K 
Company  L. 
Company  M 


01 


Fifteenth  Infantry. 


Headquarters 
Company  A  . . 
Company  B  . . 
Company  C. 


Nor.  28,98 

do do 

do do 

do....: do 

Company  D do..... do 

Company  E : do.... |  Oct.  20,99 


Jan.    9,00  ■ July  17,00 


Company  F do 

Company  G do 

Company  H do 

Company  I do 

Company  K | do 

Company  L. . . 
Company  M  . . 


Sixteenth  Infantry. 


do.... 
do ... . 


do 

do.... 

do.... 

Jan.    9.00 

do.... 

do.... 

do 


Headquarter* June  14, 98 

Company  A do 

Company  B do 

Company  C do 

Company  D ' do 

Company  E do 

Company  F ! do 


Company  G 
Company  H 
Company  I. 
Company  K 
Company  L 
Company  M 


.do 
.do 


Seventeenth  In- 
fantry. 


Headquarter* 
Company  A  . . 
Company  B  .. 
Company  C... 
Company  D  . . 


June  14, 96 

do 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 


Aug.  18, 98 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 


.do 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

Feb.  16,02 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

Aug.    1,00 

do 

do.... 

do.... 


Sept.  11 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Sept.   6 

do 

Sept.  11 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 


.02 
".02 


May  30,  99   July    8.02 


.do 

.do 

,  do 

.do.... 
.do.... 
.do.... 

.do 

.do.... 

.do 

.do.... 
.do.... 
.do.... 


do 
Aug.  12, 
July    8, 

do. 

do . 

do . 

Aug.  12, 

do . 

July    8. 

do . 

do. 

Aug.  12. 


02 
02 


02 

*  •  • 

02 
02 


Aug.  21, 98 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 


Feb.  19,99 
, do 

Jan.  19,99 
i  Feb.  19,99 
•Feb.    3,99 


Mar.  31,02 
July  22,02 
Apr.  2, 02 
July  22,02 
do 


Yr*. 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 


3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 


3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 
3 
3 
3 


3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 


.V. 

5 

5 

5 

5 

2 

2 

2 
•> 


5 
5 
5 
5 
ft 
5 
ft 
5 
ft 
3 
3 
3 
3 


3  3 

1  11 
10 

1  11 

1  11 

3  3 
3 
3 
•> 

3 
3 
3 
3 


3 
0 
2 
0 
0 
0 
0 


3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
ft 
5 
6 
6 
3 
3 
3 
3 


3  3 

3  3 

3  5 

3  3 


3 
3 
3 
5 
ft 
1 
1 
1 
2 


3  4 

3  7 

3  5 

3  7 

3  8 


RKl'OKT    OK    THE    AD.IITTANT-OKHKRAL. 

Cuba.  Porto  IUoii.  Philippine 


Company  R 
Company  K 

Company  k!. 

FiflMtmlA  '» 

Ri-adnuanir-  . 
Company  * 
iMnptri)  B  . 

Company  ]>  .   . 

company  >'    

(Vimpany  II . 

liimpauy  I 

Company  K 

Company  M 


C.mpiOi  < 

I'.impanj  I>. . . 
1'iimpaiiv  i:     . 
i'..ojpaii)  f 
IYiinpHI:\  t. 


e   \K  July  34.  W   J 

do  Jnlf  26.9* 

.......  Joly  M.U9   . 

do    ...  July  36.99  . 

■lo...  July  W.M  . 

rt" ....  July  jfl.M 

do,,..  July  2t.9T 


.jj.i-.v   X.v 

.'July  3».« 


Rpadnunri.  r.  .  Juii.  II.*    Ati(t.  a.B 

i-mtpanyA. do ...oo.. 

■  '<>m paliy  H  .ilo do.. 

CompHm  (• .   .  ...I Jo  . 

llini|*1iy  l> .do do.. 

I'uriiiwii)  P. do do  . 

i-tnnpany  >'. . do do., 

C.Hn|«i.)  i; do do.. 

('■mi pain  II ...do. .1"  . 


Jatiry. 

June  1 

9* 

Ap/, 

du 

Company  V    . 

do 

•    <.-•..  H  . . 

Jui.»H 

do 

M 

FFb 

- .« 

Jin- 

..-.    ■.,:  ■■■■■,  i,    i  .'»n--    -all.- 


d  served  W*n-  w 


BEPOBT   OK  THE   ADJUTANT-GKNKRAL. 


313 


Organization. 


I 


Cuba. 
Departure.!    Return. 


Twatfy+econd  In- 
fantry—Cont'd,     i 

Company  B •  June  14, 98 

Company  C do 

Company  1> ' do 

Com  pony  E do 

Company  F do 

Company  O do 

Company  H ' do 

Company  I 

Company  K ' 

Company  L 


Aug.  23, 98 

do 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 


Porto  Rico. 


i'hilippincs. 


Departure.     Return.      Dcimrture. 


Return. 


Apr.  18,99 

do 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 


Company  M ' do 


Twcnty-thM  In- 
fantry. 


June  1, 

do., 

do.. 

do., 

do., 

do., 

do ., 

do . 

do. 

do ., 

do ., 


02 


Total 
insular 
fiervice. 


Yrs.  M. 
3      3 


Headquarter* 
Company  A... 
CompanyB... 
Company  C . . . 
Company  D... 
Company  E. 


June  27, 98    Dec.    1 

Oct.  17,98 do 

June  27, 98  j do 

do do 

June  15, 98  i do 


,01 


.do do 

Company  F ! do do 

Company O ' .June 27, 98  do 

Company  H I  Junel5,98j do 

Company  I ■ '.Oct.  17,98  i  July  27,00 

Company  K do ' do 

Company L ' \ June27,98  do 

Company  M Oct.  17.98 do.... 


Twenty-fourth  In- 
fantry. 

Headquarters June  14, 98 

Company  A ' do 

CompanyB I do 

Company  C ] do 

Comj>anyD do 

Company  £ ' do 

CompanyF i do 

Company  G ' do 

Company  H do 


Sept.  3,  98  July  14,99 

do do 

do Oct.     1,00 

do June  22, 99 

do Oct.     1,00 

do....: I  June 22, 99 

do....' July  14,99 

do....1 June 22,99 


do July  14,99 

Company  I i * June  22, 99 

Company  K July  14,99 

Company  L 

Company  M Oct.     1.00   July22,02:      1    10 


Aug.    1,02 

do 

do 

July  22,99 

do 

Aug.    1,02 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Julv  22.02 


Tirenty-Mh  Infan- 
try. 

I 

neadqnarters June  14,98   Aug.  22.uk  July 

Company  A ' do do Oct. 


Company  B do 

Company  C ! do 

Company  D do 

Company  £ | do do June  28, 99  |  Aug.  13,02 


.do 
.do 
.do 


1.90 

1,00 

July    1.99 

Oct.     1.00 

do.... 


Aug.  13, 
Aug.    1, 

do . 

do . 

.do . 


02 
02 


CompanyF do 

Company  O do 

Company  H do 


.do July    1,99 

.do Oct.     1,00 

.do : June  28, 99 

Company  I I July    1,99 

Company  K ' : I do 

'Company  L ■ do  — 

Company  M \ do 


.do 
Sept.   C, 
Aug.  13, 

do . 

do  . 

do. 

do. 


02 
02 


Txcenty-rixth  Infan- 
try. 

Headquarters  « 

Company  A 

Company  B 

Company  C 

Company  D 

Company  £ 

CompanyF , 

Company  Q , 

Company  H 

Company  I 

Company  K , 

Company  L , 

Company M 


I 


I 


July  10,01 
Feb.  16,01 

do 

do.... 

do.... 

July    1,01 

do 

do.... 

do.... 

Feb.  16,01 

do 

do.... 

do.... 


3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 
•> 

u 

3 
3 
3 


3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
1 
1 
2 
1 


3 

3 
•» 

^ 

3 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 


3 
2 
3 
2 
2 
3 
3 
"2 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 


5 
1 
5 
5 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
9 
9 
1 
9 


4 
0 
3 
0 
t 
4 
4 
1 
4 
1 
1 
1 
1 


3 
8 
8 
8 
8 
3 
3 
3 
3 
8 
8 
8 
8 


aThe  Second  Battalion,  Twenty-Rixth  Infantry,  and  Third  Battalion,  Thirtieth  Infantry,  were 
organized  in  the  Philippines. 


314 


REPORT   OF   THE    ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 


Organization. 


Cuba. 


Twenty-seventh 
Infantry. 


Headquarters 
Company  A... 
Company  B... 
Company  C... 
Company  D... 
Company  E... 
Company  P. . . 
Company  G... 
CompanyH... 
Company  I . . . 
Company  K  . . 
Company  L. . . 
Company  M  . . 


Departure,  j    Return. 


Twenty-eighth 
Infantry. 


Headquarters 
Company  A  . . 
Company  B  .. 
Company  C... 
Company  D  . . 
Company  E  .. 
Company  F  .. 
Company  G  .. 
Company  H . . 
Company  I . . . 
Company  K . . 
Company  L... 
Company  M . . 


Porto  Rieo. 
Departure.      Return. 


Twenty-ninth  In- 
fantry. ' 


Headquarters 
Company  A  . . 
Company  B  . . 
Company  C... 
Company  D  . . 
Company  E... 
Company  F. . . 
Company  G... 
Company  H  . . 
Company  I . . . 
Company  K  . . 
Company  L. . . 
Company  M  . . 


Philippines. 


Total 
- 1  insular 
Departure.      Return.    ;  service. 


Jan.    1, 02 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

Jan.  21,02 

do 

do.... 

do.... 

Dec.    5, 01 

do.... 

do 

do.... 


Nov.  15,01 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

Nov.  16,01 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

Nov.  15, 01 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 


Thirtieth  Infantry. 


Apr.    1,02 

do 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 


Vrs. 


Headquarters  a 

Company  A 

Company  B 

Company  C 

Company  D 

Company  E 

Company  F 

Company  G 

Company  H 

Company  I 

Company  K 

Company  L 

Company  M 


June  3,  01 
Apr.  16,  01 

do 

do.... 

do.... 

Mar.  15, 01 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

July  28,  01 
Aug.  19, 01 

do 

July  28,  01 


M. 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

8 

8 

8 

8 
10 
10 
10 
10 


11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 


6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 


4 

6 
6 
6 
6 


a  The  Second  Battalion  Twenty-sixth  Infantry,  and  Third  Battalion,  Thirtieth  Infantry,  were 
organized  in  the  Philippines. 

Notb.— The  services  of  the  Sixth  Cavalry,  Tenth  Field  Battery,  Twenty-flfth,  Twenty-seventh, 
Thirty-first,  and  Thirty-sixth  Companies  Coast  Artillery,  and  the  Ninth,  Fourteenth,  and  Fifteenth 
Infantry  in  China  are  included  in  the  service  in  the  Philippines. 

The  following  troops  are  now  serving  in  the  Philippines:  Second  Battalion,  United  8tatea  Engi- 
neers; First,  Firth,  Sixth.  Eleventh,  and  Fifteenth  Cavalry;  Fourteenth,  Fifteenth,  and  Twenty- 
flfth  Batteries  Field  Artillery;  Twenty-fifth,  1  wenty-seventn,  Thirty-first,  and  Thirty-sixth  Compa- 
nies Coast  Artillery;  First.  Second,  Firth,  Tenth,  Eleventh,  Twenty-sixth,  Twenty-seventh,  Twenty- 
eighth,  Twenty-ninth,  and  Thirtieth  United  States  Infantry. 


HKPORT   OF   THE    ADJUTANT-GENKRAL.  815 

MILITARY   GEOGRAPHICAL    DEPARTMENTS. 

The  following  changes  have  been  made  since  the  date  of  last  report: 

The  Department  of  Cuba  was  discontinued  May  20,  1902,  on  which 
day  the  island  was  formally  delivered  over  to  its  newly  organized  civil 
government. 

At  the  date  of  the  last  report,  the  Division  of  the  Philippines  em- 
braced the  departments  of  Northern  Luzon,  Southern  Luzon,  the 
Visayas,  and  Mindanao  and  Jolo.  These  four  departments  were  dis- 
continued November  30,  1901,  and  the  departments  of  North  Philip- 
§ines  and  South  Philippines  created.  These  last  were  discontinued 
eptember  30,  1902,  the  Division  of  the  Philippines  consisting  of  the 
three  departments  indicated  below. 

The  present  territorial  limits  of  the  military  geographical  division 
and  departments  are  as  follows: 

Division  of the  Philippines,  consisting  of  the  departments  of  Luzon, 
the  Visayas,  and  Mindanao. 

Department  of  Luzon,  to  include  all  that  portion  of  the  Philippine 
Archipelago  lying  north  of  a  line  passing  southeasterly  through  the 
West  Pass  of  Apo  or  Mindoro  Strait,  to  the  twelfth  parallel  of  north 
latitude;  thence  east  along  said  parallel  to  the  one  hunared  and  twenty- 
fourth  degree,  ten  minutes  east  of  Greenwich,  but  including  the  entire 
island  of  Masbate;  thence  northerly  to  and  through  San  Bernardino 
Strait. 

Department  of  the  Visayax*  to  include  all  islands  south  of  the  south- 
ern line  of  the  Department  of  Luzon  and  east  of  longitude  121°  45' 
east  of  Greenwich  and  north  of  the  ninth  parallel  of  latitude,  except- 
ing the  islands  of  Mindanao.  Paragua.  and  all  islands  east  of  the  Straits 
of  Surigao. 

Department  of  Mindanao^  to  include  all  the  remaining  islands  of  the 
Philippine  Archipelago. 

Department  of  California. — States  of  California  and  Nevada,  the 
Hawaiian  Islands,  and  their  dependencies. 

Department  of  the  Colorado. — States  of  Wyoming  (except  so  much 
thereof  as  is  embraced  in  the  Yellowstone  National  Park),  Colorado, 
and  Utah  and  the  Territories  of  Arizona  and  New  Mexico. 

Department  of  the  Columbia. — States  of  Washington,  Oregon,  and 
Idaho  (except  so  much  thereof  as  is  embraced  in  the  Yellowstone 
National  Park)  and  the  Territory  of  Alaska. 

Department  of  Dakota. — States  of  Minnesota,  North  Dakota,  South 
Dakota,  Montana,  and  so  much  of  Wyoming  and  Idaho  as  is  embraced 
in  the  Yellowstone  National  Park. 

Department  of  'the  East. — New  England  States,  New  York,  New  Jer- 
sey, Pennsylvania,  Delaware,  Maryland,  District  of  Columbia,  West 
Virginia,  Virginia,  North  Carolina,  South  Carolina,  Georgia,  Florida, 
Alabama,  Mississippi,  Louisiana,  the  island  of  Porto  Rico,  and  the 
islands  and  keys  adjacent  thereto. 

Department  of  the  Lakes. — States  of  Wisconsin,  Michigan,  Illinois, 
Indiana,  Ohio,  Kentucky,  and  Tennessee. 

Department  of  the  Missouri. — States  of  Iowa,  Nebraska,  Missouri, 
Kansas,  and  Arkansas,  the  Indian  Territory,  and  the  Territory  of 
Oklahoma. 

Department  of  Texan, — State  of  Texas. 


316  REPORT    OF   THE    ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 


THE   MILITARY    ACADEMY. 

THE  CORPS   OF   CADETS. 


The  maximum  number  of  cadets  is  492.  The  academic  year  opens 
with  471  cadets  on  the  rolls  of  the  Academy,  the  largest  number  ever 
belonging  to  it  at  one  time.  They  are  divided  between  the  four  classes 
as  follows:  First  class,  94;  second  class,  129;  third  class,  130;  fourth 
class,  118.  Of  this  number  2  are  foreigners,  receiving  instruction  at 
their  own  expense  under  special  authority  of  Congress,  1  being  from 
Costa  Rica  and  1  from  Venezuela.  September  1, 1901,  there  were  404 
cadets,  including  1  foreigner. 

The  following  changes  occurred  during  the  year:  Discharged  for 
deficiency  in  studies,  39;  dismissed,  1;  resigned,  12;  graduated,  54. 

According  to  the  new  regulations  on  the  subject,  the  regular  exami- 
nation of  candidates  for  admission  was  held  for  the  first  time  this  year 
on  May  1  at  sixteen  Army  posts,  selected  with  a  view  of  reducing  to 
a  minimum  the  expenses  of  candidates  in  attending.  A  special  exami- 
nation was  also  held  at  West  Point  on  July  25,  in  order  to  fill  as  many 
vacancies  as  practicable  and  make  the  new  class  as  strong  as  possible; 
otherwise,  on  account  of  this  years  small  graduating  class,  it  would 
have  been  considerablv  less  in  numbers  than  has  been  the  case  in  the 
past  three  years. 

For  the  examinations  in  May  and  July  there  were  appointed  261 
candidates,  including  principals  and  alternates;  59  failed  to  report; 
3  were  rejected,  both  mentally  and  physically,  and  54  were  disquali- 
fied mentallv.  Of  those  qualified  mentally,  88  were  accepted  upon 
certificates  iroin  high  schools,  colleges,  or  universities,  ana  competi- 
tive examinations;  54  passed  the  regular  examination,  and  3  former 
cadets  were  examined  physically  only.  Of  the  145  candidates  quali- 
fied mentally,  13  were  rejected  by  medical  boards*  No  vacancies  existed 
for  26  alternates  who  qualified  mentally  and  physically.  As  a  result 
of  the  two  examinations,  106  candidates  were  admitted,  including  10 
alternates,  and  these,  with  5  former  cadets,  reappointed  with  the 
approval  of  the  academic  board,  and  7  turned  back  at  the  June  exam- 
ination, gave  the  incoming  class  a  strength  of  118. 

In  connection  with  entrance  examinations  the  continued  enforcement 
of  Jthe  rule  that  candidates  are  to  be  examined  at  the  Army  posts  near- 
est their  homes  is  recommended  in  order  to  reduce  to  a  minimum  the 
ills  following  attendance  at  preparatory  schools  adjacent  to  the 
Academy. 

HEALTH. 

The  health  of  cadets  and  the  command  generally  has  been  good 
throughout  the  year. 

PAY    AND    SUPPLIES   OF   CADETS. 

Two  important  changes  in  the  pay  and  allowances  of  cadets  are  to 
be  noted.  In  accordance  with  recommendations,  Congress  has  placed 
the  militarv  cadet  upon  an  eaual  pay  status  with  his  fellows  of  the 
Naval  Academy,  thus  giving  tne  former  a  welcome  annual  increase  in 
his  pay  of  $69.50.  This  change  will  go  far  toward  relieving  what  had 
become  a  difficult  and  embarrassing  situation.  Of  the  increase,  $48 
has  been  set  aside  for  the  cadet's  graduation-equipment  fund,  which  is 
thus  doubled,  and  the  remainder  will  be  made  to  cover  the  necessary 


REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT-GENERAL.  317 

expenses  attending  his  nodal  amusement*;,  athletic  games,  and  literary 
societies.  The  other  change  is  the  Congressional  provision  that  the 
actual  necessary  traveling  expenses  of  candidates  from  their  homes  to 
the  Military  Academy  shall  be  credited  to  them  after  admission  as 
cadets.  The  effect  of  this  is  to  place  cadets  from  all  parts  of  the  coun- 
try upon  an  equal  footing  as  regards  the  expense  of  entering  the  Acad- 
emy, a  wise  and  just  policy  and  one  that  is  followed  in  similar  matters 
in  the  military  service. 

The  food  furnished  cadets  is  abundant  in  quantity,  of  good  quality 
and  variety. 

DISCIPLINE. 

The  discipline  of  the  corps  of  cadets  has  been  highly  satisfactory 
throughout  the  year. 

ACADEMIC    MATTERS. 

In  the  department  of  modern  languages  the  importance  of  giving 
graduates  as  great  a  knowledge  of  the  Spanish  language  as  possible  is 
recognized  by  a  provision  giving  the  cadets  of  the  first  class  additional 
instruction  in  the  language  until  the  new  curriculum,  which  com- 
mences with  the  present  fourth  class,  becomes  fully  effective. 

Consequent  upon  the  action  of  Congress  in  freeing  the  Academy 
from  the  long-existing  restraint  of  an  entrance  examination  rigidly 
fixed  by  statute,  a  much-desired  revision  of  the  curriculum  has  been 
made. 

ADMI8HION    OF  CANDIDATES  OX    CERTIFICATE. 

The  acceptance  of  certificates  of  mental  preparedness  marks  a  new 
policy  at  the  Military  Academy  in  connection  with  the  admission  of 
candidates  to  cadetships.  The  following  is  the  regulation  under  which 
the  academic  board  may  accept  such  certificates  in  lieu  of  the  regular 
mental  entrance  examination: 

First.  The  properly  attested  examination  papers  of  a  candidate  who 
receives  his  appointment  through  a  public  competitive  written  exami- 
nation covering  the  range  of  subjects  prescribed  for  admission. 

Second.  The  properly  attested  certificate  of  graduation  from  a  pub- 
lic high  school  or  a  State  normal  school,  in  which  the  course  of  study, 
together  with  the  requirements  for  entrance,  shall  cover  the  range  of 
prescribed  subjects. 

Third.  A  properly  attested  certificate  that  the  candidate  is  a  regular 
student  of  any  incorporated  college  or  university,  without  condition 
as  to  any  prescribed  subject. 

The  principal  object  of  this  regulation  is  to  permit  those  candidates 
who  at  the  time  of  appointment  (generally  a  year  prior  to  date  of 
admission)  have  satisfactorily  covered  the  subjects  required  for 
admission  to  cdntinue  their  regular  course  of  study  and  tne  proper 
gradual  development  of  their  minds,  instead  of  putting  them  in  posi- 
tion where  they  feel  compelled  to  go  back  and  review  elementary 
work,  with  consequent  expense,  loss  of  time,  and,  as  usually  occurs, 
attendance  at  some  coaching  school,  with  resulting  deadening  of  the 
reasoning  faculties. 

Under  this  provision  of  regulations  there  were  received  from  can- 
didates (principals  and  alternates)  for  entrance  to  the  present  fourth 
class  114  certificates,  of  which  51  were  from  high  schools  or  normal 


318  REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 

schools,  42  were  from  colleges,  9  were  from  both  high  schools  and  col- 
leges, 3  were  from  competitive  examinations,  and  9  were  from  private 
schools  or  academies  (not  within  the  scope  of  the  regulations). 

Of  the  candidates  presenting  certificates  88  were  considered  satis- 
factory by  the  academic  board,  and  62  of  these  entered  the  class;  26 
were  considered  unsatisfactory,  and  6  of  these  entered  the  class  on 
passing  the  regular  mental  entrance  examination. 

There  seemed  to  be  a  general  effort  on  the  part  of  principals  of 
schools  and  presidents  of  colleges  to  submit  exact  facts  as  to  the  work 
and  standing  of  the  candidates,  as  required  by  the  forms  of  certificates 
adopted,  and  in  only  a  few  instances  was  there  any  apparent  effort  on 
the  part  of  candidates  themselves  to  secure  admission  on  an  insufficient 
certificate. 

Since  this  method  of  admission  is  an  entirely  new  departure,  the 
certificates  were  examined  with  great  care  and  the  career  of  those 
young  men  who  have  been  admitted  on  certificates  will  be  carefully 
watched,  with  a  view  to  determining  as  nearly  as  possible  whether 
satisfactory  material  is  obtained  in  this  way.  It  is  the  intention,  also, 
in  case  any  cadet  so  admitted  is  found  deficient  in  the  first  six  months 
of  his  course,  to  invite  the  attention  of  the  school  or  college  official  to 
the  fact,  in  the  hope  that  such  action  will  result  in  a  closer  touch 
between  the  Academv  and  the  general  school  system  of  the  country, 
and  a  certification  of  only  such  young  men  as  are  preeminently  quali- 
fied to  master  the  curriculum  and  become  officers  of  our  Army.  In 
this  way  the  Academy  will  become  a  greater  factor  in  the  educational 
system  of  the  country  than  has  been  the  case  in  the  past. 

THE    NEW    CURRICULUM. 

The  present  curriculum  of  the  Academy  is  embraced  under  10  depart- 
ments. Each  department  includes  several  kindred  subjects,  so  that 
there  are  41  or  42  distinct  but  related  subjects  of  instruction. 

The  object  of  the  Military  Academy  is  to  make  officers  of  the  Army 
and,  of  course,  to  produce  as  high  a  type  of  officer  as  is  possible  under 
the  conditions.  In  the  conception  of  this  type  it  has  been  assumed 
that  the  profession  of  the  officer  in  this  country  is  likely  at  any  time 
to  be  full  of  responsible  work  and  to  need  men  of  power  and  strong 
character. 

The  Military  Academy  differs  widely  from  other  scientific  schools, 
and  especially  in  that  its  pupils  are  not  being  prepared  to  earn  a  liveli- 
hood irom  the  direct  or  immediate  application  of  any  of  the  special 
sciences  taught.  The  Government  provides  this;  but  the  graduate  is 
expected  to  acquire  a  knowledge  of  the  principles  of  these  sciences  to 
which  he  may  add  by  individual  effort,  as  occasion  requires,  and  be 
prepared  to  meet  the  demands  that  may  be  made  upon  a  professional 
solaier.  This  education  to  meet  the  higher  needs  oi  the  service  should 
not  only  instill  truths,  but  should  draw  out,  exercise,  and  develop  the 
minds,  faculties,  and  forces,  and  to  do  this  in  a  manner  that  inculcates 
confidence  in  one's  powers  and  reliance  on  individual  and  honest  effort, 
and  thus  develop  character  as  well  as  mind;  and  those  students  endowed 
with  the  requisite  aptitude  should  be  so  equipped  that  by  proper  self- 
effort  they  may  become  originators  and  developers  and  not  mere 
craftsmen  in  their  scientific  work  and  profession. 

The  records  of  the  graduates  of  the  academy  prove  that  this  theory 


REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT-GENERAL.  319 

of  teaching  has  not  been  deficient  in  producing  character,  mental 
power,  and  scientific  and  professional  accomplishments. 

The  academy  was  called  upon  to  educate  the  great  majority  of  its 
pupils  both  generally  and  professionally,  for  the  requirements  for 
admission  have  always  been  very  moderate.  The  academy  has  always 
attempted  what  no  other  school  has — to  educate  scientific  soldiers  for 
all  branches  of  the  service.  It  is  not  probable  that  either  of  these 
requirements  can  ever  be  in  any  large  part  dispensed  with,  for  the 
requirements  for  admission  are  not  likely  to  be  made  greatly  more 
stringent,  and  the  necessity  for  preparing  the  graduates  for  all 
branches  of  the  service  is  even  greater  now  than  ever  before,  owing 
to  the  method  of  tilling  appointments  to  the  staff  corps  by  detail  from 
the  line. 

In  connection  with  the  relative  employment  of  the  entire  time  of  a 
cadet  while  at  the  academv,  it  is  pertinent  to  remark  that  the  length 
of  the  academic  year  at  West  Point,  together  with  the  small  number 
of  holidays,  makes  the  course  of  four  years  almost  as  long  in  actual 
working  time  as  five  years  of  the  ordinary  college  course  of  thirty 
weeks.  The  academic  year  at  the  sister  academy  at  Annapolis  is  also 
several  weeks  shorter  than  ours. 

CENTENNIAL    ANNIVERSARY. 

This  year  has  marked  the  completion  of  the  first  century  in  the  life 
of  the  Military  Academy,  which  was  established  March  16  and  was 
formally  opened  July  4,  1802.  The  close  of  the  academic  year  was 
decided  upon  as  the  most  suitable  time  for  coimnemorating  the  anni- 
versary, and  the  occasion  was  celebrated  with  appropriate  ceremonies 
on  the  9th,  10th,  and  11th  days  of  June. 

If  the  impressive  words  of  the  honorable  Secretary  of  War  at  the 
centennial  anniversary  are  accepted,  that  "the  Military  Academy  is 
more  necessary  now  than  one  hundred  years  ago,"  general  satisfac- 
tion should  be  felt  with  the  institution's  prospects  in  entering  upon 
the  second  century  of  its  work.  The  school  has  for  its  object  the 
training  of  cadets  for  the  military  service  of  our  country.  It  is  a 
school  for  the  whole  Army — not  for  any  special  arm.  Its  scholastic 
work  covers  a  range  of  subjects  connected  with  the  many  duties 
the  educated  American  officer  is  expected  and  must  be  prepared  to 
perform,  and  the  ideal  of  its  practical  work  is  the  graduation  yearly 
of  well-grounded  young  soldiers  loyal  to  their  duty  and  their  country 
and  trained  to  at  once  take  up  all  tfie  work  of  subaltern  officers. 

Recent  Congressional  action  will  provide  the  school  with  an  equip- 
ment for  work  as  perfect  in  its  essential  requirements  as  experience 
can  provide.  While  many  thoughtful  people  believe  the  number  of 
cadets  could  with  advantage  to  the  country  be  larger,  their  number 
is  such  as  to  continue  to  insure  the  maintenance  of  high  standards  of 
dutv  and  efficiency  in  the  Army. 

"fhe  recommendations  of  the  Superintendent  that — 

An  associate  professor  of  modern  languages  be  regularly  detailed  from  the  Army, 
and  to  have  while  so  serving  the  pay  and  allowances  of  a  major.  The  increased  pay 
recommended  should  be  given  in  order  to  make  the  position  an  attractive  one,  and 
because  the  officer  selected  for  it  would  till  a  higher  position  than  the  assistant  pro- 
fessors in  the  department,  who  under  the  law  have  the  pay  of  captains,  mounts. 

The  ability  of  the  graduate  to  acquire  a  good  speaking  knowledge  of  foreign  lan- 
guages alter  leaving  the  Academy  would  be  increased  if  the  instructors  and  cadets 


320  REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 

heard  them  spoken  more  in  the  class  room  instead  of  confining  the  instruction  quite 
so  much  to  blackboard  work.  With  this  object  in  view  it  is  requested  that  the  Sec- 
retary of  War  recommend  that  Congress  make  provision  for  the  employment  of 
three  assistant  instructors  in  the  department  of  modern  languages,  to  t>e  civilians, 
natives  of  the  countries  where  the  above  languages  are  spoken — two  for  the  Spanish 
and  one  for  the  French  language. 

In  the  opinion  of  the  professor  of  philosophy,  in  which  I  concur,  the  permanent 
detail  of  an  army  officer  at  the  observatory  is  not  desirable,  and  the  only  way  in 
which  the  observatory  can  give  the  return  to  science  that  should  be  expected  from 
it  is  by  the  permanent  employment  of  an  astronomer.  I  recommend  that  this  be 
done.  A  competent  person  can  be  secured  at  a  reasonable  salary,  and  he  would  l>e 
of  much  assistance  to  the  professor  in  the  course  of  practical  astronomy  which  cadets 
are  required  to  take.  In  addition  to  this  work  he  would  be  required  to  take  up  a 
series  of  astronomical  observations  in  some  field  of  pure  science  and  in  their  prosecu- 
tion secure  valuable  data  for  a  regular  series  of  publications  from  the  observatory. 
In  this  way  only  can  this  valuable  equipment  be  made  to  give  here  the  return  to  be 
expected  from  it.     I  believe  the  return  to  be  had  would  justify  the  additional  expense. 

A  further  increase  of  7  men  in  the  strength  of  the  light  artillery  detachment  is  rec- 
ommended. This  detachment  has  now  an  enlisted  strength  of  53  men,  but  the  year's 
experience  shows  that  this  is  not  sufficient  to  enable  it  to  properly  meet  the  necessary 
demands  on  it.  The  transfer  to  Fort  Leavenworth  of  the  company  of  engineers  so 
long  stationed  at  West  Point  and  the  substitution  for  it  of  a  detachment  of  engineers 
of  less  strength  has  necessarily  increased  the  duties  of  the  other  detachments  and 
makes  the  increase  recommended  for  the  artillery  detachment  especially  necessary — 

are  concurred  in  and  commended  for  favorable  consideration. 

MILITARY    INFORMATION    DIVISION. 

Capt.  Eaton  A.  Edwards,  Twenty-seventh  Infantry,  and  Capt. 
Joseph  S.  Hcrron,  Second  Cavalry,  have  remained  on  duty  in  the 
division  during  the  entire  year. 

On  September  30  Capt.  Edwin  A.  Root,  Tenth  Infantry,  at  his  own 
request,  was  relieved  from  duty  in  the  division  and  ordered  to  join 
his  regiment. 

Lieut.  Robert  S.  Clark,  Ninth  Infantry,  reported  for  duty  in  the 
division  on  November  1,  1901.  * 

On  November  20,  1901,  Capt.  John  C.  Gilmore,  jr.,  Artillery  Corps, 
reported  for  temporary  duty  in  the  division  in  connection  with  other 
duties  assigned  to  him  from  time  to  time  by  the  officer  in  charge  of 
public  buildings  and  grounds  of  the  District  of  Columbia.  He  was 
relieved  from  this  duty  on  February  15,  1902. 

On  December  4,  1901,  Capt.  W."S.  Overton,  Artillery  Corps,  was 
relieved  from  duty  in  the  division  for  the  purpose  of  assuming  com- 
mand of  his  companv. 

Lieut.  Harley  B.  Ferguson,  Corps  of  Engineers,  reported  for  duty 
in  the  division  on  December  4,  1901,  relieving  Captain  Overton. 

Upon  the  relief  of  Captain  Root,  September  30,  1901,  Capt  Joseph 
S.  Herron,  Second  Cavalry,  was  placed  in  temporary  charge  of  tne 
photographic  section,  and  has  remained  in  charge  of  that  section  to 
date. 

Lieut.  Williams  S.  Martin,  Second  Cavalry,  was  on  temporary  duty 
in  the  division  from  January  6  to  March  25,  1902,  in  connection  with 
the  preparation  of  maps  of  the  islands  of  Samar  and  Marinduque. 

On  June  18,  1902,  the  Division  of  Military  Information,  Adjutant- 
General's  Office,  D